Non-invasive quantification of diaphragm kinetics using m-mode sonography

  • Jean AyoubEmail author
  • Robert Cohendy
  • Michel Dauzat
  • Rémi Targhetta
  • Jean-Eminanuel De La Coussaye
  • Jean-Marie Bourgeois
  • Michèle Ramonatxo
  • Christian Prefaut
  • Léandre Pourcelot
Measurement Techniques



The standard conditions of spirometry (i.e., wearing a noseclip and breathing through a mouthpiece and a pneumotachograph) are likely to alter the ventilatory pattern. We used “time-motion” mode (M-mode) sonography to assess the changes in diaphragm kinetics induced by spirometry dunng quiet breathing.


An M-mode sonographic study of the nght diaphragm was performed before and dunng standard spirometry in eight patients without respiratory disease (age 34 to 68 yr).


During spirometry, the diaphragm inspiratory amplitude (DIA) increased from 1.34 ± 0.18 cm to 1.80 ± 0.18 cm (P = 0.007), whereas the diaphragmatic mspiratory time (T1 diaph) increased from 1.27 ± 0.15 to 1.53 ± 0.23 sec, (P = 0.015), without change in diaphragmatic total time interval (Ttot diaph). Therefore, the diaphragm duty cycle (T1 diaph /Ttot diaph) increased from 38% ± 1% to 44% ± 4% (P = 0.023). The diaphragm inspiratory (DIV) and expiratory (DEV) motion velocity increased (P = 0.007).


M-mode sonography enabled us to demonstrate that the weanng of a nose clip and breathing through a mouthpiece and a pneumotachograph induce measurable changes in diaphragm kinetics.


Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Ultrasound Beam Ventilatory Pattern Quiet Breathing Diaphragmatic Paralysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



mode sonography, time-motion mode sonography


diaphragm inspiratory amplitude


diaph, diaphragm inspiratory time


diaph, diaphragm expiratory time


diaphragm inspiratory motion mean velocity


diaphragm expiratory motion mean velocity


diaph, total time of diaphragmatic cycle


diaph, the diaphragmatic inspiratory ratio


diaphragm motion time


diaphragm resting time


tidal volume


inspiratory time


expiratory time


mean inspiratory flow


total time


inspiratory duty cycle



Les conditions de la spirométne standard (c.-à-d. le port du pince-nez et la respiration à travers un embout buccal et un pneumotacographe) sont susceptibles d’altérer la morphologie de la ventilation. Nous avons utilisé le mode «temps-amplitude» (mode M) de la sonographie pour évaluer les changements de la cinétique diaphragmatique provoqués par la spirométne pendant la respiration de repos.


Pendant la spirométne, l’amplitude mspiratoire diaphragmatique augmentait de 1, 34 ± 0, 18 à 1, 80 ± 0, 18 cm (P = 0, 007), alors que le temps diaphragmatique mspiratoire (T1 diaph) augmentait de 1, 27 ± 0, 15 à 1, 53 ± 0, 23 sec (P = 0, 015), sans changement du temps diaphragmatique total (Ttot diaph). Par conséquent, le temps de l’activité diaphragmatique (T1 diaph/Ttot diaph) augmentait de 38 ± 1 % à 44 ± 4% (P = 0, 023). La vélocité de l’amplitude mspiratoire et expiratoire augmentait (P = 0, 007).


La sonographie en mode M nous a permis de démontrer que le port du pince-nez et la respiration à travers un embout buccal et un pneumotacographe provoquent des changements tangibles de la cinétique diaphragmatique.


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Copyright information

© Canadian Anesthesiologists 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean Ayoub
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robert Cohendy
    • 2
  • Michel Dauzat
    • 3
  • Rémi Targhetta
    • 4
  • Jean-Eminanuel De La Coussaye
    • 2
  • Jean-Marie Bourgeois
    • 1
  • Michèle Ramonatxo
    • 5
  • Christian Prefaut
    • 2
  • Léandre Pourcelot
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of UltrasoundNîmes University HospitalNîmesFrance
  2. 2.Departments of Anaesthesia and Intensive CareNîmes University HospitalNîmesFrance
  3. 3.Department of Medical ImagingNîmes University HospitalNîmesFrance
  4. 4.Departments of Pneumology Unit and internal medicine ANîmes University HospitalNîmesFrance
  5. 5.Laboratory of Physiological InteractionsMontpellier University HospitalMontpellierFrance
  6. 6.Nuclear Medicine and UltrasoundINSERM U316, Tours University HospitalToursFrance

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