Neurotoxicity Research

, 14:205 | Cite as

Cognitive symptoms facilitatory for diagnoses in neuropsychiatric disorders: Executive functions and locus of control

  • Trevor ArcherEmail author
  • Richard M. Kostrzewa
  • Richard J. Beninger
  • Tomas Palomo


Cognitive symptoms, considered in conjunction both with their regional brain and biomarkers as well as affective, attributional and neurode-velopmental components, demonstate ever-increasing complexity to facilitate conceptualization yet, unavoidably, bedevil diagnosis in neuropsychiatry even before considerations of the enigmatic processes in memory, such as executive function and working memory, are drawn into the myriads of equations that await remedial interpretations. Prefrontal and limbic regions of the brain are involved in a diversity of expressions of cognition, normal or dysfunctional, at synaptic, intracellular and molecular levels that mobilize a concatenation of signaling entities. Serotoninergic neurotransission at prefrontal regions directs cogntive-affective entities that mediate decision-making and goal-directed behaviour. Clinical, non-clinical and basic studies challenge attempts to consolidate the multitude of evidence in order to obtain therapeutic notions to alleviate the disordered status of the diagnosed and yet-to-be diagnosed individuals. Locus of control, a concept of some utility in health-seeking procedures, is examined in three self-report studies from the perspective of a cognitive-emotional situation through observations of ordinary, ‘healthy’ young and middle-aged individuals, to assess the predictors of internal and external locus of control. A notion based on high level executive functioning in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in individuals characterised by internal locus of control is contrasted with a hypofunctional executive DLPFC, characterising individuals that express an external locus of control, is discussed.


Cognition PFC Executive function GABA NMDA Schizophrenia Alzheimer’s Aging Affect Chronic illness Locus of control Symptoms 


  1. Addington J and G Addington (2002) Cognitive functioning in first-episode schizophrenia.J. Psychiatry Neurosci. 27, 188–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler CM, AK Malhotra, I Elman, T Goldberg, M Egan, D Pickar and A Brier (1999) Comparison of ketamine-induced thought disorder in healthy volunteers and thought disorder in schizophrenia.Am. J. Psychiatry 156, 1646–1649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adolfsson B, I Andersson, S Elofsson, S Rössner and A-L Undén (2005) Locus of control and weight reduction.Pat. Educ. Counsel. 56, 55–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Affleck G, H Tennen, C Pfeiffer and J Fifield (1987) Appraisals of control and predictability in adapting to a chronic disease.J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 53, 273–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alonso M, MRM Vianna, AM Depino, T Mello e Souza, P Pereira, G Szapiro, H Viola, F Pitossi, I Izquierdo and JH Medina (2002) BDNF-triggered events in the rat hippocampus are required for short- and long-term memory formation.Hippocampus 12, 551–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alonso M, LR Bevilaqua, I Izquierdo, JH Medina and M Cammarota (2003) Memory formation requires p38 MAPK activity in the rat hippocampus.Neuroreport 14, 1989–1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andersson G (1976) Internal-external locus of control: some methodological notes on the research and a factor analysis of a revised I-E scale.Department of Psychology Reports, University of Göteborg, 9, 1.Google Scholar
  8. Andersson-Arntén AC, B Jansson and T Archer (2007) Influence of affective personality type and gender upon coping behaviour, mood and stress.Individ. Diff. Res. 6, 139–168.Google Scholar
  9. Andersson-Arntén AC, Jansson B and Archer T (submitted) Self-reported partnership relations and work stress as predictors of health and illhealth.Google Scholar
  10. Andreasen N, R Rezai, R Alliger, VW Swayze, M Flaum, P Kirchner, G Cohen and DS O’Leary (1992) Hypofrontality in neuroleptic-naive patients and in patients with chronic schizophrenia: assessment with xenon 133 single photon emission computed tomography and the Tower of London.Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 49, 943–958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Archer T, L Adrianson, A Plancak and E Karlsson (2007) Influence of affective personality on cognition-mediated emotional processing: need for empowerment.Eur. J. Psychiatry 21, 248–262.Google Scholar
  12. Archer T, B Adolfsson and E Karlsson (2008) Affective personality as cognitive-emotional presymptom profiles regulatory for self-reported health predispositions. Neurotox. Res.14, 21–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Aron AR, TW Robbins and RA Poldrack (2004) Inhibition and the right inferior frontal cortex.Trends Cogn. Sci. 8, 170–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Atkins CM, JC Selcher, JJ Petraitis, JM Traszkos and JD Sweatt (1998) The MAPK cascade is required for mammalian associative learning.Nat. Neurosci. 1, 602–609.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Auerbach SM (2000) Should patients have control over their own health care? Empirical evidence and research issues.Ann. Behav. Med. 22, 246–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Auerbach SM, JN Clore, DJ Kiesler, T Orr, PO Pegg, BG Quicket al. (2002) Relation of diabetic patients’ health-related control appraisals and patient-physician interpersonal impacts to patients’ metabolic control and satisfaction with treatment.Behav. Med. 25, 17–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ayabe HI (1979) The curvilinear relationship between reflection impulsivity and locus of control.J. Genet. Psychol. 135, 309–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Baker R and A Robinson (2004) Responses to standard gambles: are preferences “well-constructed”?Health Econ. 13, 37–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Balleine BW (2005) Neural bases of food-seeking: affect, arousal and reward in corticostriatolimbic circuits.Physiol. Behav. 86, 717–730.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Batty GD, IJ Deary and LS Gottfredson (2007) Premorbid (early life) IQ and later mortality risk: systemativ review.Ann. Epidemiol. 17, 278–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bechara A, H Damasio, D Tranel and SW Anderson (1998) Dissociation of working memory from decision making within the human prefrontal cortex.J. Neurosci. 18, 428–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bekinschtein P, M Cammarota, LM Igaz, LRM Bevilaqua, I Izquierdo and JH Medina (2007) Persistence of long-term memory storage requires a late protein synthesis and BDNF-dependent phase in the hippocampus.Neuron 53, 261–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bekinschtein P, M Cammarota, I Izquierdo and JH Medina (2008a) BDNF and memory formation and storage.Neuroscience 14, 147–156.Google Scholar
  24. Bekinschtein P, M Cammarota, C Katche, L Spiczuk, JI Rossata, A Goldin, I Izquierdo and JH Medina (2008b) BDNF is essential to promote persistence of long-term memory storage.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 2711–2716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Benassi VA, PD Sweeney and L Dufour (1988) Is there a relation between locus of control orientation and depression?J. Abnormal Psychol. 97, 357–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Berg AI, L Hassing, GE McClearn and B Johansson (2006) What matters for life satisfaction in the oldest-old?Aging Ment. Health 10, 257–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Berg S (1987) Intelligence and terminal decline, In:Aging: the Universal Human Experience, 4th Edition (Maddox GL and EW Busse, Eds.) (Springer:New York), pp 411–416.Google Scholar
  28. Berrios GE (1989) Non-cognitive symptoms and the diagnosis of dementia.Br. J. Psychiatry 154, 11–16.Google Scholar
