, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 216–230 | Cite as

Comparative community structure ofChamaecyparis thyoides bog forests: Canopy diversity

  • Aimlee D. Laderman


Chamaecyparisthyoides (L) BSP (Atlantic White Cedar), found only in acid wetlands of the eastern United States coast, dominates readily-recognized biotic assemblages that vary with latitude. This is the first of a four-part study of the literature on biota associated withC.thyoides throughout its range. The number of tree species found with cedar in each state ranges from 2 to 18. State regions with the highest canopy diversity are: east and west Florida, Massachusetts and Mississippi. States with the lowest number of associated tree species are: Alabama, Georgia and New York and Maryland. Fifty-five tree species are found growing withC.thyoides overall, with no single species in all the 17 state-regions of its range. Most trees co-occur in a narrow band: over 85% are found in 5 states or less. Species most frequently associated are:Acerrubrum,Nyssasylvatica andMagnoliavirginiana. Fire control, logging, road building, mosquito control and agricultural practices continue to alter and obliterateC.thyoides communities.


Acer Rubrum Dismal Swamp Pine Barren Great Dismal Swamp Cedar Swamp 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Andrews, L. S. 1979. Vegetative change over a portion of the Great Dismal Swamp, Virginia, North Carolina. Master’s thesis, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous. 1906. Field meetings of the Torrey Club. Torreya6:130.Google Scholar
  3. Baldwin, H. I. 1961. Further notes onChamaecyparis thyoides in New Hampshire. Rhodora63: 281–285.Google Scholar
  4. — 1965. Additional notes onChamaecyparis thyoides in New Hampshire. Rhodora67:409–411.Google Scholar
  5. Bartlett, H. H. 1909. The submarine Chamaecyparis bog at Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Rhodora11:221–235.Google Scholar
  6. Bastin, E. S., and C. A. Davis. 1909. Peat deposits of Maine. Geol. Surv. Bull.376.Google Scholar
  7. Beaven, G. F., and H. J. Oosting. 1939. Pokomoke Swamp: a study of a cypress swamp on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club66:367–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bernard, J. M. 1963. Lowland forests of the Cape May formation in Southern New Jersey. Bull. N.J. Acad. Sci.8:1–12.Google Scholar
  9. Bicknell, E. P. 1908. The white cedar in western Long Island. Torreya8:27–28.Google Scholar
  10. Britton, N. L. 1889. Catalogue of plants found in New Jersey. John Murphy, Trenton, 642 p.Google Scholar
  11. Brush, W. D. 1947. Knowing your trees: Atlantic White Cedar. Am. For.53:218–219.Google Scholar
  12. Buell, M. F., and R. L. Cain. 1943. The successional role of Southern White Cedar,Chamaecyparis thyoides, in south-eastern North Carolinia. Ecology24:85–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coker, W. C., and H. R. Totten. 1934. Trees of the southeastern states. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 399 p.Google Scholar
  14. Collins, E. A., C. D. Monk, and R. H. Spielman. 1964. White Cedar stands in northern Florida. O. J. Fla. Acad. Sci.27:107–110.Google Scholar
  15. Conard, H.S. 1935. The plant associations of central Long Island. Am. Midl. Nat.16:433–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cowardin, L. M., V. Carter, F. Golet, and E. T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Off. Biol. Serv. FWS/OBS-79/31.Google Scholar
  17. Darlington, W. 1849. Memorials of John Bartram and Humphry Marshall. Lindsay and Blakiston, Philadelphia. 585 p.Google Scholar
  18. Duncan, W. and J. Kartesz. 1981. Vascular flora of Georgia: Annotated checklist. University of Georgia Press, Athens. 143 p.Google Scholar
  19. Eastman, L. M. 1977. Atlantic White Cedar,Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P. in Maine and its relevance to the Critical Areas Program. Maine Audubon Society, Planning Report No. 38. Unpublished report, Critical Areas Program, Natural Resources Planning Division, Maine State Planning Office.Google Scholar
  20. Eleuterius, L. N., and S. B. Jones. 1972. A phytosociological study of White Cedar in Mississippi. Castanea37:67–74.Google Scholar
  21. Fernald, M. L. 1970. Gray’s Manual of Botany. 8th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 1963 p.Google Scholar
