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Phytoparasitica

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 109–147 | Cite as

Downy mildew of Cucurbits (Pseudoperonospora Cubensis): the Fungus and its hosts, distribution, epidemiology and control

  • J. Palti
  • Y. Cohen
Review

Abstract

Taxonomy of the genusPseudoperonospora, morphology ofPseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk, et Curt.) Rostow. and occurrence of its oospores, are described briefly. A list is presented of over 40 cucurbitaceous host species, representing about 20 genera, on whichP. cubensis has been recorded. Two or more races exist in Japan and the United States, but not in Europe or the Middle East. The distribution ofP. cubensis is widest on all continents on cucumbers (70 countries) and muskmelon (50 countries); onCucurbita and watermelons it extends to about 40 and 25 countries, respectively.

P. cubensis may overwinter as oospores, though this seems rare, and on wild hosts or crops grown in the open or under cover. Airborne sporangia may also reach cooler countries from regions with mild winters.

Apart from the leaf wetness essential for infection, the factors determining disease progress are: rate of foliage growth and physiological age of the host; amount of primary inoculum available, light, and the rate at which lesions necrotize. The interaction of these factors is described for early, mid-season, and late crops. Losses caused byP. cubensis depend on the growth stage at which the crop is attacked, and on the rate of foliage and pathogen development. Breeding has produced downy mildew resistant lines of cucumbers, used chiefly in the United States, and some resistant lines of melons and watermelons. The most important agricultural practices used to restrict downy mildew development are proper irrigation management and avoidance of sowing in proximity to infected crops.

Success of control by protectant chemicals depends largely on proper timing of applications. Proximity of inoculum sources, hours of leaf wetness, age of crop, and irrigation practices are the principal factors that determine when to begin treatments. These factors and rate of leaf formation determine the frequency of applications. Application of systemic fungicides is much easier to time correctly.

Key Words

Downy mildew Pseudoperonospora cubensis cucurbits cucumber melon watermelon epidemiology resistance breeding 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Palti
    • 1
  • Y. Cohen
    • 2
  1. 1.Agricultural Research OrganizationThe Volcani CenterBet Dagan
  2. 2.Dept of Life SciencesBar-Ilan UniversityRamat Gan

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