Mechanical strength test method for solder ball joint in BGA package

  • Jong-Woong Kim
  • Dae-Gon Kim
  • Seung-Boo Jung


Ball shear tests were investigated in terms of effects of test parameters, i.e. shear height and shear speed, with an experimental and non-linear finite element analysis in order to evaluate the solder joint integrity of area array packages. The substrate was a common SMD type with solder bond pad openings of 460 μm in diameter. Microstructural investigations were carried out using SEM, and the IMCs were identified with EDS. It was observed that increasing shear height, at fixed shear speed, results in decreasing shear force, while the shear force increased with increasing shear speed at fixed shear height. Excessive shear height could cause some detrimental effects on the test results such as unexpected high standard deviation values or shear tip sliding from the solder ball surface. Low shear height conditions are favorable for screening the type of brittle interfacial fractures or degraded layers in the interfaces.


shear height shear speed finite element analysis solder shear test 


  1. 1.
    S. Ho, G. Wang, M. Ding, J. Zhao, and X. Dai,Microelectronics Reliability 44, 719 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. Towashiraporn, K. Gall, G. Subbaravan, B. McIlvanie, B. C. Hunter, D. Love, and B. Sullivan,Int. J. Fatigue 26, 497 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. C. Shiau, C. E. Ho, and C. R. Kao,Soldering and Surface Mount Technology 14, 25 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. K. Kang, W. K. Choi, M. J. Yim, and D. Y. Shih,J. Electron. Mater. 31, 1292 (2002).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. W. Yoon, S. W. Kim, and S. B. Jung,Mater. Trans. 45, 727 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. W. Kim and S. B. Jung,Mater. Sci. Eng. A 371, 267 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. W. Kim, D. G. Kim, J. M. Koo, and S. B. Jung,Proceedings of 5 th International Conference on Electronics Materials and Packaging (ed, Sung Yi), p. 282, IEEE, Singapore (2003).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. W. Ricky Lee and X. Huang,Soldering and Surface Mount Technology 14, 45 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    JESD22-B117,JEDEC Solid State Technology Association (2002).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. W. Yoon, C. B. Lee, D. U. Kim, and S. B. Jung,Met. Mater.-Int 32, 1195 (2003).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. T. Lee, M. H. Chen, H. M. Jao, and T. L. Liao,Mater. Sci. Eng. A 358, 134 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    X. Zhao, C. Wang, G. Zheng, and S. Yang,IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing 23, 87 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. N. Chiang and C. A. Yuan,IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging 24 158 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Amagai,Microelectronics Reliability 39, 1365 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. K. Lin, A. D. Silva, D. Frear, Y. Guo, S. Hayes, J. W. Jang, L. Li, D. Mitchell, B. Yeung, and C. Zhang,IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing 25, 300 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. H. Lau and Y. W. Ricky Lee,IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing 25, 51 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. H. Lau and Y. H. Pao,Solder Joint Reliability of BGA, CSP, Flip Chip, and Fine Pitch SMT Assemblies, p. 91, McGraw-Hill, Inc., NY (1997).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. C. Chang and K. N. Chiang,IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies 27, 373 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. A. Matin, W. P. Vellinga, and M. G. D. Geers,Acta mater,52, 3475, (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    J. E. Ho, R. Zheng, G. L. Luo, A. H. Lin, and C. R. Kao,J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1175 (2000).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    J. W. Choi, H. S. Cha, and T. S. Oh,Met. Mater.-Int. 9, 273 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. E. DieterMechanical Metallurgy, p. 139 McGraw-Hill, Inc., NY (1988).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. Nadai,Theory of Flow and Fracture of Solids, p. 535, McGraw-Hill, Inc., NY (1950).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Advanced Materials EngineeringSungkyunkwan UniversitySuwonKorea
  2. 2.Micro Electronic Packaging ConsortiumSungkyunkwan UniversitySuwonKorea

Personalised recommendations