Biological Trace Element Research

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 157–164 | Cite as

Biochemical response to cadmium

Dose-time effect
  • S. Khandelwal
  • N. Agnihotri
  • S. K. Tandon


Dose- and time-related effects of Cd (II) (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg, Cd as CdCl2·H2O, subcutaneously, daily for 48 h, 1, 3, or 6 wk) were investigated in rats. A dose-related increase in the activity of plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (GOT), and alanine aminotransferase (GPT) was evident only at 6 wk, whereas an early rise in ALP and LDH was seen at 3 wk in 1.0 mg Cd group only. The hepatic and renal metallothionein (MT) induction displayed a dose- as well as time-related increase with Cd accumulation. A significant increase in hepatic Zn and renal Cu, no change in hepatic Cu, and a slight increase in renal Zn was observed. Urinary ALP and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) showed an initial increase at 48 h, thereafter returned to near normal. A second phase of enzymuria (ALP, LAP, GOT, GPT, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase), proteinuria, and aminoaciduria occurred at 6 wk in a dose-related manner. The urinary excretion of specific renal enzymes appeared closely related to the MT induction and organ Cd levels.

Index Entries

Cadmium toxicity metallothionein enzymes metals rat 


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Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Khandelwal
    • 1
  • N. Agnihotri
    • 1
  • S. K. Tandon
    • 1
  1. 1.Industrial Toxicology Research CentreMahatma-Gandhi MargLucknowIndia

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