Advertisement

Maladaptive coping strategies in patients with bruxism compared to non-bruxing controls

  • Christine SchneiderEmail author
  • Alexandra Goertz
  • Matthias Franz
  • Michelle A. Ommerborn
  • Maria Giraki
  • Wolfgang H. -M. Raab
  • Ralf Schaefer
Article

Abstract

Background: Sleep bruxism is the non-functional grinding or clenching of teeth during sleep. It may lead to tooth damage and myofascial pain. Although stress is discussed as a main causal agent, there is a lack of studies concerning coping strategies in patients with sleep bruxism. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether bruxers, compared to non-bruxing individuals, apply maladaptive coping strategies. Method: Seventy-five sleep bruxers and 38 non-bruxers were selected by dental examination and tested by a German coping questionnaire (SVF78). Results: A significant difference in positive coping strategies was observed between the two groups. Bruxers reported less positive coping strategies, mainly less “reaction control” and “positive self-instructions.” In general, males reported less negative coping strategies. Conclusion: The reported effects demonstrate a deficit of functional coping strategies in bruxers, whereas strategies that enhance stress do not seem to be associated with sleep bruxism. Findings do not admit the conclusion that there is a causal association of maladaptive coping and bruxism. However, they support the approach of a multidisciplinary therapy involving psychological treatment.

