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Respiratory mechanical properties during fentanyl and alfentanil anaesthesia

  • P. P. Ruiz Neto
  • J. O. C. Auler
Reports of Investigation

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects on respiratory mechanics of fentanyl and alfentanil in 20 subjects to be submitted to coronary artery bypass grafting. Using the end inflation occlusion method (EIOM) we obtained the elastance (E) and resistance (R) of the total respiratory system (rs), thoracic wall (w) and lungs (L). The total respiratory system was divided into thoracic wall and lungs by using an oesophageal catheter. The data were recorded before, immediately after, and two, five and ten minutes after fentanyl and alfentanil iv bolus, at doses of 30 and 120 μg · kg−I, respectively. The Ers increased at two, five and ten minutes and the EL at ten minutes after drug administration. The Rrs,min and RL,min increased at two, five and ten minutes and the RL,max at five and ten minutes. Both drugs provoked no change in Ew or Rw. It is concluded that the increases in Rrs.min and RL.min could be explained by opioid bronchoconstriction. No differences were found between the effects of fentanyl and alfentanil on respiratory mechanics.

Key words

anaesthetics, intravenous: alfentanil, fentanyl ventilation: respiratory mechanics 

Résumé

Le but de la présente etude est d’evaluer les effets du fentanyl et de l’alfentanil sur la mécanique ventilatoire de patients devant subir un pontage aorto-coronarien sous anesthesie générale. Les patients sont distribués de façon aléatoire en un groupe fentanyl (n = 10) et un groupe alfentanil (n = 10). L’élastance (E) et la résistance (R) des poumons (L), de la cage thoracique (W) et de tout le système mécanique ventilatoire (rs) sont déterminés par des mesures faites en fin d’inspiration après occlusion des voies aériennes. Un cathéter oesophagien branché à un manomètre est utilisé pour évaluer la pression pleurale, afin de permettre le calcul des paramètres de chacune des composantes du système mécanique ventilatoire. Les mesures sont faites avant, immédiatement après, puis 2, 5 et 10 minutes après l’injection rapide de fentanyl 30 μ · kg−1 ou d’alfentanil 120 μg · kg−1. Les résultats démontrent que Ers, Rrs,min et RL,min augmentent 2, 5 et 10 minutes après l’administration de fentanyl ou d’alfentanil. Les deux narcotiques causent une augmentation similaire de EL 10 minutes après leur injection et de RL,max à partir de 5 minutes suivant leur administration. Les deux agents sont dépourvus d’effet sur Ew et Rw. En conclusion: I) le fentanyl et l’alfentanil ont des effets comparables sur la mécanique ventilatoire; 2) les augmentations de Rrs,min et RL.min sont probablement dues à un effet constrictif des narcotiques sur les muscles lisses bronchiques.

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Copyright information

© Canadian Anesthesiologists 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. P. Ruiz Neto
    • 1
  • J. O. C. Auler
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyInstituto CentralBrazil
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyInstituto do Coração do Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao PauloBrazil

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