Acta Endoscopica

, Volume 33, Issue 3, pp 357–365

Tumeurs et pseudotumeurs du canal anal et de l'anus

  • C. Cuvelier
  • L. Ferdinande
  • P. Demetter
Article
  • 37 Downloads

Résumé

Les tumeurs malignes anales sont rares. Par contre, les lésions tumorales anales en relation avec lePapilloma Virus telles que le condylome acuminé (géant) sont des lésions nettement plus fréquentes. Pour comprendre les cancers qui surviennent dans cette zone, il est nécessaire de connaître l'aspect histologique du canal anal et de l'anus.

En ce qui concerne les tumeurs malignes, une revue de notre série personnelle comme de la littérature montre clairement que l'adénocarcinome du bas rectum, et non celui des glandes anales, est le carcinome le plus fréquent de cette région. Vient ensuite mais son incidence augmente, le carcinome squameux du canal anal qui est parfois en relation avec l'HPV. Dans les carcinomes squameux, il est recommandé de tenir compte des aspects de la différenciation basaloïde, kératinisante ou en microkystes mucineux, ou de la notion de cancer intra-épithélial. Ces entités doivent être reconnues étant donné leurs pronostics biologiques différents.

La tumeur de Buschke-Löwenstein, localement infiltrante ou condylome géant ou le carcinome verruqueux, peut être porteuse d'HPV 6/11. Le carcinome basocellulaire peut se rencontrer dans la région anale; il doit être différencié du carcinome squameux: son traitement étant purement local. La maladie de Paget primaire tend à récidiver fréquemment et à devenir invasive. Elle devrait être différenciée de la forme de maladie de Paget associée à un carcinome colorectal synchrone (cytokératine 20 positive). Les rares cas de mélanomes malins se développent le plus souvent chez des patients de race blanche et montrent des aspects jonctionnels similaires au mélanome cutané. Chez les patients porteurs du SIDA, des lymphomes B à grandes cellules ont été rapportés.

En ce qui concerne les néoplasies intra-épithéliales, la néoplasie intra-épithéliale anale de la zone squameuse ou de transition, la dysplasie squameuse de la marge anale ou la maladie de Bowen ou encore les papuloses bowenoïdes sont reconnues.

Les lésions bénignes incluent des naevus naevocellulaires, des papillomes squameux, des hidradénomes papillaires des glandes apocrines péri-anales, d'occasionnelles tumeurs mésenchymales ou nerveuses, l'hyperplasie fibro-épithéliale, les marisques ou encore le polype cloaco-génique inflammatoire associés à un prolapsus muqueux ou des hémorroïdes.

Mots-clés

anus pseudotumeurs tumeurs 

Tumours and tumour-like conditions of the anal canal and anus

Summary

Malignant anal tumours are rare but, in contrast, HumanPapilloma Virus (HPV)-related tumour-like conditions, including (giant) condyloma acuminatum, of the anus are more common diseases. To understand the neoplasms that arise in this area it is necessary to be familiar with the histological features of the anal canal and anus.

With regard to the malignant tumours, a review of our personal series as well as literature data indicate that adenocarcinoma from the lower rectum, not from the anal glands, is the most common carcinoma in that region. It is not distinguishable from the classical colorectal adenocarcinoma. Second in frequency but rising in incidence is the group of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the anal canal, which are often related with HPV infection. In the SCC it is advised to include statements on the presence of basaloid features or mucinous microcysts, keratinisation and intraepithelial neoplasia. Entities that should be recognized because of a different biological behaviour are SCC with mucinous microcysts and the small cell anaplastic (not neuroendocrine) carcinoma. The locally invasive Buschke-Löwenstein tumour or giant (malignant) condyloma or verrucous carcinoma may contain HPV 6/11. Basal cell carcinoma, the skin cancer, can be seen in the anal region and it should be distinguished from SCC as it can be treated by local excision alone. Primary Paget's disease tends to recur frequently and to become invasive and should be distinguished from Paget's disease associated with a synchronous or a metachronous colorectal carcinoma (cytokeratin 20 positive). The rare malignant melanoma occurs mainly in white patients and shows features like junctional activity similar to these of cutaneous melanoma. In AIDS patients large B-cell malignant lymphomas can be seen.

Amongst the intraepithelial neoplasia, and intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in the transition and squamous zone, squamous dysplasia at the anal margin or Bowen's disease and Bowenoid papulosis are recognised.

Benign lesions include naevocellular naevi, squamous cell papilloma, papillary hidradenoma of the perianal apocrine glands, occasional reports of various mesenchymal or neurogenic tumours, the fibroepithelial hyperplasia or anal tag and the inflammatory cloacogenic polyp associated with rectal mucosal prolapse and/or haemorrhoids.

Key-words

anus tumour-like conditions tumours 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Cuvelier
    • 1
  • L. Ferdinande
    • 1
  • P. Demetter
    • 1
  1. 1.Academic Department of PathologyGhent University, University HospitalGhent(Belgium)

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