Journal of Plant Biology

, Volume 42, Issue 3, pp 213–221 | Cite as

Ultrastructure of leaves in C4 Cyperus iria and C3 Carex siderosticta

  • In Sun KimEmail author
  • Jae-Hong Pak
  • Bong-Bo Seo
  • Seung-Dal Song


The ultrastructural aspects ofCyperus iria leaves showing the C4 syndrome and the typical C3 species,Carex siderosticta, in the Cyperaceae family were examined.C. iria exhibited the chlorocyperoid type, showing an unusual Kranz structure with vascular bundles completely surrounded by two bundle sheaths. The cellular components of the inner Kranz bundle sheath cells were similar to those found in the NADP-ME C4 subtype, having centrifugally arranged chloroplasts with greatly reduced grana and numerous starch grains. Their chloroplasts contained convoluted thyla-koids and a weakly-developed peripheral reticulum, although it was extensive mostly in mesophyll cell chloroplasts. The outer mestome bundle sheath layer was sclerenchymatous and generally devoid of organelles, but had unevenly thickened walls. Suberized lamellae were present on its cell walls, and they became polylamellate when traversed by plasmodesmata. Mesophyll cell chloroplasts showed well-stacked grana with small starch grains. InC. siderosticta, vascular bundles were surrounded by the inner mestome sheath and the outer parenchymatous bundle sheath with intercellular spaces. The mestome sheath cells degraded in their early development and remained in a collapsed state, although the suberized lamellae retained polylamellate features. Plastids with a crystalline structure, sometimes membrane-bounded, were found in the epidermal cells. The close interveinal distance was 35–50 μm inC. iria, whereas it was 157–218 μm inC. siderosticta. These ultrastructural characteristics were discussed in relation to their photosynthetic functions.


