New Generation Computing

, Volume 4, Issue 4, pp 401–444 | Cite as

A list processing language TAO with multiple programming paradigms

  • Ikuo Takeuchi
  • Hiroshi Okuno
  • Nobuyasu Ohsato
Regular Papers


This paper describes an interpreter-centered list processing language TAO which supports the logic programming paradigm and the object-oriented programming paradigm together with the conventional procedural programming paradigm in the framework of the Lisp language. TAO allows the user to mix these programming paradigms in solving complicated and multifaceted AI problems. The fundamentals of these programing paradigms, namely, unification, message passing and function call can nest each other in an expression. Thus, the user can use the result of a function call or a message passing in a unification straightforwardly and vice versa. TAO also supports the concurrent programming. The implementation of the TAO interpreter on a Lisp machine called ELIS achieves a remarkable efficiency.


Multiple Programming Paradigms List Processing Language Object-oriented Programming Logic Programming 


  1. 1).
    Bobrow, D. G., Kahn, K. and Kizales, G. et al., “COMMONLOOPS, Merging Common Lisp and Object-Oriented Programming,”Xerox Parc ISL-85-8, August, 1985.Google Scholar
  2. 2).
    Bobrow, D. G. and Stefik, M., “The LOOPS Manual (Preliminary Version),”Memo KB-VLSI-85-13, Xerox PARC, January, 1983.Google Scholar
  3. 3).
    Chikayama, T., “ESP Reference Manual,”ICOT TR-044, February, 1984.Google Scholar
  4. 4).
    Gabriel, R. P.,Performance and Evaluation of Lisp Systems, The MIT Press, 1985.Google Scholar
  5. 5).
    Goldberg, A. and Robson, D.,Smalltalk-80: The Language and Its Implementation, Reading, Massachusetts, Addison-Wesley, 1983.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6).
    Goto, S., “DURAL: An Extended Prolog Language,”Lecture Notes in Computer Science 147, Springer-Verlag, 1983.Google Scholar
  7. 7).
    Hibino, Y., Watanabe, K. and Ohsato, N., “Lisp Machine ELIS no Architecture — Memory Register no Han-Youka to Sono Kouka” (Lisp Machine ELIS’s Architetture —Generalization of Memory Registers and Its Effect) [in Japanese],IPSJ WGSYM, 24-3, Junuary, 1983.Google Scholar
  8. 8).
    Kernighan, B. W. and Richie, D. M.,The C Programming Language, Prentice-Hall, 1978.Google Scholar
  9. 9).
    Krasner, G. ed.,Smalltalk-80: Bits of History, Words of Advice, Reading, Massachusetts, Addison-Wesley, 1983.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10).
    Nakashima, H., “Prolog/KR User’s Manual,”METR 82-4, Univ. of Tokyo, 1982.Google Scholar
  11. 11).
    Okuno, H. G., Takeuchi, I., Ohsato, N., Hibino, Y. and Watanabe, K., “TAO: A Fast Interpreter-Centered System on Lisp Machine ELIS,”Conf. Record of the 1984 ACM Symposium on Lisp and Functional Programming, (ACM, Austin, Tex.) pp. 140–149, August, 1984.Google Scholar
  12. 12).
    Okuno, H. G., “The Report of the Third Lisp Contest and the First Prolog Contest,”IPSJ WGSYM 33-4, September, 1985.Google Scholar
  13. 13).
    Pitman, K. M.,The Revised MacLisp Manual, MIT AI Lab., May, 1983.Google Scholar
  14. 14).
    Robinson, J. and Sibert, E.,The LOGLISP User’s Manual, Syracuse University, December, 1981.Google Scholar
  15. 15).
    Steele, Guy L. ed.,Common Lisp, Digital Press, 1984.Google Scholar
  16. 16).
    Takeuchi, I., Okuno, H. G. and Ohsato, N., “TAO —A Harmonic Mean of Lisp, Prolog and Smalltalk,”ACM SIGPLAN Notices,Vol. 18,No. 7, July, 1983.Google Scholar
  17. 17).
    Takeuchi, I., “On the Implementation of Common Lisp on TAO/ELIS,”IPSJ WGSYM 37-7, Junuary, 1986.Google Scholar
  18. 18).
    Warren, D. H. D., “Implementing Prolog — Compiling Predicate Logic Programs”,D. A. I. Research Report, 39 and 40, May, 1997.Google Scholar
  19. 19).
    Weinreb, D., Moon, D. and Stallman, R.,Lisp Machine Manual, Fifth Edition, System Version 92, LMI, January, 1983.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ohmsha, Ltd. and Springer 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ikuo Takeuchi
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Okuno
    • 1
  • Nobuyasu Ohsato
    • 1
  1. 1.Electrical Communication LaboratoriesNippon Telegraph and Telephone CorporationTokyo

Personalised recommendations