  29. Bevilaqua LR, JH Medina, M Cammarota and I Izquierdo (2005) Memory consolidation induces N-methyl-D-aspartatic acid receptor and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II-dependent modifications in ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionic acid receptor properties.Neuroscience 136, 397–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bevilaqua LR, JH Medina, I Izquierdo and M Cammarota (2008) Reconsolidation and the fate of consolidated memories.Neurotox. Res. 14 (in press).Google Scholar
  31. Bialer I (1961) Conceptualizations of success and failure in mentally retarded and normal children.J. Pers. 29, 303–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Blackwood NJ, RP Bentall, DA Fytche, A Simmons, RM Murray and RJ Howard (2003) Self-responsibility and the self-serving bias: an fMRI investigation of causal attributes.Neuroimage 20, 1076–1085.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Blatier C (2000) Locus of control, causal attributes and self-esteem: a comparison between prisoners.J. Offend. Ther. Comp. Crim. 44, 97–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Blood G, M Dineen, S Kauffman and S Raimondi (1993) Perceived control, adjustment, and communication problems in laryngeal cancer survivors.Percept. Mot. Skills 77, 764–766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Bohn I, C Giertler and W Hauber (2003) Orbital prefrontal cortex and guidance of instrumental behaviour in rats under reversal conditions.Behav. Brain Res. 143, 49–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bonini JS, M Cammarota, DS Kerr, LRM Bevilaqua and I Izquierdo (2005) Inhibition of PKC in the basolateral amygdala and posterior parietal cortex impairs consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory.Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 80, 63–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bonini JS, WC Da Silva, LRM Bevilaqua, JH Medina, I Izquierdo and M Cammarota (2007) On the participation of hippocampal PKC in acquisition, consolidation and reconsolidation of spatial memory.Neuroscience 147, 37–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Bor J, J Duncan, AC Lee, A Parr and AM Owen (2006) Frontal lobe involvement in spatial span: converging studies of normal and impaired function.Neuropsychologia 44, 229–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Borg E and J Westerlund (2006) Statistik för beteendevetare [Statistics for Behavioural Scientists]. (Liber:Malmö).Google Scholar
  40. Bruscoli M and S Lovestone (2004) Is MCI really just early dementia? A systematic review of conversion studies.Int. Psychogeriatr. 16, 129–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Buccherelli C, E Baldi, C Mariottini, MB Passani and P Blandina (2006) Aversive memory reactivation engages in the amygdala only some neurotransmitters involved in consolidation.Learn. Mem. 13, 426–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Butters N, C Butter, J Rosen and D Stein (1973) Behavioural effects of sequential and one-stage ablations of orbital prefrontal cortex in the monkey.Exp. Neurol. 39, 204–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Callicott JH, VS Mattay, BA Verchinski, S Marenco, MF Eagen and DR Weinberger (2003) Complexity of prefrontal cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia: more than up or down.Am. J. Psychiatry 160, 2209–2215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Carlsson A, N Waters, S Holm-Waters, J Tedroff, M Hilsson and M Carlsson (2001) Interactions between monoamines, glutamate, and GABA in schizophrenia: new evidence.Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 41, 237–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Castro-Fornieles J, M Parellada, A Gonzalez-Pinto, D Moreno, M Graell, I Baeza, S Otero, CA Soutullp, E Crespo-Facorro, A Ruiz-Sancho, M Desco, O Rojas-Corrales, A Patino, E Carrasco-Marin and A Celso (2007) The child and adolescent first episode psychosis study (CAFEPS): design and baseline results.Schizophr. Res. 71, 226–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Censits DM, JD Ragland, RC Gur and RE Gur (1997) Neuropsychological evidence supporting a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia: a longitudinal study.Schizophr. Res. 24, 289–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Chamberlain SR, AD Blackwell, NA Fineberg, TW Robbins and BJ Sahakian (2006a) Strategy implementation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and trichotillomania.Psychol. Med. 36, 91–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Chamberlain SR, U Muller, AD Blackwell, L Clark, TW Robbins and BJ Sahakian (2006b) Neurochemical modulation of response inhibition and probalistic learning in humans.Science 311, 861–863.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Champod AS and M Petrides (2007) Dissociable roles of the posterior parietal and prefrontal cortex in manipulation and monitoring processes.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14837–14842.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Chan DC, JD Kasper, BS Black and PV Rabins (2003) Presence of behavioural and psychological symptoms predicts nursing home placement in community dwelling elders with cognitive impairment in univariate but not multivariate analysis.J. Geron. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 58, 548–554.Google Scholar
  51. Chase HW, L Clark, BJ Sahakian, ET Bullmore and TW Robbins (2008) Dissociable roles of prefrontal subregions in self-ordered working memory performance.Neuropsychologia 46, 2650–2661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Chudasama Y and TW Robbins (2003) Dissociable contributions of the orbitofrontal and infralimbic cortex to Pavlovian autoshaping and discrimination reversal learning: further evidence for the heterogeneity of the rodent frontal cortex.J. Neurosci. 23, 871–880.Google Scholar
  53. Clark L, AD Blackwell, AR Aron, DC Turner, J Dowson, TW Robbinset al. (2007) Association between response inhibition and working memory in adult ADHD: a link to right frontal pathology?Biol. Psychiatry 61, 1395–1401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Clarke HF, JW Dalley, HS Crofts, TW Robbins and AC Roberts (2004) Cognitive inflexibility after prefrontal serotonin depletion.Science 304, 878–880.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Clarke HF, SC Walker, HS Crofts, JW Dalley, TW Robbins and AC Roberts (2005) Prefrontal serotonin depletion affects reversal learning but not attentional set shifting.J. Neurosci. 25, 532–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Clarke HF, S Clarke, SC Walker, JW Dalley, TW Robbins and AC Roberts (2007) Cognitive inflexibility after prefrontal serotonin depletion is behaviourally and neurochemically specific.Cereb. Cortex 17, 18–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Cloninger CR, TR Pryzybeck, DM Svrakic and RD Wetzel (1994)The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): a Guide to its Development and Use. Washington University, Center for Psychobiology of Personality, St. Louis, MO.Google Scholar
  58. Cohen PA, JP Sheposh and WA Hillix (1979) Situational and personality influences on risk-taking behaviour: effects of task, sex, and locus of control.Acad. Psychol. Bull. 1, 63–67.Google Scholar
  59. Coitinho AS, Freitas ARO, Lopes MH, Hajj GNM, Roesler R, Walz R, Rossato JI, Cammarota M, Martins VR and RR Brentani (2006) The interaction between prion protein and laminin modulates memory consolidation.Eur. J. Neurosci. 24, 3255–3264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Countryman RA, JD Orlowski, JJ Brightwell, AZ Oskowitz and PJ Colombo (2005) CREB phosphorylation and c-fos expression in the hippocampus of rats during acquisition and recall of a socially transmitted food preference.Hippocampus 15, 56–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Coyle JT and G Tsai (2004) The NMDA receptor glycine modulatory site: a therapeutic target for improving cognition and reducing negative symptoms in schizophrenia.Psychopharmacology 174, 32–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Daban C, A Martinez-Aran, C Torrent, R Tabares-Seisdedos, V Balanza-Martinez, J Salazar-Freile, G Selva-Vera and E Vieta (2006) Specificity of cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder versus schizophrenia. A systematic review.Psychother. Psychosom. 75, 72–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Dalley JW, RN Cardinal and TW Robbins (2004) Prefrontal executive and cognitive functions: neural and neurochemical substrates.Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 28, 771–784.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Daumas S, A Betourne, H Halley, DP Wolfer, HP Lipp, JM Lassalle and B Francés (2005) Encoding, consolidation and retrieval of contextual memory: differential involvement of dorsal CA3 and CA1 hippocampal subregions.Learn. Mem. 12, 375–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. De Bruin JPC, F Sanchez-Santed, RP Heinbroek, A Donker and P Postmes (1994) A behavioural analysis of rats medial prefrontal cortex using the Morris water maze: evidence for behavioural flexibility, but not impaired spatial navigation.Brain Res. 652, 323–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Declerck CH, C Boone and B De Brabander (2006) On feeling in control: a biological theory for individual differences in control perception.Brain Cogn. 62, 143–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. DeMartino B, D Kumaran, B Seymour and RJ Dolan (2006) Frames, biases, and rational decision-making in the human brain.Science 313, 684–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Denburg NL, D Tranel and A Bechara (2005) The ability to decide advantageously declines prematurely in some normal older adults.Neuropsychologia 43, 1099–1106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. D’Esposito M and BR Postle (1999) The dependence of span and delayed-response performance on prefrontal cortex.Neuropsychologia 37, 1303–1315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. D’Esposito M, BR Postle and B Rypma (2000) Prefrontal cortical contributions to working memory: evidence from event-related fMRI studies.Exp. Brain Res. 133, 3–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. D’Esposito M, JW Cooney, A Gazzaley, SE Gibbs and BR Postle (2006) Is the prefrontal cortex necessary for delay task performance? Evidence from lesion and fMRI data.J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 12, 248–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. De Wit S, Y Kosaki, BW Balleine and A Dickinson (2006) Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex resolves response conflict in rats.J. Neurosci. 26, 5224–5229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Dumont KA, BD Rapkin, MY Smith, A Correa, S Palmer and S Cohen (1999) The relationship between health and human services and the personal goal-directed activities of persons living with AIDS.Am. J. Comm. Pstch. 27, 55–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Eisemann M, C Perris, U Palm, A Palm and H Perris (1988)LOC Presentation of a Swedish Intrument for Assessing Locus of Control. Department of Psychiatry, Umeå University, Umeå, Swede.Google Scholar
  75. Evers EA, R Cools, L Clark, FM Van der Veen, J Jolles, BJ Sahakian and TW Robbins (2005) Serotonergic modulation of prefrontal cortex during negative feedback in probabilistic reversal learning.Neuropsychopharmacol. 30, 1138–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Fagerlund B, AK Pagsberg and RP Hemmingsen (2006) Cognitive deficits and levels of IQ in adolescent onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders.Schizophr. Res. 85, 30–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Finch AJ, PC Kendall, PA Deardorff, J Anderson and AM Sitarz (1975) Reflection-impulsivity, persistence behaviour, and locus of control in emotionally disturbed children.J Consult. Clin. Psychol. 43, 748.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Findley MJ and HM Cooper (1983) Locus of control and academic achievement: a literature review.J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 44, 419–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Finkel S, J Costa, E Silva, S Cohen, S Miller and N Sartorius (1997) Behavioural and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia: a consensus statement on current knowledge and implications for research and treatment.Int. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 12, 1060–1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Finset A, S Dyrnes, JM Krogstad and J Berstad (1995) Self-reported social networks and interpersonal support 2 years after severe traumatic brain injury.Brain Injury 9, 141–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Franulic A, CG Carbonnell, P Pinto and I Sepulveda (2004) Psychosocial adjustment and employment outcome 2, 5 and 10 years after TBI.Brain Injury 18, 119–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. French DJ, KA Holroyd, C Pinellet al. (2000) Perceived self-efficacy and headache-related disability.Headache 40, 647–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Geerlings MI, RA Schoevers, AT Beekman, C Jonker, DJ Deeg, B Schmand, HJ Ader, LM Bouter and W Van Tilburg (2000) Depression and risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. Results of two prospective community-based studies in the Netherlands.Br. J. Psychiatry 176, 568–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Giedd JN, NO Jeffries, J Blumenthal, FX Castellanos, AC Vaituzis, T Fernandez, SD Hamburger, H Liu, J Nelson, J Bedwell, L Tran, M Lenane, R Nicolson and JL Rapaport (1999) Childhood onset schizophrenia: progressive brain changes during adolescence.Biol. Psychiatry 46, 892–898.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Goldman-Rakic PS (1999) The physiology approach: functional architecture of working memory and disordered cognition in schizophrenia.Biol. Psychiatry 46, 650–661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gordon DA, RH Jones and NL Short (1977) Task persistence and locus of control in elementary school children.Child. Dev. 48, 1716–1719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Gruart A and JM Delgado-Garcia (2007) Activity-dependent changes of the hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapse during the acquisition of associative learning in conscious mice.Genes Brain Behav. 6, 24–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gruart A, MD Munoz and JM Delgado-Garcia (2006) Involvement ofthe CA3-CA1 synapse in the acquisition of associative learning in behaving mice.J. Neurosci. 26, 1077–1087.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Harel O, SM Hofer, L Hoffman, NL Pedersen and B Johansson (2007) Population inference with mortality and attrition in longitudinal studies with aging: a two-stage multiple imputation method.Exp. Aging Res. 33, 187–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hariri AR, EM Drabant and DR Weinberger (2006) Imaging genetics: perspectives from studies of genetically driven variation in serotonin function and corticolimbic affective processing.Biol. Psychiatry 59, 888–897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Harrison AA, B Everitt and TW Robbins (1999) Central serotonin depletion impairs both the acquisition and performance of a symmetrically reinforced go-no go conditional discrimination.Behav. Brain Res. 100, 99–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Harrow M and A Ferrante (1969) Locus of control in psychiatric patients.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 33, 582–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hartley A (2006) Changing the role ofthe speed of processing construct in the cognitive psychology of human aging, In:Handbook ofthe Psychology of Aging (Birren JE and KW Schaie, Eds.) (Elsevier:San Diego), pp 140–159.Google Scholar
  94. Haselden K, T Powell, M Drinnan and P Carding (2008) Comparing health locus of control in patients with spasmodic dysphonia, functional dysphonia and nonlaryngeal dystonia.J. Voice [2008 Jul 9: Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
  95. Hashimoto T, DW Volk, SM Eggan, K Mirnics, JN Pierri, Z Sun, AR Sampson and DA Lewis (2003) Gene expression deficits in a subclass of GAGA neurons in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.J. Neurosci. 23, 6315–6326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Hashimoto T, SE Bergen, QL Nguyen, B Xu, LM Monteggia, JN Pierri, Z Sun, AR Sampson and DA Lewis (2005) Relationship of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor TrkB to altered inhibitory prefrontal circuitry in schizophrenia.J. Neurosci. 25, 372–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hashimoto T, D Arion, T Unger, JG Maldonado-Aviles, HM Morris, DW Volk, K Mirnics and DA Lewis (2008) Alterations in GABA-related transcriptome in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.Mol. Psychiatry 13(2), 147–161. Epub 2007 May 1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hassing LB, B Johansson, S Berg, SE Nilsson, NL Pedersen, SM Hoferet al. (2002a) Terminal decline and markers of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease: findings from a longitudinal study of the oldest old.J. Gerontol. Psychol. Sci. 57B, 268–276.Google Scholar
  99. Hassing LB, JB Small, E von Strauss, L Fratiglioni and L Bäckman (2002b) Mortality related differences and changes in episodic memory among the oldest old: evidence from a population-based sample of nonagenarians.Aging Neuropsychol. Cogn. 9, 11–20.Google Scholar
  100. Hassing LB, MD Grant, SM Hofer, NL Pedersen, SE Nilsson, S Berget al. (2004) Type 2 diabetes mellitus contributes to cognitive changes in old age: a longitudinal population-based study.J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 10, 599–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Heath RL, M Saliba, O Mahmassani, SC Major and BA Koury (2008) Locus of control moderates the relationship between headache pain and depression.J. Headache Pain 9, 301–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Hermann BP and AR Wyler (1989) Depression, locus of control, and the effects of epilepsy surgery.Epilepsia 30, 332–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Herrmann C (1997) International experiences with hospital anxiety and depression scales - a review validating data and clinical results.J. Psychosom. Res. 11, 213–218.Google Scholar
  104. Hetta J, M Almquist, H Ågren, G Hambert, GB Liljenberg and BE Roos (1985) Prevalence of sleep disturbances and related symptoms in a middle-aged Swedish population, In:Sleep ’84 (Koella WP, E Ruther and H Schultz, Eds.) (Gustaf Fischer Förlag:Stuttgard), pp 373–376.Google Scholar
  105. Hikosaka K and M Watanabe (2000) Delay activity of orbital and lateral prefrontal neurons of the monkey varying with rewards.Cereb. Cortex 10, 263–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hoffart A and EW Martinson (1991) Mental health locus of control in agoraphobia and depression: a longitudinal study of inpatients.Psychol. Rep. 68, 1011–1018.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Homayoun H and B Moghaddam (2007) NMDA receptor hypofunction produces opposite effects on prefrontal cortex interneurons and pyramidal neurons.J. Neurosci. 27, 11496–11500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hudzynski L and H Levenson (1985) Biofeedback behavioural treatment of headaches with locus of control pain analysis: a 20-month retrospective study.Headache 25, 380–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Iddon JL, PJ McKenna, BJ Sahakian and TW Robbins (1998) Impaired generation and use of strategy in schizophrenia: evidence from visuospatial and verbal tasks.Psychol. Med. 28, 1049–1062.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Igaz LM, P Bekinschtein, MRM Vianna, I Izquierdo and JH Medina (2004) Gene expression during memory formation.Neurotox. Res. 6, 189–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Ingold CH (1989) Locus of control and use of public information.Psychol. Rep. 64, 603–607.Google Scholar
  112. Iversen SD and M Mishkin (1970) Perserverative interference in monkeys following selective lesions of the inferior prefrontal convexity.Exp. Brain Res. 11, 376–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Izaute M, C Durozard, E Aldigier, F Teissedre, A Perreve and L Gerbaud (2008) Perceived social support and locus of control after traumatic brain injury (TBI).Brain Injury 22, 758–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Izquierdo I and JH Medina (1997) Memory formation: the sequence of biochemical events in the hippocampus and its connection to activity in other brain structures.Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 69, 285–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Izquierdo LA, MRM Vianna, DM Barros, T Mello e Souza, P Ardenghi, MK Sant’Anna, C Rodrigues, JH Medina and I Izquierdo (2000) Short- and long-term memory are differentially affected by metabolic inhibitors given into hippocampus and entorhinal cortex.Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 73, 141–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Izquierdo LA, DM Barros, JH Medina and I Izquierdo (2003) Exposure to novelty enhances retrieval of very remote memory in rats.Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 79, 51–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Izquierdo I, LRM Bevilaqua, JI Rossato, J Bonini and M Cammarota (2006) Different molecular cascades in different sites of the brain control consolidation.Trends Neurosci. 29, 496–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Izquierdo LA, DM Barros, JC da Costa, C Furini, C Zin, M Cammarota, LRM Bevilaqua and I Izquierdo (2007) A link between role of prefrontal areas in immediate memory and long-term memory consolidation.Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 88, 160–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Izquierdo I, M Cammarota, WC Da Silva, LRM Bevilaqua, JI Rossato, J Bonini and JH Medina (2008) The molecular cascades of long-term potentiation underlie memory consolidation of one-trial avoidance in hippocampal CA1, but not in basolateral amygdala or neocortex.Neurotox. Res. 14, 273–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Jennings BM (1990) Stress, locus of control, social support, and psychological symptoms among head nurses.Res. Nurs. Health 13, 393–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Joel D, I Weiner and J Feldon (1997) Electrolytic lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex in rats disrupt performance on an analog of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, but do not disrupt latent inhibition: implications for an animal model of schizophrenia.Behav. Brain Res. 85, 187–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Johansson B (2008) Memory and cognition in aging, In:Handbook of the Clinical Psychology of Aging (Woods R and L Clare, Eds.) (Wiley:London), pp 33–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Johansson B and Å Wahlin (1998) Cognition and geropsychological assessment, In:Comprehensive Clinical Psychology, Vol. 7: Clinical Geropsychology (Edelstein B, Ed.) (Elsevier: New York), pp 25–33.Google Scholar
  124. Johansson B and SH Zarit (1997) Early cognitive markers of the incidence of dementia and mortality: a longitudinal population-based study of the oldest old.Int. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 12, 53–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Johansson B, SH Zarit and S Berg (1992) Changes in cognitive functioning in the oldest old.J. Gerontol. Psychol. Sci. 47, 75–80.Google Scholar
  126. Johansson B, R Allen-Burge and SH Zarit (1997) Self-reports on memory functioning in a longitudinal study of the oldest-old: relation to current, prospective, and retrospective performance.J. Gerontol. Psychol. Sci. 52, 139–146.Google Scholar
  127. Johansson B, K Whitfield, NL Pedersenet al. (1999) Origins of individual differences in episodic memory in the oldest-old: a population-based study of identical and same-sex fraternal twins aged 80 and older.J. Gerontol. Psychol. Sci. 54, 173–179.Google Scholar
  128. Johansson B, SM Hofer, JC Allaire, MM Maldonado-Molina, AM Piccini, S Berget al. (2004) Change in cognitive capabilities in the oldest old: the effects of proximity to death in genetically-related individuals over a six-year period.Psychol. Aging 19, 145–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Joiner TE, JM Cook, M Hersen and KH Gordon (2007) Double depression in older adult psychiatric outpatients: hopelessness as a defining feature.J. Affect. Dis. 101(1–3), 235–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Judge TA and JE Bono (2001) Relationship of core self-evaluation traits — self-esteem, generalised self-efficacy, locus of control and emotional stability — with job satisfaction and job performance: a meta-analysis.J. Appl. Psychol. 86, 80–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Junqué C, O Bruna and M Mataro (1997) Information needs of the traumatic brain injury patient’s family members regarding the consequences of the injury and associated perception of physical, cognitive emotional and quality of life changes.Brain Injury 11, 251–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Kaplan SP (1990) Social support, emotional distress and vocational outcomes among persons with brain injuries.Rehab. Consult. Bull. 34, 17–23.Google Scholar
  133. Karp BJ, M Garvey, LK Jacobsen, JA Frazier, SD Hamburger, JS Bedwell and JL Rapaport (2001) Abnormal neurologic maturation in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia.Am. J. Psychiatry 158, 118–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Karp BJ, M Garvey, LK Jacobsen, JA Frazier, SD Hamburger, JS Bedwell and JL Rapaport (2001) Abnormal neurologic maturation in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia.Am. J. Psychiatry 158, 118–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Kasser T and RM Ryan (1993) A dark side of the American dream: correlates of financial success as a central life aspiration.J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 65, 410–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Kasser T and RM Ryan (1996) Further examining the American dream: differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals.Psychol. Bull. 22, 280–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Kempen GIJM, J Ormel, W Scaf-Klomp, E van Sonderen, AV Ranchor and R Sanderman (2003) The role of perceived control in the process of older people’s recovery of physical functions after fall-related injuries: a prospective study.J. Gerontol. Psychol. Sci. 58B, P35-P41.Google Scholar
  138. Kendall K, B Saxby, M Farrow and C Naisby (2001) Psychological factors associated with short-term recovery from total knee replacement.Br. J. Health Psychol. 6, 41–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Kinsella G (1998) Assessment of attention following traumatic brain injury: a review.Neuropsychol. Rehab. 8, 351–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Kiviruusu O, T Huurre and H Aro (2007) Psychosocial resources and depression among chronically ill young adults: are males more vulnerable?Soc. Sci. Med. 65(2), 173–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Kjellberg A and S Iwanowski (1989) Stress/Energi-formuläret: utveckling av en metod för skattning av sinnestämning i arbetet [Stress/Energy-questionnaire: development of a method for estimation of mood in worklife].Solna, Arbetsmiljöinstitutet. Google Scholar
  142. Kneckt CM, AH Syrjala and MLE Knuuttila (1999) Locus of control beliefs predicting oral and diabetes health behaviour and health status.Acta Odontol. Scand. 57, 127–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Kolb B (1984) Functions of the frontal cortex of the rat: a comparative review.Brain Res. Rev. 8, 65–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Krabbendam L, B Arts, J van Os and A Aleman (2005) Cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a quantitative review.Schizophr. Res. 80, 137–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Krimer LS, AV Zaitsev, G Czanner, S Kroner, G Gonzalez-Burgos, NV Povysheva, S Lyengar, G Barrionuevo and DA Lewis (2005) Cluster analysis-based physiological classification and morphological properties of inhibitory neurons in layers 2–3 of monkey dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.J. Neurophysiol. 94, 3009–3022.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Kringelbach ML (2005) The human orbitalfrontal cortex: linking reward to hedonic experience.Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 6, 691–702.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Kumar R, BVX Birrer, PM Macey, MA Woo, RK Gupta, FL Yan-GO and RM Harper (2008) Reduced mamillary body volume in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.Neurosci. Lett. 438, 330–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Kuwahara A, Y Nishino, T Ohkubo, I Tsuji, S Hisamichi and T Hosokawa (2004) Reliability and validity of the multidimensional health locus of control scale in Japan: relationship with demographic factors and health-related behaviour.TosokuJ. Exp. Med. 203, 37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Lefcourt HM (1991) Locus of control, In:Measures of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 1 (Robinson C, P Shaver and L Wrightman, Eds.) (Academic Press:San Diego), pp 552–569.Google Scholar
  150. Lefcourt HM (2000) Locus of control.Encycl. Psychol. 5, 68–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Levy BJ and MC Anderson (2008) Individual differences in the suppression of unwanted memories: the executive deficit hypothesis.Acta Psychologica 127, 623–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Lewis DA and B Moghaddam (2006) Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia: convergence of γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate alterations.Arch. Neurol. 63, 1372–1376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Lewis DA, T Hashimoto and DW Volk (2005) Cortical inhibitory neurons and schizophrenia.Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 6, 312–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Lewis DA, T Hashimoto and HM Morris (2008) Cell and receptor type-specific alterations in markers of GAB A neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.Neurotox. Res. 14, 237–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Li EC, C Feifer and M Strohm (2000) A pilot study: locus of control and spiritual beliefs in alcoholics anonymous and smart recovery members.Addict. Behav. 25, 633–640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Lisman JE, JT Coyle, RW Green, DC Javitt, FM Benes, S Heckers and AA Grace (2008) Circuit-based framework for understanding neurotransmitter and gene interactions in schizophrenia.Trends Neurosci. 31, 234–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Lobo A, P Saz, G Marcos, JL Dia and C de-la-Camara (1995) The prevalence of dementia and depression in the elderly community in a southern European population: The Zaragoza study.Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 52, 496–506.Google Scholar
  158. Lobo A, P Saz, G Marcoset al. (2005) The ZARADEMP project on the incidence, prevalence and risk factors of dementia (and depression) in the elderly community: II. Methods and first results.Eur. J. Psychiatry 19, 40–54.Google Scholar
  159. Lobo A, R Lopez-Anton, C de-la-Camara, MA Quintanilla, A Campayo, P Saz and ZARADEMP Workgroup (2008) Non-cognitive psychopathological symptoms associated with incident mild cognitive impairment and dementia, Alzheimer’s type.Neurotox. Res. 14, 263–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Loomes G and L McKenzie (1989) The use of QALYs in health care decision-making.Soc. Sci. Med. 28, 299–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Lopez OL, LH Kuller, JT Becker, C Dulberg, RA Sweet, AM Gach and ST Dekosky (2007) Incidence of dementia in mils cognitive impairment in the cardiovascular health study cognition study.Arch. Neurol. 64, 416–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Lopez-Ibor JJ (2002) The classification of stress-related disorders in ICD-10 and DSM-IV.Psychopathol. 35, 107–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Lyketsos CG, O Lopez, B Jones, AL Fitzpatrik, J Breitner and ST De Kosky (2002) Incidence of dementia in mild cognitive impairment, results from the cardiovascular health study.J. Am. Med. Assoc. 288, 1475–1483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Manes F, B J Sahakian, L Clark, R Rogers, N Antoun, M Aitkenet al. (2002) Decision-making processes damage to the prefrontal cortex.Brain 125, 624–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Manoach DS (2003) Prefrontal cortex dysfunction during working memory performance in schizophrenia: reconciling discrepant findings.Schizophr. Res. 60, 285–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Marklund K (dy2008) Impulsivitet som mångfasetterat konstrukt. En psykometrisk studie av UPPS-skalan och sambandet mellan impulsivitet och upplevelser av kontroll [Impulsiveness as a multifaceted construct. A psychometric study of the UPPS-scale and the association between impulsiveness and the experience of control].University of Stockholm, Department of Psychology Graduate Reports. Google Scholar
  167. Martin MJ, KA Holroyd and DB Penzien (1990) The headache-specific locus of control scale: adaptation to recurrent headaches.Headache 30, 729–734.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Mayoral M, A Zabala, J Merchan-Naranjo and C Arango (2008) Is type of cognitive impairment specific to psychosis diagnoses? In:Symptoms and not Diagnoses in Neuropsychiatric Disorders (Palomo T, RJ Beninger, RM Kostrzewa and T Archer, Eds.) (Fundacion Cerebro y Mente:Madrid) (in press).Google Scholar
  169. McGaugh JL (2004) The amygdala modulates the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences.Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 27, 1–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. McGaugh JL (2005) Emotional arousal and enhanced amygdala activity: new evidence for the old perserveration-consolidation hypothesis.Learn. Mem. 12, 77–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Mezulis AH, LY Abramson, JS Hyde and BL Hankin (2004) Is there a universal positivity bias in attributions? A meta-analytic review of individual, developmental, and cultural differences in the self-serving attributional bias.Psychol. Bull. 130, 711–747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Miller D, MFR Kets de Vries and J-M Toulouse (1982) Top executive locus of control and its relationship to strategymaking, structure, and environment.Acad. Manag. J. 25, 237–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Miller EK (2000) The prefrontal cortex and cognitive control.Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 1, 59–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Miller EK and JD Cohen (2001) An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function.Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 24, 167–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Miller RL and RD Mulligan (2002) Terror management: the effects of mortality salience and locus of control on risk-taking behaviours.Pers. Individ. Diff. 33, 1203–1214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Millet P (2005) Locus of control and its relation to working life: studies from the fields of vocational rehabilitation and small firms in Sweden. Doctoral Dissertation, Arbetslivsinstitutet [Work life Institute], Luleå Technical University, Luleå, Sweden.Google Scholar
  177. Millet P and K Sandberg (2003) Locus of control and its relationship with rehabilitation outcomes of unemployed sick leavers in Sweden.J. Vocation Rehab. 19, 59–66.Google Scholar
  178. Miotto EC, P Bullock, CE Polkey and RG Morris (1996) Spatial working memory and strategy formation in patients with frontal lobe excisions.Cortex 32, 613–630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Mirnics K, FA Middleton, A Marquez, DA Lewis and P Levitt (2000) Molecular characterization of schizophrenia viewed by microarray analysis of gene expression in prefrontal cortex.Neuron 28, 53–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Modrego PJ and J Ferrandez (2004) Depression in patients with mild cognitive impairment increases the risk of developing dementia of Alzheimer’s type: a prospective cohort study.Arch. Neurol. 61, 1290–1293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Moghaddam B, H Homayoun, M Stefani and M Jackson (2008) NMDA receptors and prefrontal cortex function, In:Symptoms and not Diagnoses in Neuropsychiatric Disorders (Palomo T, RJ Beninger, RM Kostrzewa and T Archer, Eds.) (Fundacion Cerebro y Mente:Madrid) (in press).Google Scholar
  182. Moore AD and M Stambrook (1992) Coping strategies and locus of control following traumatic brain injury: relationship to long-term outcome.Brain Injury 6, 89–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Morgan MJ, LM Romanski and JE LeDoux (1993) Extinction of emotional learning: contribtion of medial prefrontal cortex.Neurosci. Lett. 163, 109–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Morris HM, T Hashimoto and DA Lewis (2008) Alterations in somatostatin mRNA expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.Cereb. Cortex 18, 1575–1587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Moss-Morris R and KJ Petrie (1996) Functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome: do illness perceptions play a regulatory role?Br. J. Health Psychol. 1, 15–25.Google Scholar
  186. Nilsson SE, B Johansson, S Berg, D Karlsson and GE McClearn (2001) A comparison of diagnosis captured from medical records, self-reports, and drug registrations: a study in individuals 80 years and older.Aging Clin. Exp. Res. 14, 178–184.Google Scholar
  187. Ortiz F, LJ Fitten, JL Cummings, S Hwang and M Fonseca (2006) Neuropsychiatric and behavioural symptoms in a community sample of Hispanics with Alzheimer’s disease.Am. J. Alzheimers Dis. Other Dement. 21, 263–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Owen AM, JJ Downes, BJ Sahakian, CE Polkey and TW Robbins (1990) Planning and spatial working memory following frontal lobe lesions in man.Neuropsychologia 28, 1021–1034.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Ozolins AR and U Stenström (2003) Validation of health locus of control patterns in Swedish adolescents.Adolescence 38, 651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Palomo T, RJ Beninger, RM Kostrzewa and T Archer (2004) Gene-environment interplay in affect and dementia: emotional modulation of cognitive expression in personal outcome.Neurotox. Res. 6, 159–173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Palomo T, RM Kostrzewa, RJ Beninger and T Archer (2007) Treatment consideration and manifest complexity in comorbid neuropsychiatric disorders.Neurotox. Res. 12, 43–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Palomo T, RJ Beninger, RM Kostrzewa and T Archer (2008) Focusing on symptoms rather than diagnoses in brain dysfunction: conscious and nonconscious expression in impulsiveness and decision-making.Neurotox. Res. 14, 1–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Parkes KR (1984) Locus of control, cognitive appraisal, and coping in stressful episodes.J. Person. Soc. Psychol. 46, 655–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Partridge C and M Johnston (1989) Perceived control of recovery from physical disability: measurement and prediction.Br. J. Clin. Psychol. 28, 53–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Passetti F, Y Chaudasama and TW Robbins (2002) The frontal cortex of the rat and visual attentional performance: dissociable functions of distinct medial prefrontal subregions.Cereb. Cortex 12, 1254–1268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Pervin LA, D Cervone and O John (2005)Personality: Theory and Research (Wiley:New York).Google Scholar
  197. Petrides M (2000) Dissociable roles of mid-dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior inferotemporal cortex in visual working memory.J. Neurosci. 20, 7496–7503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Pliskin J, DS Shepard and MC Weinstein (1980) Utility functions for life years and health status.Oper. Res. 28, 206–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Postle BR, JS Berger and M D’Esposito (1999) Functional neuroanatomical double dissociation of mnemonic and executive control processes contributing to working memory performance.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96, 12959–12964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Rajah MN and M D’Esposito (2005) Region-specific changes in prefrontal function with age: a review of PET and fMRI studies on working and episodic memory.Brain 128, 1964–1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Rapkin BD and K Fischer (1992a) Personal goals of older adults: issues in assessment and prediction.Psychol. Aging 7, 127–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Rapkin BD and K Fischer (1992b) Framing the construct of life satisfaction in terms of older adults’ personal goals.Psychol. Aging 7, 138–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Ragozzino ME, S Detrick and RP Kesner (1999a) Involvement of the prelimbic-infralimbic areas of rodent prefrontal cortex in behavioral flexibility for place and response learning.J. Neurosci. 19, 4585–4594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Ragozzino ME, C Wilcox, M Raso and RP Kesner (1999b) Involvement of the rodent prefrontal cortex subregions in strategy switching.Behav. Neurosci. 