Key words

sleep bruxism stress coping maladaptive coping strategies 

References

  1. Ahlberg, J., Rantala, M., Savolainen, A., Suvinen, T., Nissinen, M., Sarna, S. et al. (2002). Reported bruxism and stress experience.Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 30, 405–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. (2001). Parasomnias. In American Academy of Sleep Medicine,The international classification of sleep disorders, revised: Diagnostic and coding manual (pp. 141-214). Rochester, MN: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Bader, G., & Lavigne, G. (2000). Sleep bruxism; an overview of an oromandibular sleep movement disorder.Sleep Medicine Reviews, 4, 27–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clark, G. T., Rugh, J. D., & Handelman, S. L. (1980). Nocturnal masseter muscle activity and urinary catecholamine levels in bruxers.Journal of Dental Research, 59, 1571- 1576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Clark, G. T., Tsukiyama, Y., Baba, K., & Watanabe, T. (1999). Sixty- eight years of experimental occlusal interference studies: What have we learned?The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 82,704- 713.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dao, T. T., & Lavigne, G. J. (1998). Oral splints: The crutches for temporomandibular disorders and bruxism?Critical Review in Oral Biology & Medicine, 9, 345–361.Google Scholar
  7. Dube, C., Rompre, P. H., Manzini, C., Guitard, F., de Grandmont, P., & Lavigne, G. J. (2004). Quantitative polygraphic controlled study on efficacy and safety of oral splint devices in tooth- grinding subjects.Journal of Dental Research, 83, 398–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Endler, N. S., & Parker, J. D. (1990). Multidimensional assessment of coping: A critical evaluation.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 844–854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Glaros, A. G. (1981). Incidence of diurnal and nocturnal bruxism.The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 45, 545–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Granada, S., & Hicks, R. A. (2003). Changes in self-reported incidence of nocturnal bruxism in college students: 1966-2002.Perceptual & Motor Skills, 97,777–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hicks, R. A., & Chancellor, C. (1987). Nocturnal bruxism and type A-B behavior in college students.Psychological Reports, 60, 1211–1214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ising, M., Weyers, P., Janke, W., & Erdmann, G. (2001). The psychometric properties of the SVF78 by Janke and Erdmann, a short version of the SVF120.Zeitschrift fuer Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 22, 279–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ising, M., Weyers, P., Reuter, M., & Janke, W (2006). Comparing two approaches for the assessment of coping Part II. Differences in stability in time.Journal of Individual Differences, 27, 15- 19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Janke, W., Erdmann, G., & Kallus, K. W (2002).Stressverar- beitungsfragebogen (SVF mit SVF 120 und SVF 78) [Stress Coping Questionnaire]. Goettingen: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  15. Kato, T., Dal-Fabbro, C., & Lavigne, G. J. (2003). Current knowledge on awake and sleep bruxism: Overview.Alpha Omegan, 96,24- 32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kato, T., Rompré, P. H., Montplaisir, J. Y., Sessle, B. J., & Lavigne, G. J. (2001). Sleep bruxism: An oromotor activity secondary to micro-arousal.Journal of Dental Research, 80, 1940–1944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Lavigne, G. J., & Montplaisir, J. Y. (1994). Restless legs syndrome and sleep bruxism: Prevalence and association among Canadians.Sleep, 17,739–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Lavigne, G. J., Rompré, P. H., & Montplaisir, J. Y (1996). Sleepbruxism: Validity of clinical research diagnostic criteria in a controlled polysomnographic study.Journal of Dental Research, 75, 546–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lavigne, G. J., Soucy, J. P., Lobbezoo, F., Manzini, C., Blanchet, P. J., & Montplaisir, J. Y (2001). Double-blind, crossover, placebo- controlled trial of bromocriptine in patients with sleep bruxism.Clinical Neuropharmacology, 24, 145–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984).Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  21. Lobbezoo, F., & Naeije, M. (2001). Bruxism is mainly regulated centrally, not peripherally.Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 28, 1085–1091.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lobbezoo, F., Soucy, J. P., Hartman, N. G., Montplaisir, J. Y., & Lavigne, G. J. (1997). Effects of the D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine on sleep bruxism: Report of two single-patient clinical trials.Journal of Dental Research, 76, 1610–1614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Macaluso, G. M., Guerra, P., Di Giovanni, G., Boselli, M., Parrino, L., & Terzano, M. G. (1998). Sleep bruxism is a disorder related to periodic arousals during sleep.Journal of Dental Research, 77, 565–573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Manfredini, D., Landi, N., Romagnoli, M., & Bosco, M. (2004). Psychic and occlusal factors in bruxers.Australian Dental Journal, 49, 84–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Manfredini D., Landi, N., Tognini, F., Montagnani, G., & Bosco, M. (2004). Occlusal features are not a reliable predictor of bruxism.Minerva stomatologica, 53, 231–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Mealiea, W L., & McGlynn, F. D. (1987). Temporomandibular disorders and bruxism. In J. P. Hatch, J. G. Fisher, & J. D. Rugh (Eds.),Biofeedback: Studies in clinical efficacy (pp. 123–151). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  27. Molina, O. F., & dos Santos, J., Jr. (2002). Hostility in TMD/bruxism patients and controls: A clinical comparison study and preliminary results.The Journal of Craniomandibular Practice, 20, 283–288.Google Scholar
  28. Monteiro da Silva, A. M., Oakley, D. A., Hemmings, K. W., Newman, H. N., & Watkins, S. (1997). Psychosocial factors and tooth wear with a significant component of attrition.European Journal of Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry, 5, 51–55.Google Scholar
  29. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Grayson, C., & Larson, J. (1999). Explaining gender difference in depressive Symptoms.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1061–1072.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ohayon, M. M., Li, K. K., & Guilleminault, C. (2001). Risk factors for sleep bruxism in the general population,Chest, 119,53–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pierce, C. J., Chrisman, K., Bennett, M. E., & Close, J. M. (1995). Stress, anticipatory stress, and psychologic measures related to sleep bruxism.Journal of Orofacial Pain, 9, 51–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Pingitore, G., Chrobak, V., & Petrie, J. (1991). The social and psychologic factors of bruxism.Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 65,443–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ramfjord, S. P. (1961). Bruxism, a clinical and electromyographic study.Journal of the American Dental Association, 62, 21–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. van der Zaag, J., Lobbezoo, F., Wicks, D. J., Visscher, C. M., Hamburger, H. L., & Naeije, M. (2005). Controlled assessment of the efficacy of occlusal stabilization splints on sleep bruxism.Journal of Orofacial Pain, 19, 151- 158.Google Scholar
  35. Vanderas, A. P., Menenakou, M., Kouimtzis, T., & Papagiannoulis, L. (1999). Urinary catecholamine levels and bruxism in children.Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 26, 103- 110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Watanabe, T., Ichikawa, K., & Clark, G. T. (2003). Bruxism levels and daily behaviors: 3 weeks of measurement and correlation.Journal of Orofacial Pain, 17, 65–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Weyers, P., Ising, M., Reuter, M., & Janke, W (2005). Comparing two approaches for the assessment of Coping. Part I. Psychometric properties and intercorrelations.Journal of Individual Differences, 26, 207–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Society of Behavioral Medicine 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christine Schneider
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexandra Goertz
    • 1
  • Matthias Franz
    • 1
  • Michelle A. Ommerborn
    • 2
  • Maria Giraki
    • 2
  • Wolfgang H. -M. Raab
    • 2
  • Ralf Schaefer
    • 3
  1. 1.University of DuesseldorfClinical Institute of Psychosomatic Medicine and PsychotherapyDuesseldorfGermany
  2. 2.Department of Operative and Preventive Dentistry and EndodonticsUniversity of DuesseldorfDuesseldorfGermany
  3. 3.Clinical Institute of Psychosomatic Medicine and PsychotherapyUniversity of DuesseldorfDuesseldorfGermany

Personalised recommendations