Anesthetic management of pediatric adenotonsillectomy

Continuing Medical Education

References

  1. 1.
    Brown KA. What we don’t know about childhood obstructive sleep apnoea. Paediatr Anaesth 2001; 11: 385–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Warwick JP, Mason DG. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in children. Anaesthesia 1998; 53: 571–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rosen GM, Muckle RP, Mahowald MW, Goding GS, Ullevig C. Postoperative respiratory compromise in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: can it be anticipated? Pediatrics 1994; 93: 784–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carroll JL, Loughlin GM. Diagnostic criteria for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children. Pediatric Pulmonol 1992; 14: 71–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brouillette RT, Morielli A, Leimanis A, Waters KA, Luciano R, Ducharme FM. Nocturnal pulse oximetry as an abbreviated testing modality for pediatric obstructive sleep apnea. Pediatrics 2000; 105: 405–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ⋆6.
    Tait AR, Malviya S. Anesthesia for the child with an upper respiratory tract infection: still a dilemma? Anesth Analg 2005; 100: 59–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tait AR, Malviya S, Voepel-Lewis T, Munro HM, Siewert M, Pandit UA. Risk factors for perioperative adverse respiratory events in children with upper respiratory tract infections. Anesthesiology 2001; 95: 299–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tait AR, Pandit UA, Veopel-Lewis T, Munro HM, Malviya S. Use of the laryngeal mask airway in children with upper respiratory tract infections: a comparison with endotracheal intubation. Anesth Analg 1998; 86: 706–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Davidson AJ, Shrivastava PP, Jamsen K, et al. Risk factors for anxiety at induction of anesthesia in children; a prospective cohort study. Paediatr Anaesth 2006; 16: 919–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. ⋆10.
    Cox RG, Nemish U, Ewen A, Crowe MJ. Evidence-based clinical update: does premedication with oral midazolam lead to improved behavioural outcomes in children? Can J Anesth 2006; 53: 1213–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bergendahl H, Lonnqvist PA, Eksborg S. Clonidine in paediatric anaesthesia; review of the literature and comparison with benzodiazepines for premedication. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2006; 50: 135–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kain ZN, Mayes LC, Wang SM, Caramico LA, Hofstadter MB. Parental presence during induction of anesthesia versus sedative premedication: which intervention is more effective? Anesthesiology 1998; 89: 1147–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kain ZN, Caldwell-Andrews AA, Mayer LC, et al. Family-centered preparation for surgery improves perioperative outcomes in children: a randomized controlled trial. Anesthesiology 2007; 106: 65–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Calipel S, Lucas-Polomeni MM, Wodey E, Ecoffey C. Premedication in children: hypnosis versus midazolam. Paediatr Anaesth 2005; 15: 275–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. ⋆15.
    Koomson A, Morin I, Brouillette R, Brown KA. Children with severe OSAS who have adenotonsillectomy in the morning are less likely to have post-operative desaturation than those operated in the afternoon. Can J Anesth 2004; 51: 62–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. ⋆16.
    Brown KA, Laferriere A, Moss IR. Recurrent hypoxemia in young children with obstructive sleep apnea is associated with reduced opioid requirement for analgesia. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 806–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. ⋆17.
    Bolton CM, Myles PS, Nolan T, Sterne JA. Prophylaxis of postoperative vomiting in children undergoing tonsillectomy: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth 2006; 97: 593–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Goodarzi M, Matar MM, Shafa M, Townsend JE, Gonzalez I. A prospective randomized blinded study of the effect of intravenous fluid therapy on postoperative nausea and vomiting in children undergoing strabismus surgery. Paediatr Anaesth 2006; 16: 49–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Reimer EJ, Dunn GS, Montgomery CJ, Sanderson PM, Scheepers LD, Merrick PM. The effectiveness of clonidine as an analgesic in paediatric adenotonsillectomy. Can J Anaesth 1998; 45: 1162–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. ⋆20.