113, 32–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Regis D, ID Macgregor and JW Balding (1994) Differential prediction of dental health behaviour by self-esteem and health locus of control in young adolescents.J. Clin. Peridontol. 21, 7–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Ridderinkof KR, M Ullsperger, EA Crone and S Nieuwenhuis (2004) The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in cognitive control.Science 306, 443–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Robbins TW (1996) Dissociating executive functions of the prefrontal cortex.Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. Lond. Biol. Sci. 351, 1463–1470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Robbins TW (2005) Chemistry of the mind: neurochemical modulation of prefrontal cortex function.J. Comp. Neurol. 493, 140–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Roberts AC and JD Wallis (2000) Inhibitory control and affective processing in the prefrontal cortex: neuropsychological studies in the common marmoset.Cereb. Cortex 10, 252–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Rogers RD, AJ Blackshaw, HC Middleton, K Matthews, K Hawtin, C Crowley, A Hopwood, C Wallace, JF Deakin, BJ Sahakian and TW Robbins (1999) Tryptophan depletion impairs stimulus-reward learning while methylphenidate disrupts attentional control in healthy young adults: implications for the monoaminergic basis of impulsive behavior.Psychopharmacology 146, 482–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Rosenberg M (1965)Society and the Adolescent Self-Image (Princeton University Press:Princeton, NJ).Google Scholar
  212. Rossato JI, LRM Bevilaqua, RH Lima, JH Medina, I Izquierdo and M Cammarota (2006) On the participation of hippocampal P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in extinction and reacquisition of inhibitory avoidance memory.Neuroscience 143, 15–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Rossato JI, LRM Bevilaqua, JC Myskiw, JH Medina, I Izquierdo and M Cammarota (2007) On the role of hippocampal protein synthesis in the consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory.Learn. Mem. 14, 36–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Rotter JB (1954)Social Learning and Clinical Psychology (Prentice Hall:Englewood Cliffs, NJ).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Rotter JB (1966) Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of locus of reinforcement.Psychol. Monogr. 80 (Whole no. 609).Google Scholar
  216. Rowe JB, I Toni, O Josephs, RS Frackowiak and RE Passingham (2000) The prefrontal cortex: response selection or maintainence within working memory.Science 288, 1656–1660.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Rubinsztein JS, RD Rogers, WJ Reidel, MA Mehta, TW Robbins and BJ Sahakian (2001) Acute dietary tryptophan depletion impairs maintenance of “affective set” and delaed visual recognition in healthy volunteers.Psychopharmacology 154, 319–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Rushworth MF, KA Hadland, D Gaffan and RE Passingham (2003) The effect of cingulate cortex lesions on task switching and working memory.J. Cogn. Neurosci. 15, 338–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Rushworth MF, ME Walton, S WKennerley and DM Bannerman (2004) Action sets and decisions in the medial frontal cortex.Trends Cogn. Sci. 8, 410–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Rushworth MF, TE Behrens, PH Rudebeck and ME Walton (2007) Contrasting roles for cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex in decisions and social behaviour.Trends Cogn. Sci. 11, 168–176.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Ryckman RM, JA Gold and WC Rodda (1971) Confidence rating shifts and performance as a function of locus of control, self-esteem and initial task experience.J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 18, 305–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Schaie KW (2005) What can we learn from longitudinal studies of adult development?Res. Hum. Dev. 2, 133–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Scharff L, DC Turk and DA Marcus (1995) The relationship of locus of control and psychosocial-behavioral response in chronic headache.Headache 35, 527–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Schwartz A, G Hazen, A Leifer and P Heckerling (2008) Life goals and health decisions: what will people live (or die) for?Med. Dec. Making 28, 209–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Seamans JK, SB Floresco and AG Phillips (1995) Functional differences between the prelimbic and anterior cingulate regions of the rat prefrontal cortex.Behav. Neurosci. 109, 1063–1073.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Seamans JK, CC Lapish and D Durstewitz (2008) Comparing the prefrontal cortex of rats and primates: insights from electrophysiology.Neurotox. Res. 14, 249–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Shafi M, Y Zhou, J Quintana, C Chow, J Fuster and M Bodner (2007) Variability in neuronal activity in primate cortex during working memory tasks.Neuroscience 146, 1082–1108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Shell DF and J Husman (2008) Control, motivation, affect, and strtegic self-regulation in the college classroom: a multidimensional phenomenon.J. Educ. Psychol. 2, 443–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Shin IS, M Carter, D Masterman, L Fairbanks and JL Cummings (2005) Neuropsychiatric symptoms and quality of life in Alzheimer’s disease.Am. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 13, 469–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. Silver H and P Feldman (2005) Evidence for sustained attention and working memory in schizophrenia sharing a common mechanism.J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 17, 391–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Silver H, P Feldman, W Bilker and RC Gur (2003) Working memory deficit as core neuropsychological dysfunction in schizophrenia.Am. J. Psychiatry 160, 1809–1816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Sliwinski MJ, SM Hofer, C Hall, H Buschke and RB Lipton (2003) Modelling memory decline in older adults: the importance of preclinical dementia, attrition and chronological age.Psychol. Aging 18, 658–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Steen G, S Berg and B Steen (1998) Cognitive function in 70 year-old men and women: a 16-year cohort difference population study.Aging 10, 120–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Stefani M and B Moghaddam (2005) Systemic and prefrontal cortical NMDA receptor blockade differentially affect discrimination learning and set-shift ability in rats.Behav. Neurosci. 119, 420–428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Straub RE, BK Lipska, MF Egan, TE Goldberg, JH Callicott, MB Mayhew, RK Vakkalanka, BS Kolachana, JE Kleinman and DR Weinberger (2007) Allelic variation in GAD1 (GAD67) is associated with schizophrenia and influences cortical function and gene expression.Mol. Psychiatry 12, 854–869.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Strickland BR (1973) Delay of gratification and internal locus of control in children.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 40, 338–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Strong CM, C Nowakowska, CM Santosa, PW Wang, HC Kraemer and TA Ketter (2007) Temperament-creativity relationships in mood disorder patients, healthy controls and highly creative individuals.J. Affect. Disord. 100, 41–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Swinney JE (2002) African Americans with cancer: the relationships among self-esteem, locus of control, and health perception.Res. Nurs. Health 25, 371–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Taylor SF (1996) Cerebral blood flow activation and functional lesions in schizophrenia.Schizophr. Res. 19, 129–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Teng E, PH Lu and JL Cummings (2007) Neuropsychiatric symptoms are associated with progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease.Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord. 24, 253–2590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Thorvaldsson V, SM Hofer and V Johansson (2006) Aging and late life terminal decline: a comparison of alternative modeling approaches.Eur. Psychol. 11, 196–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Thorvaldsson V, SM Hofer, S Berg, I Skoog, S Sacuiu and B Johansson (2008a) Onset of terminal decline in cognitive abilities in individuals without dementia.Neurology 71, 882–887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Thorvaldsson V, SM Hofer, LB Hassing and B Johansson (2008b) Cognitive change as conditional on age heterogeneity in onset of mortality-related processes and repeated testing effects, In:HandbookofCognitive Aging. Interdisciplinary Perspectives (Hofer SM and DF Alwin, Eds.) (Sage Publ:Los Angeles, CA), pp 284–297.Google Scholar
