Andrologie

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 131–140 | Cite as

Le chimiotactisme des spermatozoïdes a-t-il un rôle dans la fécondation?

Spermiologie

Résumé

Le chimiotactisme des spermatozoïdes par le fluide folliculaire a été établi par différents moyens en ce qui concerne les spermatozoïdes de l’homme et de la souris. Seule une petite fraction d’une population donnée de spermatozoïdes (en moyenne environ 10%) présente une sensibilité chimiotactique, et cette fraction constitue les spermatozoïdes capacités. La sensibilité chimiotactique et l’état capacité sont tous les deux transitoires (avec une durée de vie de 50 minutes à 4 heures) et ne surviennent qu’une seule fois dans la vie d’un spermatozoïde. On a proposé comme rôle au chimiotactisme des spermatozoïdes chez les mammifères (du moins chez l’homme) le recrutement sélectif de spermatozoïdes capacités pour la fécondation de l’ovocyte; le rôle du remplacement continu des spermatozoïdes sensibles au chimiotactisme/capacités serait de prolonger la durée de temps pendant laquelle des spermatozoïdes capacités seraient disponibles dans le tractus génital féminin. Les substances chimio-attractives des spermatozoïdes n’ont pas été identifiées mais elles semblent être des peptides thermo-stables. La localisationin vivo du chimiotactisme des spermatozoïdes est inconnue; de nombreuses localisations potentielles sont discutées dans cet article.

Mots clés

chimiotactisme capacitation chimiokinésie fécondation mobilité des spermatozoïdes appareil reproducteur féminin 

Does sperm chemotaxis have a role in fertilization?

Abstract

Sperm chemotaxis to follicular fluid has been established by a variety of means in human and mouse spermatozoa. It was found that only a small fraction of a given sperm population (averaging around 10%) is chemotactically responsive and that this fraction constitutes capacitated (ripe) spermatozoa. Both the chemotactic responsiveness and the capacitated state are transient (with a lifetime between 50 min and 4 h) and they occur only once in the sperm’s lifetime. It has been proposed that the role of sperm chemotaxis in mammals (at least in man) is selective recruitment of capacitated spermatozoa for fertilizing the egg, and that the role of the continuous replacement of chemotactic/capacitated spermatozoa is to prolong the duration of time over which capacitated spermatozoa would be available in the female reproductive tract. The sperm chemoattractants have not been identified but they appear to be heat-stable peptides. Thein vivo location of sperm chemotaxis is not known; a number of possible locations are discussed.

Key words

chemotaxis capacitation chemokinesis fertilisation sperm motility female reproductive tract 

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Copyright information

© Société d’Andrologie de Langue Française 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological ChemistryThe Weizmann Institute of ScienceRehovotIsrael

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