Senckenbergiana lethaea

, Volume 82, Issue 1, pp 23–34 | Cite as

DinoMorph: Parametric modeling of skeletal structures

  • Kent A. Stevens
Functional Morphology and Biomechanics


A parametric approach towards modeling is advocated for skeletal reconstructions. Three-dimensional digital reconstructions are compared with conventional two-dimensional illustrations, particularly silhouette drawings. The advantages of the parametric system provided by the DinoMorph™ software include: open access to all data comprising the model and the rendering algorithms for the independent verification of reconstructions, tools for parametrically editing and manipulating pose, bone, and joint geometry, visualization of assemblies in three-dimensions from arbitrary perspectives, multiple resolution models of skeletal element morphology (from schematic to highly detailed), and extensibility to support specific research objectives. The system architecture and current capabilities are described and illustrated.

Key words

biomechanics simulation sauropod dinosaurs modeling 3D graphics 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexander, R. McN. (1989):. Dynamics of dinosaurs and other extinct giants. — Columbia New York (University Press).Google Scholar
  2. Chapman, R.E.,Andersen, A., &Jabo, S.J. 1999 Construction of the virtual Triceratops: procedures, results and potentials. — Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology19, suppl. pp. 37A.Google Scholar
  3. Catmull, E. &Rom, R. (1974): A class of local interpolating Splines. — In R. Barnhill and R. Riesenfeld, [eds] Computer aided geometric design: 317–326, San Francisco (Academic Press).Google Scholar
  4. Gamma, E., Helm, R., Johnson, R. &Vlissides, J. (1995): Design Patterns, Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software. — Reading, Ma (Addison-Wesley).Google Scholar
  5. Gillmore, C.W. (1925): A nearly complete articulated skeleton ofCamarasaurus, a saurischian dinosaur from the Dinosaur National Monument. — Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum10:347–384.Google Scholar
  6. Holland, W.J. (1906): The osteology ofDiplodocus Marsh. — Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum2, 225–278.Google Scholar
  7. Hutchinson, J.R. &Gatesy, S.M. (2000): Adductors, abductors, and the evolution of archosaur locomotion. — Paleobiology26: 734–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gatesy, S.M., Middleton, K.M., Jenkins, F.A. &Shubin, N.H. (1999): Three-dimensional preservation of movements in Triassic theropod dinosaurs. — Nature399, 13 May, pp. 141–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gillmore, C.W. (1925): A nearly complete articulated skeleton ofCamarasaurus, a saurischian dinosaur from the Dinosaur National Monument. — Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum10:347–384.Google Scholar
  10. Gillmore, C.W. (1936): The osteology ofApatosaurus with special reference to specimens in the Carnegie Museum. — Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum11:175–300.Google Scholar
  11. Henderson, D.M. (1999): Estimating the masses and centers of mass of extinct animals by 3-D mathematical slicing. — Paleobiology25:88–106.Google Scholar
  12. Janensch, W. (1950): Die Wirbelsäule vonBrachiosaurus brancai. — Palaeontographica (suppl. 7)3: 27–93. 1950a.Google Scholar
  13. Janensch, W. (1950): Die Skelettrekonstrucktion von vonBrachiosaurus brancai. — Palaeontographica (suppl. 7)3: 97–102. 1950b.Google Scholar
  14. Martin, J., V. Martin-Rolland &Frey, E. (1998): Not cranes or masts, but beams: The biomechanics of sauropod necks. Oryctos1:113–120.Google Scholar
  15. McIntosh, J. (1997): Sauropoda. — In P.J. Currie and K. Padian [eds], Encyclopedia of dinosaurs: pp. 654–658. San Diego (Academic Press).Google Scholar
  16. McIntosh, J., M.K. Brett-Surman &Farlow, J.O. (1997): Sauropods. — In J.O. Farlow and M.K. Brett-Surman [eds], The complete dinosaur: pp. 264–290. Bloomington (Indiana University Press).Google Scholar
  17. Osborn, H.F. &Mook, C.C. (1921):Camarasaurus, Amphicoelias, and other sauropods of Cope. — Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History.3:247–287.Google Scholar
  18. Paul, G.S. &Christiansen, P. (2000): Forelimb posture in neoceratopsian dinosaurs: implications for gait and locomotion. — Paleobiology26: 450–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Platt, P. (2001): The pectoral girdle of the sauropod dinosaurApatosaurus. — Bulletin of the Mesa Southwest Museum8, in press.Google Scholar
  20. Romer, A.S. (1956): Osteology of the Reptiles. — Chicago (University of Chicago Press) 772 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Seebacher, F. (2001): A New method to calculate allometric lengthmass relationships of dinosaurs. — Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology21:51–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Stevens, K.A. &Parrish, J.M. (1999): Neck posture and feeding habits of two Jurassic sauropod dinosaurs. — Science, April 30.284:798–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Stevens, K.A (2000):∼kent/DinoMorph.html.Google Scholar
  24. Walters, R.F.,Chapman, R.E,Snyder, R.A., &Mohn, B.J. (2000): Using virtual skeletons as a basis for reconstructing fossil vertebrates. — Journal of Vertebrae Paleontology20, suppl. pp. 76A.Google Scholar
  25. Wilson, J.A. &Sereno, P.C. (1998): Early evolution and higher-level phylogeny of sauropod dinosaurs. — Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir5:1–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kent A. Stevens
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer and Information Science, Deschutes HallUniversity of OregonEugeneUSA

Personalised recommendations