Wetlands

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 276–283 | Cite as

Winter biomass and nutrient values of three seagrass species as potential foods for redheads (Aythya americana eyton) in Chandeleur Sound, Louisiana

  • Thomas C. Michot
  • Paul C. Chadwick
Article

Abstract

We studied biomass and macronutrient content ofHalodule wrightii (shoalgrass) throughout the winter and ofThalassia testudinum (turtlegrass) andSyringodium filiforme (manateegrass) in January in Chandeleur Sound, LouisianaHalodule, the primary fcod of wintering redheads, had the lowest biomass of the three species on the study area in mid-winter. Macronutrient content ofHalodule did not change during the winter, but aboveground and belowground biomass showed a 90 and 49% (P<0.0001) decrease from October to March. Macronutrient content seems not to be the basis for selection by redheads ofHalodule over the other two seagrass species or of selection of belowground over aboveground parts.

Key Words

biomass ducks food Halodule Louisiana nutrition redhead seagrass winter 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1985. Official Methods of Analysis. 14th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA.Google Scholar
  2. Bailey, R. O. and R. D. Titman. 1984. Habitat use and feeding ecology of postbreeding redheads. Journal of Wildlife Management 48:1144–1155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartonek, J. C. and J. J. Hickey. 1969. Food habits of canvasbacks, redheads, and lessen scaup in Manitoba. Condor 71:280–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bellrose, F. C. 1980. Ducks, Geese and Swans of North America. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA, USA.Google Scholar
  5. Bergman, R. D. 1973. Use of southern boreal lakes by postbreeding canvasbacks and redheads. Journal of Wildlife Management 37: 160–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buchsbaum, R., J. Wilson, and I. Valiela. 1986. Digestibility of plant constituents by Canada geese and Atlantic brant. Ecology 67:386–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clark, R. G., H. Greenwood, and L. G. Sugden. 1986. Influence of grain characteristics on optimal diet of field-feeding mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Journal of Applied Ecology 23:763–771.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cornelius, S. E. 1975. Food choice of wintering redhead ducks (Aythya Americana) and utilization of available resources in lower Laguna Madre, Texas. M.S. Thesis. Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.Google Scholar
  9. Cornelius, S. E. 1977. Food and resource utilization by wintering redheads on Lower Laguna Madre. Journal of Wildlife Management 41:374–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Correll, D. S. and H. B. Correll. 1975. Aquatic and wetland plants of the southwestern United States, vol. 1. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, USA.Google Scholar
  11. Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. C. Golet, and E. T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Biological Services, Washington, DC, USA. FWS/OBS-79/31.Google Scholar
  12. Dawes, C. J. 1987. The dynamic seagrasses of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida coast. p. 25–38.In M. Durako, R. Phillips, and R. Lewis (eds.) Proceedings of the Symposium on Subtropical-Tropical Seagrasses of the Southeastern U.S., Florida Marine Research Publication 42.Google Scholar
  13. Dawes, C. J. and J. M. Lawrence. 1980. Seasonal change in the proximate constituents of the seagrasses,Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, andSyringodium filiforme. Aquatic Botany 8:371–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Day, R. W. and G. P. Quinn. 1989. Comparisons of treatments after an analysis of variance in ecology. Ecological Monographs 58:433–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fox, A. D. 1993. Pre-nesting feeding selectivity of pink-footed geeseAnser brachyrhynchus in artificial grasslands. Ibis 135:417–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gidden, C. S. 1965. A study of the vegetation in the closed area of Apalachee Bay. Typewritten report, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Regional Office, Atlanta, GA, USA.Google Scholar
  17. Iverson, R. L. and J. E. Bittaker. 1986. Seagrass distribution in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science 22: 577–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jarvis, R. L. and J. H. Noyes. 1986. Foods of canvasbacks and redheads in Nevada: paired males and ducklings. Journal of Wildlife Management 50:199–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lagerquist, B. A. and C. D. Ankney. 1989. Interspecific differences in bill and tongue morphology among diving ducks (Aythya spp.,Oxyura jamaicensis). Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:2694–2699.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lovvorn, J. R. 1994. Biomechanics and foraging profitability: an approach to assessing trophic needs and impacts of diving ducks. Hydrobiologia 279/280:223–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lowry, G., N. M. Rosenbrough, A. L. Farr, and R. J. Randall. 