Lichte Cognitieve Stoornissen (MCI): Prodromen van dementie?

Artikel

Abstract

Mild cognitive impairment: a prodromal phase of dementia? Cognitive decline without dementia is common among older persons. A variety of clinical concepts have been introduced in the past 30 years, in order to describe these cognitive deficits arising in older persons. The most frequently used concept is Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). MCI is generally seen as a prodromal phase of Alzheimer disease (AD). Several concepts are described, with the neuropsychiatric features and predictors of conversion to dementia c.q. AD. Finally, consequences of preclinically diagnoses for health care are clarified.

Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr 2007; 38:115-121

Samenvatting

Cognitieve beperkingen zónder dat er sprake is van dementie komen bij ouderen frequent voor. Er zijn om deze cognitieve beperkingen te kunnen definiëren, de afgelopen 30 jaar meerdere klinische concepten in het leven geroepen. Het meest gebruikte en onderzochte concept is MCI (mild cognitive impairment). MCI wordt in het algemeen als het voorstadium van de ziekte van Alzheimer gezien. De verschillende concepten worden besproken, waarbij tevens aandacht besteed zal worden aan begeleidende neuropsychiatrische verschijnselen en predictoren die de kans op conversie naar dementie i.c. de ziekte van Alzheimer verhogen. Tot slot worden de beleidsconsequenties van preklinische diagnostiek van dementie besproken.

