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Neurotoxicity Research

, 14:205 | Cite as

Cognitive symptoms facilitatory for diagnoses in neuropsychiatric disorders: Executive functions and locus of control

  • Trevor ArcherEmail author
  • Richard M. Kostrzewa
  • Richard J. Beninger
  • Tomas Palomo
Article

Abstract

Cognitive symptoms, considered in conjunction both with their regional brain and biomarkers as well as affective, attributional and neurode-velopmental components, demonstate ever-increasing complexity to facilitate conceptualization yet, unavoidably, bedevil diagnosis in neuropsychiatry even before considerations of the enigmatic processes in memory, such as executive function and working memory, are drawn into the myriads of equations that await remedial interpretations. Prefrontal and limbic regions of the brain are involved in a diversity of expressions of cognition, normal or dysfunctional, at synaptic, intracellular and molecular levels that mobilize a concatenation of signaling entities. Serotoninergic neurotransission at prefrontal regions directs cogntive-affective entities that mediate decision-making and goal-directed behaviour. Clinical, non-clinical and basic studies challenge attempts to consolidate the multitude of evidence in order to obtain therapeutic notions to alleviate the disordered status of the diagnosed and yet-to-be diagnosed individuals. Locus of control, a concept of some utility in health-seeking procedures, is examined in three self-report studies from the perspective of a cognitive-emotional situation through observations of ordinary, ‘healthy’ young and middle-aged individuals, to assess the predictors of internal and external locus of control. A notion based on high level executive functioning in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in individuals characterised by internal locus of control is contrasted with a hypofunctional executive DLPFC, characterising individuals that express an external locus of control, is discussed.

Keywords

Cognition PFC Executive function GABA NMDA Schizophrenia Alzheimer’s Aging Affect Chronic illness Locus of control Symptoms 

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Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Trevor Archer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Richard M. Kostrzewa
    • 2
  • Richard J. Beninger
    • 3
  • Tomas Palomo
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, Quillen College of MedicineEast Tennessee State UniversityJohnson CityUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Psychology and PsychiatryQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  4. 4.Servicio PsiquiatricoHospital Universitario 12 de OctubreMadrid

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