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry 193:265–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. McMahan, C. A. 1970. Food habits of duck wintering on Laguna Madre, Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management 34:946–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Michot, T. C. and A. J. Nault. 1993. Diet differences in redheads from nearshore and offshore zones in Louisiana. Journal of Wildlife Management 57:238–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Michot, T. C., E. B. Moser, and W. Norling. 1994. Effects of weather and tides on feeding and flock positions of wintering redheads in the Chandeleur Sound, Louisiana. Hydrobiologia 279/280:263–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Miller, M. R. 1987. Fall and winter foods of northern pintails in the Sacramento Valley, California. Journal of Wildlife Management 51:405–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mitchell, C. A. 1992. Water depth predicts redhead distribution in the lower Laguna Madre, Texas. Wildlife Society Bulletin 20: 420–424.Google Scholar
  27. Mitchell, C. A., T. W. Custer, and P. J. Zwank. 1992. Redhead duck behavior on lower Laguna Madre and adjacent ponds of south Texas. Southwestern Naturalist 37:65–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mitchell, C. A., T. W. Custer, and P. J. Zwank. 1994. Herbivory on shoalgrass by wintering redheads in Texas. Journal of Wildlife Management 58:131–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Noyes, J. H. and R. L. Jarvis. 1985. Diet and nutrition of breeding female redhead and canvasback ducks in Nevada. Journal of Wildlife Management 49:203–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Perry, M. C. and F. M. Uhler. 1982. Food habits of diving ducks in the Carolinas. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 36:492–504.Google Scholar
  31. Phillips, V. E. 1991. PochardAythya ferina use of chironomidrich feeding habitat in winter. Bird Study 38:118–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Phillipson, J. 1964. A miniature bomb calorimeter for small biological samples. Oikos 15:131–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pyke, G. H., H. R. Pulliam, and E. L. Charnov. 1977. Optimal foraging: a selective review of theory and tests. Quarterly Review of Biology 52:137–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Saunders, G. B. and D. C. Saunders. 1981. Waterfowl and their wintering grounds in Mexico. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, DC, USA. Resource Publicatio 138.Google Scholar
  35. SAS Institute, Inc., 1987. SAS/STAT Guide for Personal Computers, SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA.Google Scholar
  36. Sedinger, J. S. 1984. Protein and amino acid composition of tundra vegetation in relation to nutritional requirements of geese. Journal of Wildlife Management 48:1128–1136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sedinger, J. S. and D. G. Raveling. 1984. Dietary selectivity in relation to availability and quality of food for goslings of cackling geese. Auk 101:295–306.Google Scholar
  38. Sedinger, J. S., R. G. White, F. E. Mann, F. A. Burris, and R. A. Kedrowski. 1989. Apparent metabolizability of alfalfa components by yearling pacific black brant. Journal of Wildlife Management 53:726–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stephenson, R., J. R. Lovvorn, M. R. A. Heieis, D. R. Jones, and R. W. Blake. 1989. A hydromechanical estimate of the power requirements of diving and surface swimming in lesser scaup (Aythya affinis). Journal of Experimental Biology 147:507–518.Google Scholar
  40. Stieglitz, W. O. 1966. Utilization of available foods by diving ducks on Apalachee Bay. Florida. Proceedings of the Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners 20:42–50.Google Scholar
  41. Thomas, V. G. and J. P. Prevett. 1980. The nutritional value of arrow-grasses to geese at James Bay. Journal of Wildlife Management 44:830–836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Van Soest, P. J. 1963. Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. II. A rapid method for determination of fiber and lignin. Journal of the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists 46: 829–835.Google Scholar
  43. Van Soest, P. J. 1982. Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant. O. and B. Books, Inc., Corvalis, OR, USA.Google Scholar
  44. Woodin, M. C. and G. A. Swanson. 1989. Foods and dietary strategies of prairie-nesting ruddy ducks and redheads. Condor 91: 280–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zieman, J. C. and R. T. Zieman. 1989. The Ecology of the Seagrass Meadows of the West Coast of Florida: A Community Profile. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, USA. Biological Report 85.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of Wetland Scientists 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas C. Michot
    • 1
  • Paul C. Chadwick
    • 1
  1. 1.Southern Science CenterNational Biological SurveyLafayette

Personalised recommendations