Mild Cognitive Impairment MCI predictoren neuropsychiatrische verschijnselen 

Literatuur

  1. Petersen RC, Smith GE, Warung SC e.a. Mild cognitive impairment. Clinical characterization and outcome. Arch Neurol 1999; 56:303-308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Unverzagt FW, Gao S, Baiyewu O e.a. Prevalence of cognitive impairment. Data from the Indianapolis Study of Health and Aging. Neurology 2001; 57: 1655-1662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Lopez OL, Jagust WJ, DeKosky ST e.a. Prevalence and classification of mild cognitive impairment in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS): Cognition Study. Arch Neurol 2003a; 60:1385-1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dik MG. Cognitive decline in older persons. Contribution of genetics, health and lifestyle. Thesis, VU Medisch Centrum 2002, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  5. Lopez OL, Jagust WJ, Dulberg C e.a. Riskfactors for mild cognitive impairment in the cardiovascular Health Study (CHS): Cognition Study. Arch Neurol 2003b; 60:1394-1399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kral VA. Senescent forgetfulness: benign and malignant. J Can Med Assoc 1962; 86:257-260Google Scholar
  7. Crook T, Bartus RT, Ferris SH e.a. Age associated memory impairment: proposed diagnostic criteria and measures of clinical change. Report of a National Institute of Mental Health Work Group. Developmental Neuropsychology 1986; 2:261-276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Levy R. Aging-associated cognitive decline. Int Psychogeriatrics 1994; 6:63-68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Richards M, Touchon J, Ledésert B e.a. Cognitive decline in ageing: are AAMI and AACD distinct entities? Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1999; 14:534-540CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Graham JE, Rockwood K, B Lynn Beattie e.a. Prevalence and severity of cognitive impairment with and without dementia in an elderly population. Lancet 1997; 349:1793-1796CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Rubin EH, Kinscherf D. Psychopathology of very mild dementia of the Alzheimertype. Am J Psychiatry 1989; 146:1017-1021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Zaudig M A. new systematic method of measurement and diagnosis of "mild cognitive impairment" and dementia according to ICD-10 and DSM-IIIR criteria. Int Psychogeriatr 1992; suppl 2:203-219.Google Scholar
  13. Petersen RC, Doody R, Kurz A e.a. Current concepts in Mild Cognitive Impairment. Arch Neurol 2001; 58:1985-1992.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Petersen RC. Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity. Journal of Internal Medicine 2004; 256:183-194CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Visser PJ, Scheltens P, Verhey FRJ. Do MCI criteria in drug trials accurately identify subjects with predementia Alzheimer’s disease? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005; 76:1348-1354CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Schmand B, Jonker C, Hooijer C e.a. Subjective memory complaints may announce dementia. Neurology 1996; 46:121-125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bowen J, Teri L, Kukull W e.a. Progression to dementia in patients with isolated memory loss. Lancet 1997; 349:763-765CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hodges J. The amnestic prodrome of Alzheimer's disease. Brain 1998; 121:1601-1602CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ritchie K & Touchon J. Mild cognitive impairment: conceptual basis and current nosological status. Lancet 2000; 355:225-228CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Daly E, Zaitchik D, Copeland M e.a. Predicting conversion to Alzheimer disease using standardized clinical information. Arch Neurol 2000; 57:675-680CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen P, Ratcliff D, Belle SH e.a. Cognitive tests that best discriminate between presymptomatic AD and those who remain nondemented. Neurology 2000; 55:1847-1853PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Wang QS & Zhou JN. Retrieval and encoding of episodic memory in normal aging and patients with mild cognitive impairment. Brain Research 2002; 924:113-115CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Berg L, Hughes CP, Danziger WL e.a. Mild senile dementia of Alzheimertype (SDAT): research diagnostic criteria, recruitment, and description of a study population. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 1982; 45:962-968CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ritchie K Artero S, Touchon J. Classification criteria for mild cognitive impairment. A population-based validation study. Neurology 2001; 56:37-42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. McKelvey R, Bergman H, Stern J. Lack of prognostic significance of SPECT abnormalities in elderly subjects with a mild memory loss. Can J Neurol 1999; Sci 26:23-28Google Scholar
  26. Bennett DA, Wilson RS, Schneider JA. e.a. Natural history of mild cognitive impairment in older persons. Neurology 2002; 59:198-205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Morris JC, Storandt M, Miller JP e.a. Mild cognitive impairment represents early-stage Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2001; 58:397-405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Tabert MH, Albert SM, Borukhova-Milov L e.a. Functional deficits in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Neurology 2002; 58:758-764PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Larrieu S, Letteneur L, Orgogozo JM. e.a. Incidence and outcome of mild cognitive impairment in a population-based prospective cohort. Neurology 2002; 59:1594-1599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fisk JD, Merry HR, Rockwood K. Variations in case definition affect prevalence but not outcomes of mild cognitive impairment. Neurology 2003; 61:1179-1184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Ganguli M, Dodge HH, Shen C e.a. Mild cognitive impairment, amnestic type. An epidemiologic study. Neurology 2004; 63:115-121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Comijs HC, Dik MG, Deeg DJH, e.a. The course of cognitive decline in older persons: results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004; 17:136-142CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Petry S, Cummings JL, Hill MA e.a. Personality alterations in dementia of the Alzheimer type. A three-year follow-up study. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurology 1989; 2:203-207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cummings JL, Mega M, Gray K e.a. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology 1994; 44: 2308-2314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Lyketsos CG, Lopez O, Jones B e.a. Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia and mild cognitive impairment. JAMA 2002; 288:1475-1483.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hwang TJ, Masterman DL, Ortiz F e.a. Mild cognitive impairment is associated with characteristic neuropsychiatric symptoms. Alz Dis Assoc Disord 2004; 18 :17-21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Feldman H, Scheltens P, Scarpini E e.a. Behavioral symptoms in mild cognitive impairment. Neurology 2004; 62:1199-1201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Geerlings MI, Schoevers RA, Beekman ATF e.a. Depression and the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. Br J Psychiat 2000; 176, 568-575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ready RE, Ott BR, Grace J. Apathy and executive dysfunction in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2003; 11:222-228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Modrego PJ, Ferrandez J. Depression in patients with mild cognitive impairment increases the risk of developing dementia of Alzheimer type. A prospective cohort study. Arch Neurol 2004; 61:1290-1293CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Tierney MC, Boyle E, Lam E. e.a. Do depressive symptoms in memory-impaired elders predict probable Alzheimer’s disease? Aging & Mental Health 1999; 3:88-93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jack CR, Petersen RC, Xu YC e.a. Prediction of AD with MRI-based hippocampal volume in mild cognitive impairment. Neurology 1999; 52:1397-1403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Blennow K & Hampel H. CSF markers for incipient Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet Neurol 2003; 2:605-613CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Arai H, Nakagawa T, Kosaka T e.a. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid tau protein level as a predictor of dementia in memory-impaired individuals. Alzheimer’s Res 1997; 3:211-213.Google Scholar
  45. Amieva H, Letteneur L, Dartiques JF e.a. Annual rate and predictors of conversion to dementia in subjects presenting with mild cognitive impairment criteria defined according to a population-based study. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2004; 18:87-93CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Aggarwal NT, Wilson RS, Beck TL e.a. The apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele and incident Alzheimer’s disease in persons with mild cognitive impairment. Neurocase 2005; 11:3-7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kryscio RJ, Schmitt FA, Salazar JC e.a. Risk factors for transitions from normal to mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Neurology 2006; 66:828-832CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Visser PJ, Verhey FRJ, Scheltens P e.a. Diagnostic accuracy of the Preclinical AD Scale (PAS) in cognitively mildly impaired subjects. J Neurol 2002; 249:312-319.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Petersen RC, Thomas RG, Grundman M e.a. Vitamin E and donepezil for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment. New England Journal of Medicine 2005; 352:2379-2388CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Comijs HC, Deeg DJH, Dik MG e.a. Memory complaints; the association with psycho-affective and health problems and the role of personality characteristics. A 6-year follow-up study. J Affective Disord 2002; 72:157-165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fratiglioni L, Paillard-Borg S, Winblad B. An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia. Lancet Neurol 2004; 3:343-353CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Bohn Stafleu van Loghum 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.

Personalised recommendations