C3Carex siderosticta C4Cyperus iria Cyperaceae Kranz anatomy Leaf ultrastructure mestome sheath 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Brown WV (1975) Variations in anatomy, associations, and origins of Kranz tissue. Amer j Bot 62: 395–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown WV (1977) The Kranz syndrome and its subtypes in grass systematics. Mem Torr Bot Club 23: 1–97Google Scholar
  3. Bruhl J, Perry S (1995) Photosynthetic pathway-related ultrastructure of C3, C4 and C3-Iike and C3-C4 interme-diate sedges (Cyperaceae), with special reference toEleocharis. Aust J Plant Physiol 22: 521–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carolin RC, Jacobs SWL, Vesk M (1977) The ultrastructure of cells of the mesophyll and parenchymatous bundle sheath of the Gramineae. Bot J Linn Soc 66: 259–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen TM, Dittrich P, Campbell WH, Black CC (1974) Metabolisms of epidermal tissues, mesophyll cells, and bundle sheath strands resolved from mature nutsedge leaves. Arch Bioch Bioph 163: 246–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dengler NG, Nelson T (1999) Leaf structure and development in C4 plants,In RF Sage, RK Monson, eds, C4 Plant Biology, Academic Press, New York, pp 133–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ehleringer JR, Monson RK (1993) Evolutionary and ecological aspects of photosynthetic pathway variation. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 24:411–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Furbank RT, Taylor WC (1995) Regulation of photosynthesis in C3 and C4 plants: a molecular approach. Plant Cell 7: 797–807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hatch MD (1987) C4 photosynthesis: a unique blend of modified biochemistry, anatomy and ultrastructure. Bioch et Biophys Acta 895: 81–106Google Scholar
  10. Hattersley PW, Browning AJ (1981) Occurrence of the suberized lamella in leaves of grasses of different photosynthetic types. I. In parenchymatous bundle sheaths and PCR (“Kranz”) sheaths. Protoplasma 109: 371–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jones MB, Hannon GE, Coffey MD (1981) C4 photosynthesis inCyperus longus L., a species occurring in temperate climates. Plant Cell and Environment 4: 161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kim IS, Pak JH, Seo BB, Song SD (1997) Ultrastructural aspects of Kranz anatomy inDigitaria sanguinalis andSetaria viridis (Poaceae). J Plant Biol 40: 102–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kim IS, Pak JH, Seo BB, Song SD (1998) Ultrastructural aspects of leaves inFestuca ovina andPoa sphondylodes (C3 Poaceae). J Plant Biol 41: 170–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Laetsch WM (1971) Chloroplast structural relationships in leaves of C4 plants,In MD Hatch, CB Osmond, RO Slayter, eds, Photosynthesis and Photorespiration, Wiley Interscience, New York, pp 323–349Google Scholar
  15. Laetsch WM (1974) The C4 syndrome: a structural analysis. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 25: 27–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li M, Jones MB (1994) Kranzkette, a unique C4 anatomy occurring inCyperus japonicus leaves. Photosynthetica 30: 117–131Google Scholar
  17. Nelson T, Langdale JA (1992) Developmental genetics of C4 photosynthesis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 43: 25–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Oh YC (1994) Manual of the Korean Cyperaceae. Vol II. Sungshin Womans University Press, Seoul, pp 23–59Google Scholar
  19. Rao AP, Rajendrudu G (1989) Net photosynthetic rate in relation to leaf anatomical charateristics of C3, C3-C4 and C4 dicotyledons. Proc Indian Acad Sci 99: 529–537Google Scholar
  20. Sage RF, Monson RK (1999) C4 Plant Biology. Academic Press, New York, pp 3–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Soros CL, Dengler NG (1998) Quantitative leaf anatomy of C3 and C4 Cyperaceae and comparisons with the Poaceae. Int J Plant Sci 159: 480–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Standley LA (1990) Anatomical aspects of the taxonomy of sedges (Carex, Cyperaceae). Can J Bot 24: 1449–1456Google Scholar
  23. Takeda T, Ueno O, Agata W (1980) The occurrence of C4 species in the genusRhynchospora and its significance in Kranz anatomy of the Cyperaceae. Bot Mag 93: 55–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Takeda T, Ueno O, Samejima M, Ohtani T (1985) An investigation for the occurrence of C4 photosynthesis in the Cyperaceae from Australia. Bot Mag 98: 393–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ueno O (1996) Structural characterization of photosynthetic cells in an amphibious sedge,Eleocharis vivipara, in relation to C3 and C4 metabolism. Planta 199: 382–393Google Scholar
  26. Ueno O, Samejima M (1989) Structural features of NAD-malic enzyme type C4 Eleocharis: an additional report of C4 acid decarboxylation types of the Cyperaceae. Bot Mag 102: 393–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ueno O, Samejima M, Koyama T (1989) Distribution and evolution of C4 syndrome inEleocharis, a sedge group inhabiting wet and aquatic environments, based on culm anatomy and carbon isotope ratios. Ann Bot 64: 425–438Google Scholar
  28. Ueno O, Takeda T (1992) Photosynthetic pathways, ecological characteristics, and the geographical distribution of the Cyperaceae in Japan. Oecologia 89: 195–203Google Scholar
  29. Ueno O, Takeda T, Murata T (1986) C4 acid decarboxyl-ating enzyme activities of C4 species possessing different Kranz anatomical types in the Cyperaceae. Photosynthetica 20: 111–116Google Scholar
  30. Ueno O, Takeda T, Maeda E (1988) Leaf ultrastructure of C4 species possessing different Kranz anatomical types in the Cyperaceae. Bot Mag 101: 141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Waterway M (1990) Systematic implications of achene micromorphology inCarex sectionHymenochlaenae (Cyperaceae). Can J Bot 68: 630–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Botanical Society of Korea 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • In Sun Kim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jae-Hong Pak
    • 2
  • Bong-Bo Seo
    • 2
  • Seung-Dal Song
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiologyKeimyung UniversityTaeguKorea
  2. 2.Department of BiologyKyungpook National UniversityTaeguKorea

Personalised recommendations