    Bhananker SM, Azavedo L, MacCormick J, Splinter W. Topical lidocaine and oral acetaminophen provide similar analgesia for myringotomy and tube placement in children. Can J Anesth 2006; 53: 1111–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Korpela R, Korvenoja P, Meretoja OA. Morphine-sparing effect of acetaminophen in pediatric day-case surgery. Anesthesiology 1999; 91: 442–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Afman CE, Welge JA, Steward DL. Steroids for post-tonsillectomy pain reduction: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006; 134: 181–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Steward DL, Welge JA, Myer CM. Steroids for improving recovery following tonsillectomy in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; (1): CD003997.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hollis LJ, Burton MJ, Millar JM. Perioperative local anaesthesia for reducing pain following tonsillectomy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; (2): CD001874.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Splinter WM, Rhine EJ, Roberts DW, Reid CW, MacNeill HB. Preoperative ketorolac increases bleeding after tonsillectomy in children. Can J Anaesth 1996; 43: 560–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cardwell M, Siviter G, Smith A. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and perioperative bleeding in paediatric tonsillectomy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; (2): CD003591.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Moiniche S, Romsing J, Dahl JB, Tramer MR. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and the risk of operative site bleeding after tonsillectomy: a quantitative review. Anesth Analg 2003; 96: 68–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. ⋆28.
    Marret E, Flahault A, Samara CM, Bonnet F. Effects of postoperative, nonsteroidal, antiinflammatory drugs on bleeding risk after tonsillectomy: meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Anesthesiology 2003; 98: 1497–1502.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Williams PJ, Bailey PM. Comparison of the reinforced laryngeal mask airway and tracheal intubation for adenotonsillectomy. Br J Anaesth 1993; 70: 30–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. ⋆30.
    Webster AC, Morley-Forster PK, Dain S, et al. Anaesthesia for adenotonsillectomy: a comparison between tracheal intubation and the armoured laryngeal mask airway. Can J Anaesth 1993; 40: 1171–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hatcher IS, Stack CG. Postal survey of the anaesthetic techniques used for paediatric tonsillectomy surgery. Paediatr Anaesth 1999; 9: 311–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Patel RI, Hannallah RS, Norden J, Casey WF, Verghese ST. Emergence airway complications in children: a comparison of tracheal extubation in awake and deeply anesthetized patients. Anesth Analg 1991; 73: 266–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pounder DR, Blackstock D, Steward DJ. Tracheal extubation in children: halothane versus isoflurane, anesthetized versus awake. Anesthesiology 1991; 74: 653–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Valley RD, Freid EB, Bailey AG, et al. Tracheal extubation of deeply anesthetized pediatric patients: a comparison of desflurane and sevoflurane. Anesth Analg 2003; 96: 1320–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Batra YK, Ivanova M, Ali SS, Shamsah M, Al Qattan AR, Belani KG. The efficacy of a subhypnotic dose of propofol in preventing laryngospasm following tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in children. Paediatr Anaesth 2005; 15: 1094–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Koc C, Kocaman F, Aygenc E, Ozdem C, Cekic A. The use of preoperative lidocaine to prevent stridor and laryngospasm after tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1998; 118: 880–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Leicht P, Wisborg T, Chraemmer-Jorgensen B. Does intravenous lidocaine prevent laryngospasm after extubation in children? Anesth Analg 1985; 64: 1193–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Vlajkovic GP, Sindjelic RP. Emergence delirium in children: many questions, few answers. Anesth Analg 2007; 104: 84–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kain ZN, Caldwell-Andrews AA, Maranets I, et al. Preoperative anxiety and emergence delirium and post-operative maladaptive behaviors. Anesth Analg 2004; 99: 1648–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Uezono S, Goto T, Terui K, et al. Emergence agitation after sevoflurane versus propofol in pediatric patients. Anesth Analg 2000; 91: 563–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Davis PJ, Greenberg JA, Gendelman M, Fertal K. Recovery characteristics of sevoflurane and halothane in preschool-aged children undergoing bilateral myringotomy and pressure equalization tube insertion. Anesth Analg 1999; 88: 34–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tesoro S, Mezzetti D, Marchesini L, Peduto VA. Clonidine treatment for agitation in children after sevoflurane anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2005; 101: 1619–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nixon GM, Kermack AS, McGregor CD, et al. Sleep and breathing on the first night after adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea. Pediatr Pulmonol 2005; 39: 332–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Windfuhr JP, Chen YS, Remmert S. Hemorrhage following tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy in 15,218 patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2005; 132: 281–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Canadian Anesthesiologists 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.From the Department of AnesthesiaUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations