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Senckenbergiana lethaea

, Volume 82, Issue 2, pp 375–451 | Cite as

The phylomorphogenesis of some early devonian platform conodonts

  • Igor A. Bardashev
  • Karsten Weddige
  • Willi Ziegler
Conodonts

Abstract

The materials of all conodont workers including revised taxonomic systematics of the Early Devonian platform conodonts, which were previously included in the formal family PolygnathidaeUlrich &Bassler 1926, are summarized at some length.

For the conodont systematics including a suprageneric classification we regard the Pa elements as the key elements, because it is these elements that belong to an apparatus of only one taxon in contrast to other elements that are included in the apparatus of several taxa. The Pa elements only can be the nominative elements of a multielement taxon (see alsoZiegler &Weddige 1999).

Two main opinions of the origin of the genusPolygnathus and problems concerning the nomenclature of the family Polygnathidae are discussed. This family has comprised only pectiniform elements of carminiplanate type, according to the original diagnosis of the Polygnathidae byUlrich &Bassler (1926). We suggest to isolate some of the Devonian polygnathids, formerly assigned toPolygnathus, and group them in three genera:Ctenopolygnathus Müller &Müller 1957, withCt. angustidiscus (Youngquist 1945) as type species,Costapolygnathus gen. nov. withC. dubius (Hinde 1879) as type species, andLinguipolygnathus gen. nov. withL. linguiformis (Hinde 1879) as type species. Also,Ancyrognathus Branson &Mehl 1934a,Ancyrolepis Ziegler 1959,Polylophodonta Branson &Mehl 1934a,Pseudopolygnathus Branson &Mehl 1934b, ?Rhodalepis Druce 1969, ?Scaphignathus Helms 1959,Schmidtognathus Ziegler 1966, and ?Siphonodella Branson &Mehl 1944, are included in the family. Some Lower Devonian pectiniform elements of the carminiscaphate type are suggested to be assigned to the new family Eognathodidae with two genera:Gondwania gen. nov. withG. nevadensis (Clark &Ethington 1966) as type species,Eognathodus Philip 1965, and the new family Eopolygnathidae with three genera:Eoctenopolygnathus gen. nov. withE. pireneae (Boersma 1973) as type species,Eocostapolygnathus gen. nov. withE. kitabicus (Yolkin, Weddige, Izokh &Erina 1994) as type species, andEolinguipolygnathus gen. nov. withE. dehiscens (Philip &Jackson 1967) as type species. The pectiniform elements of the carminate type are assigned to a different genus,Pseudogondwania gen. nov. withP. kindlei (Lane &Ormiston 1979) as type species, and included in the family SpathognathodontinaeHass 1959. The following three generic lineages are suggested: 1)Amydrotaxis >Gondwania >Eognathodus >Eoctenopolygnathus >Ctenopolygnathus; 2)Amydrotaxis >Gondwania >Eognathodus >Eocostapolygnathus >Costapolygnathus; and 3)Amydrotaxis >Gondwania >Eognathodus >Eocostapolygnathus >Eolinguipolygnathus >Linguipolygnathus. The diagnostic features, on which the systematics of the elements is based, and the direction of the evolution and the main trends are outlined. The phylomorphogenesis and the proposed schemes of the phylomorphogenetic development ofPseudogondwania, Eognathidae, Eopolygnathidae, and Lower Devonian Polygnathidae are described.

According to the phylomorphogenetic constructions, all the Pragian-Emsian conodont zonations suggested earlier are synthetical; they are links of particular phylomorphogenetic lineages. Alternative schemes based on the links of the unified phylomorphogenetic lineages, that meet all the requirements for the present zonations, are suggested. Among many lineages, those, in which the diagnostic features are most easily distinguished and the zonal index-species are mostly cosmopolitan, are chosen. In the zonations, the Lochkovian-Pragian boundary is drawn by the appearance of gondwanids, the Pragian-Emsian boundary by the entry of eopolygnathids. Within the Pragian, the distinct boundary between an early and late Pragian can be drawn by the appearance of eognathodids; whereEognathodus has not been found yet, this level is approximately determined by the entries ofPseudogondwania kindlei andPs. clarki. A very distinct boundary between an early and late Emsian is drawn by the appearance of polygnathids.

Key words

Conodonts platform conodonts phylomorphogenesis taxonomy stratigraphy zonations Early Devonian 

Die Phylomorphogenese einiger unterdevonischer Plattform-Conodonten

Kurzfassung

Alle Conodonten-Daten einschließlich der taxonomischen Systematiken unterdevonischer Plattform-Condonten, die bisher die Familie PolygnathidaeUlrich &Bassler 1926 betrafen, werden hier zusammengefaßt.

Für die supragenerische Klassifikation halten wir die Pa-Elemente für diagnostisch maßgeblich, weil genau diese Pa-Elemente nur zum Apparat dieses einen Taxons gehören im Gegensatz zu den anderen Elementetypen des Apparates, die auch in den Apparaten anderer Taxa vorkommen können. Nur die Pa-Elemente können die namensgebenden Elemente eines Multielement-Taxons sein.

Zwei Hauptauffassungen über den Ursprung der GattungPolygnathus und weitere nomenklatorische Probleme bezüglich der Familie Polygnathidae werden diskutiert. Diese Familie hat entsprechend der Original-Diagnose der Polygnathidae vonUlrich &Bassler (1926) bisher nur pectiniforme Elemente des carminiplanaten Typs umfaßt. Unserer Meinung nach sollten einige der Devon-Polygnathiden, die bisherPolygnathus zugerechnet wurden, drei Gattungen zugeordnet werden:Ctenopolygnathus Müller &Müller 1957 mitCt. angustidiscus (Youngquist 1945) als Typusart,Costapolygnathus gen. nov. mitC. dubius (Hinde 1879) als Typusart, undLinguipolygnathus gen. nov. mitL. linguiformis (Hinde 1879) als Typusart. AuchAncyrognathus Branson &Mehl 1934a,Ancyrolepis Ziegler 1959,Polylophodonta Branson &Mehl 1934a,Pseudopolygnathus Branson &Mehl 1934b, ?Rhodalepis Druce 1969, ?Scaphignathus Helms 1959,Schmidtognathus Ziegler 1966 und ?Siphonodella Branson &Mehl 1944 gehörten bisher zur Familie. Einige unterdevonische pectiniformen Elemente des carminiscaphaten Typs werden nun von uns zur neuen Familie Eognathodidae gestellt mit den zwei Gattungen:Gondwania gen. nov. mitG. nevadensis (Clark &Ethington 1966) als Typusart,Eognathodus Philip 1965 sowie zur neuen Familie Eopolygnathidae mit den drei Gattungen:Eoctenopolygnathus gen. nov. mitE. pireneae (Boersma 1973) als Typusart,Eocostapolygnathus gen. nov. mitE. kitabicus (Yolkin, Weddige, Izokh &Erina 1994) als Typusart undEolinguipolygnathus gen. nov. mitE. dehiscens (Philip &Jackson 1967) als Typusart. Die pectiniformen Elemente des carminaten Typs werden der GattungPseudogondwania gen. nov. mitP. kindlei (Lane &Ormiston 1979) als Typusart und der Familie SpathognathodontinaeHass 1959 zugeordnet. Folgende drei generischen Linien werden vorgeschlagen: 1)Amydrotaxis >Gondwania >Eognathodus >Eoctenopolygnathus >Ctenopolygnathus; 2)Amydrotaxis >Gondwania >Eognathodus >Eocostapolygnathus >Costapolygnathus; und 3)Amydrotaxis >Gondwania >Eognathodus >Eocostapolygnathus >Eolinguipolygnathus >Linguipolygnathus. Die diagnostischen Merkmale, auf denen die Systematik der Elemente begründet ist, sowie die Evolutionsrichtung mit ihren Haupttrends werden umrissen. Die Phylomorphogenese und die vorgeschlagenen Schemata der phylomorphogenetischen Entwicklung vonPseudogondwania, Eognathidae, Eopolygnathidae und unterdevonischen Polygnathidae werden beschrieben.

Diese neuen phylomorphogenetischen Rekonstruktionen lassen alle bisherigen Conodontenzonierungen des Pragium-Emsium als zu synthetisch erscheinen, indem die einzelnen phylomorphogenetischen Linien pauschal verknüpft worden sind. Alternative Schemata werden vorgeschlagen, die allen Erfordernissen der gegenwärtigen Zonierungen genügen. Dabei sind von den vielen Linien diejenigen ausgewählt worden, in denen die diagnostischen Merkmale am leichtesten unterscheidbar und die Zonen-Indexarten möglichst kosmopolitisch sind. In den Zonierungen stimmt die Lockkovium-Pragium-Grenze mit dem Einsetzen der Gondwaniden überein und die Pragium-Emsium-Grenze mit dem Einsetzen der Eopolygnathiden. Innerhalb des Pragium ist eine deutliche Grenze zwischen einem unteren und oberen Pragium erkennbar mit dem Erscheinen der Eognathiden. Dort, woEognathodus selbst bisher noch nicht gefunden worden ist, setzt anscheinendPseudogondwania kindlei undPs. clarki ein. Eine sehr deutliche Grenze zwischen unterem und oberem Emsium markiert das erste Auftreten der Polygnathiden.

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Copyright information

© E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Igor A. Bardashev
    • 1
  • Karsten Weddige
    • 2
  • Willi Ziegler
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut of Geology Academy of science Republic of TajikistanDushanbeTajikistan
  2. 2.Forschungsinstitut SenckenbergFrankfurt am MainGermany

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