Asia Pacific Education Review

, Volume 6, Issue 2, pp 143–152 | Cite as

Hope and the meaning of life as influences on Korean adolescents’ resilience: Implications for counselors

  • Tack-Ho Kim
  • Sang Min Lee
  • Kumlan Yu
  • Seungkook Lee
  • Ana Puig
Article and Report


This study aimed to identify the significant protective factors that are likely to facilitate the development of Korean adolescents’ resilience. The participants were 2,677 students in Korea, among whom 442 were receving support from social welfare agencies. The results of hierarchical regression analysis show that the school adaptation variance was largely accounted for by protective factors rather than by risk factors. In addition, the results of logistic regression analysis indicate that the hope, teacher support, and meaning of life variables significantly distinguished the resilient group from the maladaptive group. Implications for counselors are discussed.

Key Words

Resilience Hope meaning of Life 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1974).Developmental Psychopathology. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.Google Scholar
  2. Bilchik, S. (1999).OJJDP Research : Making a difference for Juveniles OJJDP Report. US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  3. Bischof, G. P., Stith, S. M., & Wilson, S. M. (1992). A comparison of family systems of adolescent sexual offenders and nonsexual offending delinquents.Family Relations, 41, 318–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cho, J. (1984).Kogyoseng-ui hockgyo senghwal jeokung munjae-e kwanhan yeongu. [A study on school adjustment problem of high school students]. Unpublished master’s thesis, Chonnam National University, Seoul, Korea.Google Scholar
  5. Crumbaugh, J. C., & Maholick, L. T. (1981).Manual of instructions for The Purpose in Life Test. Munster, Indiana.Google Scholar
  6. Curry, L. A., Snyder, C. R., Cook, D. L., Ruby, B.C., & Rehm, M. (1997). The role of hope in student-athelete academic and sport achievemnet.Journal of Personality and Social Pychology, 73, 1257–1267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dryfoos, J. G.(1990).Adolescents at risk-prevalence and prevention. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Frank, J. D., & Frank, J. B. (1991).Persuasion and healing (3rd. Ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Frankl, V. E. (1976).Man’s search for meaning. New York: Pocket. (Original work published, 1959).Google Scholar
  10. Garlington, N. K. (1984).An examination of the relationship among a students self-concept, level of anxiety and attitude toward school. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of New Orleans.Google Scholar
  11. Garmezy, N. (1991). Vulnerability research and issue of primary prevention.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 41, 101–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Garmezy, N. (1993a). Children in poverty: Resilience despite risk.Psychiatry, 56, 127–136.Google Scholar
  13. Garmezy, N. Z. (1993b). Vulnerability and resilience. In D. C. Funder, R. D. Parke, C. Tomlinson-Keasey, & K. Widaman (Eds.),Studying lives through time (pp. 377–397). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Glantz, M. D., & Johnson, J. L. (Eds.). (1999).Resilience and development: Positive life adaptation. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  15. Huck, S. W. (2004).Reading statistics and research (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc.Google Scholar
  16. Hudson, W. W., Acklin, J. D., & Bartosh, J. C. (1980). Assessing discord in family relationships.Social Work Research and Abstracts, 21-29.Google Scholar
  17. Huston, A. (Ed.) (1991).Children in poverty: Child development and public policy. Cambridge, MA.: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Kim, A. (1997).Chagi-hyoneungkam-mit hawichuckdo-deului hockyo-beol, seong-beol pyeongkyun-mit pyojonpeoncha. [Mean and Standard Deviation of each school and sex for Self-efficacy and sub-variables]. Unpublished article, Seoul, Korea.Google Scholar
  19. Kim, Y. (1993).Hockeobseongjeok-e daehan kiyeobeonin-ui younghyangleok bunseok. [An analysis about an influence of contribution variables on academic achievement]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Dongkuk University, Seoul, Korea.Google Scholar
  20. Lee, S. M., & Smith-Adcock, S. (2005). A model of girls’ delinquency: School bonding and reputation.Professional School Counseling, 9, 78–87.Google Scholar
  21. Liaw, F. R., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1993). Patterns of lowbirthweight children’s cognitive development and their determinants.Developmental Psychology, 29, 1024–1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Loeber, R., & Farrington, D. P. (1998).Serious and violent juvenile offenders. Thousands Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  23. Lösel, F., Bliesener, T., & Köferl, P. (1989). On the concept of invulnerability: Evaluation and first result of the Bielefeld project. In M. Brambring., F. L“sel, & H. Skowronek (Eds.),Children at risk: Assessment, longitudinal research, and intervention (pp. 186–219). New York: Walter de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  24. Luthar, S. S. (1991). Vulnerability and resilience: A study of high-risk adolescents.Child Development, 62, 600–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Magaletta, P. R., & Oliver, J. M. (1999). The hope construct, will and ways: Their relative relations with self-efficacy, optimism, and general well-being.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55, 539–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Masten, A. S., & Reed, M. G. J. (2002). Resilience in development. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.),Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 74–88). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Masten, A. S., & Wright, M. O. D. (1998). Cumulative risk and protection models of child maltreatment. In B. B. R. Rossman & M. S. Rosenberg (Eds.),Multiple victimization of children: Conceptual, developmental, research and treatment issues (pp. 7–30). Binghamton, New York: Haworth.Google Scholar