  22. Florer, L. 1972. Palynology of a postglacial bog in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club99: 135–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Forman, R., ed. 1979. Pine Barrens: ecosystem and landscape. Academic Press, New York. 601 p.Google Scholar
  24. Gifford, J. 1896. Distribution of the White Cedar in New Jersey. Garden and Forest9:63.Google Scholar
  25. Givnish, T. 1971. A study of New Jersey Pine Barrens cedar swamps. Unpublished report, Princeton-National Science Foundation, Swamp Study Group, Princeton, New Jersey. 82 p.Google Scholar
  26. Harper, R. M. 1905. Coastal Plain plants in New England. Rhodora7:69–80.Google Scholar
  27. — 1906. Further remarks on the Coastal Plain plants of New England, their history and distribution. Rhodora8:27–30.Google Scholar
  28. — 1907. A Long Island cedar swamp. Torreya7:198–200.Google Scholar
  29. — 1926. A middle Florida cedar swamp. Torreya26:81–84.Google Scholar
  30. Harshberger, J. W. 1916, 1970. The vegetation of the New Jersey pine barrens: an ecological investigation. Dover Press, New York. 329 p.Google Scholar
  31. Heusser, C. J. 1949. History of an estuarine bog at Secaucus, New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club76: 385–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hinds, H. R. 1966. A floristic study of outer Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Ph.D. dissertation, Smith College, Amherst, Massachusetts. 109 p.Google Scholar
  33. Hyland, F. and F. Steinmetz. 1944. The woody plants of Maine. University Press, Orono, Maine. 72 p.Google Scholar
  34. Index Kewensis Plantarum Phanerogamum. Supp. XLV (1961–1965). 1968. Clarendon Press London. 149 p.Google Scholar
  35. James, C. W. 1961. Endemism in Florida. Brittonia13: 225–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kalm, P. 1753–1761. En Resa til Norra America. Vol. I–III. På Kong. Swenska Vetenskaps-academiens befallning, och Publici kostnad, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  37. — 1937. 1966. Travels in North America. Adolph Benson, ed., Wilson-Erickson, New York. 797 p. (Reprinted by Dover, New York.)Google Scholar
  38. Kearney, T. H. 1901. Report on a botanical survey of the Dismal Swamp region. Contrib. U.S. Natl. Herb.5: 321–550.Google Scholar
  39. Korstian, C. F., 1924. Natural regeneration of Southern White Cedar. Ecology5:188–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Korstian, C. F., and W. D. Brush. 1931. Southern White Cedar. U.S. Dep. Agr. Tech. Bull.251. 75 p.Google Scholar
  41. Laderman, A. D. 1980. Algal ecology of aChamaecyparis thyoides bog: anin situ microcosm study. Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York at Binghamton. 208 p.Google Scholar
  42. — 1981. The Atlantic White Cedar swamp: prime candidate for scientific investigation. Wetlands1:61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Landaal, S. 1978. Plant successional trends in selected Dismal Swamp stands ofChamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P. (Atlantic White Cedar). Master’s thesis, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia.Google Scholar
  44. Levy, G. F., and S. W. Walker. 1979. Plant communities of the Great Dismal Swamp. P. 101–126. In: Paul Kirk et al., eds. The Great Dismal Swamp. University Press of Virginia.Google Scholar
  45. Li, H. 1962. A new species of Chamaecyparis. Morris Arbor. Bull.13:43–46.Google Scholar
  46. Little, E. L. 1966. Varietal transfers inCupressus andChamaecyparis. Madrono18:161–167.Google Scholar
  47. Little, S. 1950. Ecology and silviculture of White Cedar and associated hardwoods in southern New Jersey. Yale Univ. Sch. For. Bull.56. 103 p.Google Scholar
  48. Little, S. 1965.Chamaecyparis (White-cedar or False-cypresses, p. 150–156. In: H. A. Fowells, compiler. Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States. U.S. Dep. Agr. For. Serv. Agric. Handbook 271.Google Scholar
  49. McCormick, J. 1979. The vegetation of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. P. 229–243. In: R. T. Forman, ed. Pine Barrens, ecosystem and landscape. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  50. McKinley, C. E., and F. P. Day. 1979. Herbaceous production in cut-burned, uncut-burned, and control areas of aChamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P. (Cupressaceae) stand in the Great Dismal Swamp. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club106:20–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Meanley, B. 1968. Notes on Dismal Swamp plants. Atl. Nat.23:78–82.Google Scholar
