Dopamine induces supernumerary centrosomes and subsequent cell death through Cdk2 up-regulation in dopaminergic neuronal cells
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Aggregation of proteins in the centrosome is implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s disease. However, the relevance of the centrosome in neurodegeneration is still obscure. Centrosome duplication is initiated by the cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2) complex. The present study determined changes in cyclin E or Cdk2 expression and in the cen-trosomal structure in dopaminergic neuronal CATH.a cells exposed to 50, 100 and 150 μM dopamine (DA) for 24 h. DA induced significant increase in Cdk2 protein and cyclin E protein, but not cyclin e mRNA. In DA-treated cells, the intense cyclin E- and Cdk2-immunofluorescence signals were co-localized around large and supernumerary centrosomes, and these two parameters of centrosome amplification were significantly increased compared with the control. Simultaneous co-treatment with DA and a Cdk2 inhibitor blocked centrosome amplification and enhanced cell viability. Our results demonstrated that DA could lead to cyclin E accumulation and Cdk2 up-regulation triggering supernumerary centrosomes and apoptotic cell death.