  28. Masten, A. S., Best, K. M., & Garmezy, N. (1990). Resilience and development: Contributions from the children who overcome adversity.Development and Psychopathology, 2, 425–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Masten, A. S., Hubbard, J. J., Gest, S. D., Tellegen, A., Garmezy, N., & Ramirez, M. (1999). Competence in the context of adversity: Pathways to resilience and maladaptation from childhood to late adolescence.Development and Psychopathology, 11, 143–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McCormick, M. C., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1989).Handbook of Medical Sociology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  31. Moon, Y. (2001).Cheongsonyun-ui hockgyo saenghwal jeockyeung haengdong-e kwanleon-dwoineun sahwoi simli-jeok byeonindul-ui kujojeok bunseok. [A structural analysis of social and psychological variables related to school adjustment behaviors of adolescent]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Chungnam National University, Seoul, Korea.Google Scholar
  32. Park, H. S. (1998). Bingon chungsonyun-ui wihum mit boho yoso-ga hockgyo juckung yuyeonsung-e michinun yunghyang [The Impact of risk factors and protective factors on the school resilience of Korean adolescents in poverty].Journal of Social Work, 11, 23–52Google Scholar
  33. Parker, S., Greer, S., & Zuckerman, B. (1988). Double jeopardy: The impact of poverty on early child development.The Pediatric Clinics of North America, 35, 1227–1240.Google Scholar
  34. Rosenberg, M. (1979).Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  35. Rutter, M. (1979). Protective factors in children’s responses to stress and disadvantage. In M. W. Kent, & J. E. Rolf (Eds.),Primary prevention of psychopahtology: Social competence in children (pp. 48–74). Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.Google Scholar
  36. Rutter, M. (1985). Resilience in the face of adversity: Protective factors and resistence to psychiatric disorder.British Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 598–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rutter, M. (1987). Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanism.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 316–331.Google Scholar
  38. Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies.Health Psychology, 4, 219–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Snyder, C. R. (1994). Hope and optimism. In V.S. Ramachandren (Ed.),Encyclopedia of human behavior ( pp. 535–542). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  40. Snyder, C. R., Cheavens, J., & Michael, S.T. (1999). Hoping. In C.R. Snyder (Ed.),Coping: The Psychology of what works (pp. 205–231). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., & Sigmon, S. T. et al. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language (2000).English dictionary (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.Google Scholar
  43. The Assembly of Republic of Korea (2005).Fundamentals of Youth Act, Article 3. Retrieved December 06, 2005 from ?starget=presentlaw/abc_searchl.jsp&skeywordGoogle Scholar
  44. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism (1999).Chunsonyun BaekSeo. [Youth official government report]. Seoul, Korea: The Ministry of Culture and Tourism Youth Policy Team.Google Scholar
  45. Thornberry, T. P. (1994). Violent families and youth violence.Fact Sheet #21. Washington DC: US Department of Justice, OJJDP.Google Scholar
  46. Vallacher, R. R., & Wegner, D. M. (1985).A theory of action identification. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  47. Vallacher, R. R., & Wegner, D. M. (1987). What do people think they’re doing: Action identification and human behavior.Psychological Review, 94, 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vuchinich, S., Bank, L., & Patterson, G. R. (1992). Parenting, peers and stability of antisocial behavior in preadolescent boys.Developmental Psychology, 28, 510–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Werner, E. E. (1993). Risk, resilience, and recovery: Perspectives from the Kauai longituidinal study.Development and Psychopathology, 5, 503–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1982).Vulnerable but invincible: A study of resilient children. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  51. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1992).Overcoming the odds: High risk children from birth to adulthood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Wyman, P. A., Cowen, E. L., Work, W. C., & Kerley, J. H. (1993). The role of children’s future expectations in selfsystem functioning and adjustment to life stress: A prospective study of urban at-risk children.Development and Psychopathology, 5, 649–661.Google Scholar
  53. Yang, G. S. (2001).Joongtoi gyunghum chungsonyun-ui hackgyo juckung yuyeonsung-gwa gwanlyundoin bohoyoin tucksung yoengu [A Study on the characteristics of the protective factors for school dropout adolescents’ school resilience]. Unpublished master thesis, Catholic University of Seoul, Korea.Google Scholar
  54. Yoo, S. K. (2000). Chungsonyun talbihang-gwa wihum yoso mit boho yoso-e gwanhan tamsack-juk yeongu [What makes a differences for Korean juveniles?].The Journal of Educational Research, 38(3), 81–106.Google Scholar
  55. Yoon, (1993).Chungsonyun-ui ilsang-juck stress-wa sawhe kwankyemang jikak [A stress and the perception of social network of adolescent]. Unpublished master theisis, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.Google Scholar
  56. Zigler, E., Taussing, C., & Black, K. (1992). Early childhood intervention a promising preventive for juvenile delinquency.American Psychologist, 47, 997–1006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zika, S., & Chamberlain, K. (1992). On the relation between meaning in life and psychological well-being.British Journal of Psychology, 83, 133–145.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Education Research Institute 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tack-Ho Kim
    • 1
  • Sang Min Lee
    • 2
  • Kumlan Yu
    • 2
  • Seungkook Lee
    • 2
  • Ana Puig
    • 3
  1. 1.Korea Youth Counseling InstituteKorea
  2. 2.Department of Educational LeadershipUniversity of ArkansasFayettevilleUSA
  3. 3.University of FloridaUSA

Personalised recommendations