  52. Musselman, L. J., D. L. Nickrent, and G. F. Levy. 1977. A contribution towards a vascular flora of the Great Dismal Swamp, USA. Rhodora79:240–268.Google Scholar
  53. Nichols, G. E. 1913. The vegetation of Connecticut. Torreya13:89–112.Google Scholar
  54. — 1915. Vegetation of Connecticut. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club.42:169–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nichols, J. T. 1907. New station for Chamaecyparis on Long Island, New York. Rhodora9:74.Google Scholar
  56. Noyes, J. H. 1939. Silvicultural management of Southern White Cedar in Connecticut. Master’s thesis, School of Forestry, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 31 p.Google Scholar
  57. Pinelands Commission. 1980. Comprehensive management plan for the Pinelands National Reserve and Pinelands Area. New Jersey Pinelands Commission, New Lisbon. 446 p.Google Scholar
  58. Radford, A. E., and D. L. Martin. 1975. Potential ecological natural landmarks of the Piedmont Region, Eastern United States. Unpublished report, Department of Botany, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 1 p.Google Scholar
  59. Rayner, D. A., and J. Henderson. 1980.Vaccinium sempervirens (Ericaceae), a new species from Atlantic White Cedar bogs in the sandhills of South Carolina. Rhodora82:503–507.Google Scholar
  60. Rigg, G. B. 1940. Comparisons of the development of some sphagnum bogs of the Atlantic coast, the interior and the Pacific coast. Am. J. Bot.27:1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rossbach, G. P. 1936. Northeastern extensions in the Maine flora. Rhodora38:453–4.Google Scholar
  62. Rury, P. M. 1976. Shealy’s Pond Natural Area. Unpublished report, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolinia. 5 p.Google Scholar
  63. Shaw, C. H. 1902. The development of vegetation in the morainal depressions of the vicinity of Woods Hole. Bot. Gaz.33:437–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sipple, W. and W. A. Klockner. 1980. A unique wetland in Maryland. Castanea45:60–69.Google Scholar
  65. Sipple, W. 1983. Uncommon wetlands in the coastal plain of Maryland. In: Symposium: Threatened and endangered plants and animals of Maryland. In press.Google Scholar
  66. Slezak, W. 1975. An ecological analysis of the White Cedar Swamp Conservation Area, Wilbraham, Massachusetts. Unpublished report, Wilbraham Conservation Commission, in cooperation with Massachusetts Audubon Society Environmental Intern Program. 69 p.Google Scholar
  67. Small, J. K. 1933. Manual of the Southeastern flora. Published by the author. 1554 p.Google Scholar
  68. Stone, W. 1911. Plants of southern New Jersey with special reference to flora of the Pine Barrens. Ann. Rep. N.J. State Museum. 828 p.Google Scholar
  69. Svenson, H. K. 1929.Chamaecyparis thyoides in New Hampshire. Rhodora31:96–98.Google Scholar
  70. Svenson, H. K. and R. W. Pyle. 1979. The Flora of Cape Cod. Cape Cod Museum of Natural History. 139 p.Google Scholar
  71. Swailes, L. F. 1957. A study of a mature stand of Atlantic White Cedar in South Carolina. Master’s thesis, University of South Carolina, Columbia.Google Scholar
  72. Taylor, N. 1915. Flora of the vicinity of New York: a contribution to plant geography. Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard.5:653 p.Google Scholar
  73. — 1916. A White Cedar swamp at Merrick, Long Island and its significance. Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard.6:79–88.Google Scholar
  74. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1982. National list of scientific plant names. U.S. Government Printing Office, SCS-TP-159. 2 vol.Google Scholar
  75. United States Department of the Interior, Geologicial Survey. 1970. The national atlas of the United States of America. 417 p.Google Scholar
  76. Ward, D. B. 1963. Southern limit ofChamaecyparis thyoides. Rhodora65:359–363.Google Scholar
  77. Webster, T. R. 1971. Preliminary report on several White Cedar swamps in Connecticut. Unpublished. 29 p.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society of Wetland Scientists 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aimlee D. Laderman
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanySmithsonian InstitutionWashington DC
  2. 2.Marine Biological LaboratoryWoods Hole

Personalised recommendations