  244. Tomberg T, A Toomela, A Pulver and A Tikk (2005) Coping strategies, social support, life orientation and health-related quality of life following traumatic brain injury.Brain Injury 19, 1181–1190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Tsevat J (2000) What do utilities measure?Med. Care 38 (9 Suppl.) II, 160–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Tsevat J, NV Dawson, AW Wuet al. (1998) Health values of hospitalized patients 80 years or older.JAMA 279, 371–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Twenge JM, L Zhang and C Im (2004) It’s beyond my control: a cross-temporal meta-analysis of increasing externality in locus of control, 1960–2000.Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 8, 308–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Unterrainier JM and AM Owen (2006) Planning and problemsolving: from neuropsychology to functional neuroimaging.J.Physiol. 99, 308–317.Google Scholar
  249. Valdes IH, JL Steinberg, PA Narayana, LA Kramer, DM Dougherty, AC Swann, ES Barratt and FG Moeller (2006) Impulsivity and BOLD fMRI activation in MDMA-users and healthy control subjects.Psychiatr. Res. Neuroimaging 147, 239–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. van Asselen M, RP Kessels, SF Neggers, LJ Kappelle, CJ Frijns and A Postma (2006) Brain areas involved in spatial working memory.Neuropsychologia 44, 1185–1194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. van der Linden M, M van der Akker and F Buntinx (2001) The relation between health locus of control and multimorbidity: a case-control study.Pers. Individ. Diff. 30, 1189–1197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. van der Plasse G, SBM La Fors, DTJ Meerkerk, RNJ Joosten, HBM Uylings and MGP Feenstra (2007) Medial prefrontal serotonin in the rat is involved in goal-directed behaviour when affects guides decision making.Psychopharmacology 195, 435–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. van Snellenberg JX, IJ Torres and AE Thornton (2006) Functional neuroimaging of working memory in schizophrenia: task performance as a moderating variable.Neuropsychology 20, 497–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Verdejo-Garcia A, A Bechara, EC Recknor and M Perez-Garcia (2007) Negative emotion-driven impulsivity predicts substance dependence problems.Drug Alc. Depend. 91, 213–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Volk DW, MC Austin, JN Pierri, AR Sampson and DA Lewis (2000) Decreased glutamic acid decarboxylase67 messenger RNA expression in a subset of prefrontal cortical γ-aminobutyric acid neurons in subjects with schizophrenia.Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 57, 237–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Volk DW, MC Austin, JN Pierri, AR Sampson and DA Lewis (2001) GABA transporter-1 mRNA in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia: decreased expression in a subset of neurons.Am. J. Psychiatry 158, 256–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Volk DW, JN Pierri, J-M Fritschy, S Auh, AR Sampson and DA Lewis (2002) Reciprocal alterations in pre- and postsynaptic inhibitory markers at chandelier cell inputs to pyramidal neurons in schizophrenia.Cereb. Cortex 12 1063–1070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Wallhagen H and M Brod (1997) Perceived control and well-being in Parkinson’s disease.West. J. Nurs. Res. 19, 11–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Wallston KA and BS Wallston (1981)Health Locus of Control Scales (Academic Press:New York).Google Scholar
  260. Wallston KA, BS Wallston and R De Vellis(1978) Development of the multidimensional health locus of control (MHLC) scales.Health Educ. Monogr. 6, 160–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. Watanabe M (1996) Reward expectancy in primate prefrontal neurons.Nature 382, 629–632.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Weinberger DR, KF Berman and RF Zec (1986) Physiologic dysfunction of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia: I. Regional cerebral blood flow evidence.Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 43, 114–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. Weinberger DR, MF Egan, A Bertolino, JH Callicott, VS Mattay, BK Lipska, KF Berman and TE Goldberg (2001) Prefrontal neurons and the genetics of schizophrenia.Biol. Psychiatry 50, 825–844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Wilensky AE, GE Schafe, MP Kristensen and JE LeDoux (2006) Rethinking the fear circuit: the central nucleus of the amygdala is required for the acquisition, consolidation and expression of Pavlovian fear conditioning.J. Neurosci. 26, 12387–12396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Wilson RS, LA Beckett, LJ Bienias, DA Evans and DA Bennett (2003) Terminal decline in cognitive function.Neurology 60, 1782–1787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Winstanley CA, JW Dalley, DE Theobald and TW Robbins (2004) Fractionating impulsivity: contrasting effects of central 5-HT depletion on different measures of impulsive behavior.Neuropharmacology 29, 1331–1343.Google Scholar
  267. Winstanley CA, DE Theobald, JW Dalley, RN Cardinal and TW Robbins (2006) Double dissociation between serotonergic and dopaminergic modulation of medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex during a test of impulsive choice.Cereb. Cortex 16, 106–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Witt AL (1990) Delay of gratification and locus of control as predictors of organizational satisfaction and commitment: sex differences.J. Gen. Psychol. 117, 437–446.Google Scholar
  269. Woo T-U, JL Miller and DA Lewis (1997) Schizophrenia and the parvalbumin-containing class of cortical local circuit neurons.Am. J. Psychiatry 154, 1013–1015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Wu AMS, CSK Tang and TCY Kwok (2004) Self-efficacy, health locus of control, and psychological distress in elderly Chinese women with chronic illnesses.Aging Ment. Health 8, 21–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Zaitsev AV, G Gonzalez-Burgos, NV Povysheva, S Kroner, DA Lewis and LS Krimer (2005) Localization of calciumbinding proteins in physiologically and morphologically characterized interneurons of monkey dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.Cereb. Cortex 15, 1178–1186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Zhang Y, A Bertolina, L Fazio, G Blasi, A Rampino, R Romano, MT Lee, T Xiao, A Papp, D Wang and W Sadee (2007) Polymorphisms in human dopamine D2 receptor gene affect gene expression, splicing, and neuronal activity during working memory.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 20552–20557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Zigmond A and R Snaith (1983) The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 67, 361–370.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Zytkoskee A, BR Strickland and J Watson (1971) Delay of gratification and internal versus external control among adolescents of low socio-economic status.Dev. Psychol. 4, 93–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Trevor Archer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Richard M. Kostrzewa
    • 2
  • Richard J. Beninger
    • 3
  • Tomas Palomo
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology, Quillen College of MedicineEast Tennessee State UniversityJohnson CityUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Psychology and PsychiatryQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada
  4. 4.Servicio PsiquiatricoHospital Universitario 12 de OctubreMadrid

Personalised recommendations