Canadian Anaesthetists’ Society Journal

, Volume 23, Issue 6, pp 648–656 | Cite as

Diazepam-ketamine anaesthesia for open heart surgery a “micro-mini” drip administration technique

  • Shigeru Hatano
  • Donal M. Keane
  • Roy E. Boggs
  • Moustafa A. El-Naggar
  • Max S. Sadove


Two hundred open-heart cases were anaesthetized with a diazepam-ketamine combination. The results were excellent. A “Micro-Mini” drip technique insured low, even, but adequate dose levels of ketamine and less drug was used. Induction and maintenance are simple and smooth. Effects on the cardiovascular system and respiratory system are minimal. The margin of safety is wide and 100 per cent oxygen can be used whenever needed.


Diazepam Ketamine Cardiopulmonary Bypass Tracheal Tube CANADIAN Anaesthetist 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Hatano, S., Keane, D.M., Wade, M.A., &Sadove, M.S. Diazepam-pentazocine anaesthesia for cardiovascular surgery. Canad. Anaesth. Soc. J.21:6: 586–599 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sadove, M.S., Shulman, M., Hatano, S., &Fevold, N. Analgesic effects of ketamine administered in subdissociative doses. Anaes. Analg.50:3: 452–457 (1971).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dillon, J.B. Guest discussion on differentiation of the cardiovascular effects of CI-581 by Traber, D.L.,et al Anaes. Analg.47:6: 777–778 (1968).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    CoRSSEN, G., Allarde, R., Brosch, F., &Arbenz, G. Ketamine as the sole anaesthetic in open-heart surgery: a preliminary report. Anaes. Analg.49:6: 1025–1031 (1970).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Iwabuchi, K. &Fujita, M. Clinical evaluation of ketamine in radical operations for the patient with severe cardiac disease. Japanese J. Anaes.19:12: 1405–1412 (1970).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Szappanyos, G., Gemperle, M., &Rifat, K. Ketamine Meeting, March 5, 1971. Royal Soc. Med.64:11: 1156–1159 (1971).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dillon, J.B. Ketamine Meeting, March 5, 1971. Royal Soc. Med.64:11: 1153–1156 (1971).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Radney, P.A., Arai, T., &Nagashima, H. Ketamine-gallamine anaesthesia for great vessel operation in infant. Anaes. Analg.53:3: 365–369 (1974).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kreuscher, H. &Geuch, H. Die Wirkung des Phencylidinderivaties Ketamine (CI-581) auf Kardiovasculaere System des Mensthen. Anaesthetist.16: 229–233 (1967).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Traber, D.L., Wilson, R.D., &Priano, L.L. Differentiation of the cardiovascular effects of CI-581. Anaes. Analg.47:6: 769–778 (1968).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Takahashi, K., Shima, T., Koga, Y., &Iwatsuki, K. The effects of ketamine hydrochloride on the pulmonary haemodynamics in dogs. Japanese J. Anaes.20:9: 842–846 (1971).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gassner, S., Cohen, M., Aygen, M.,et al. The effect of ketamine on pulmonary artery pressure: an experimental and clinical study. Anaesthesia29: 141–146 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tweed, W.A., Minuck, M., &Mymin, D. Circulatory responses to ketamine anaesthesia. Anaesthesiology37:6: 613–619 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tweed, W.A. &Mymin, D. Myocardial force-velocity response during ketamine anaesthesia at constant heart rate. Anaesthesiology41:1: 49–52 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    KoPRIVA, CJ. Haemodynamic effects of intravenous ketamine in patients with coronary disease. Abstracts of Scientific Paper, 233. ASA Meeting, Washington, D.C. (1974).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chodoff, P. &Stella, J.G. Use of CI-581, a phenocyclidine derivative for obstetrical anaesthesia. Anaes. Analg.45:5: 527–530 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tamiya, K., Yamazaki, T., Kawabara, Y., Yasukawa, K.,et al. Ketamine anaesthesia by intravenous infusion (Part I). Japanese J. Anaes.22:1: 79–84 (1973).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ito, Y. &Ichiyanagi, K. Post-operative pain relief with ketamine infusion. Anaesthesia29:2: 222–229(1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ferenchak, B.A., Collins, J., &Morgan, A. Drop size and rate in parenteral infusion. Surgery70:5: 674–677 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Canadian Anesthesiologists 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shigeru Hatano
    • 1
  • Donal M. Keane
    • 1
  • Roy E. Boggs
    • 1
  • Moustafa A. El-Naggar
    • 1
  • Max S. Sadove
    • 1
  1. 1.Rush-Presbyterian-St. Luke’s Medical CenterRush Medical CollegeChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations