Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia

, Volume 39, Issue 9, pp 932–937 | Cite as

Treatment of intraoperative hypertension with enflurane, nicardipine, or human atrial natriuretic peptide: haemodynamic and renal effects

  • Fumio Goto
  • Seiji Kato
  • Itaru Sudo
Reports of Investigation


The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the calcium entry blocker nicardipine and alpha human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP) on antihypertensive and diuretic activity in hypertensive surgical patients. The site of the diuretic actions of these drugs along the nephron were also investigated by measuring the excretion rate of inorganic phosphate (PO4). Hypertension during gastrectomy was treated by increasing the concentration of enflurane, by nicardipine infusion (0.5-2.0 μg · kg−1 · min−1), or by hANP infusion (0.05–0.2 μg · kg−1 · min−1) under general anaesthesia. Enflurane, nicardipine and hANP all decreased arterial pressure to the same extent. Urine flow, Na and PO4 excretion increased following the administration of nicardipine or hANP. Fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was suppressed from 89.7 ± 2.8% to 82.1 ± 5.0% by the hANP, but not by the nicardipine infusion. Creatinine clearance was increased by hANP infusion, but did not change in the nicardipine group. It is concluded that nicardipine and hANP can be used safely for the treatment of hypertension during surgery. Both drugs induced phosphaturic diuresis, but the site of action of the two drugs on the nephron may be different. Phosphate reabsorption is considered to occur largely in the renal proximal tubule, so that its appearance in the urine in increased quantities without the change of renal circulation in the nicardipine group suggests a proximal tubular action of this drug. However, the site of action of hANP in the kidney was not determined because GFR increased and distal sodium reabsorption was suppressed due to the drug infusion.

Key words

anaesthetics, volatile: enflurane blood pressure: hypertension hormones: atrial natriuretic peptide kidney: function pharmacology: nicardipine 


Cette étude évalue les effets de l’inhibiteur calcique nicardipine et du peptide atrial alpha natriurique humain (hANP) sur l’activité antihypertensive et diurétique chez le patient hypertendu. Sur le néphron, on a aussi recherché le site de l’activité diurétique de ces produits par la mesure de la vitesse d’excrétion du phosphate inorganique (PO4). L’hypertension survenant pendant la gastrectomie a été traitée par l’augmentation de la concentration d’enflurane, par une perfusion de nicardipine, (0,5–0,2 (μg · kg−1) ou par une perfusion de hANP sous anesthésie générate. L’enflurane, la nicardipine et l’hANP ont tous abaissé au même degré la pression artérielle. Le débit urinaire, le sodium et l’excrétion de PO4 ont augmenté à la suite de l’administration de nicardipine ou de hANP. La réabsorption fractionnée distale du sodium est diminuée de 89,7 ± 2,8% à 82,1 ± 5,0% par l’hANP contrairement à la perfusion de nicardipine. La clearance de la créatinine est augmentée par la perfusion d’hANP, mais ne change pas pour le groupe nicardipine. On conclut que l’hANP et la nicardipine peuvent être utilisés en toute sécurité pour le traitement de l’hypertension pendant la chirurgie. Les deux médicaments provoquent une diurése phosphaturique, mais le site d’action des deux médicaments pourrait être différent. On croit que la réabsorption du phosphate survient principalement au niveau du tube proximal, alors que son apparition dans l’urine en plus grande quantité sans changement de circulation rénale, dans le groupe nicardipine, suggère une action tubulaire proximale. Cependant, le site rénal de l’action de l’hANP n’a pu être déterminé parce que la filtration glomérulaire augmente et la réabsorption distale du sodium ést supprimée par sa perfusion.


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Copyright information

© Canadian Anesthesiologists 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fumio Goto
    • 1
  • Seiji Kato
    • 1
  • Itaru Sudo
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyKitasato University School of MedicineKanagawaJapan
  2. 2.Saiseikai Utsunomiya HospitalUtsunomiyaJapan

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