Medical Oncology

, Volume 12, Issue 4, pp 209–218 | Cite as

Autologous bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in haematological malignancies: current status

  • George Marcoullis
  • Jayesh Mehta
  • Jennie Treleaven


Autologous bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cell transplants permit the use of higher doses of chemoradiotherapy than would have been possible without ‘rescuing’ bone marrow function. This may well allow cure of malignant disorders in cases where this was previously not feasible. This short review attempts to summarize the current status of such a treatment approach for the various haematological malignancies.


autologous bone marrow transplantation peripheral blood stem cell transplantation haematological malignancies 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    McGovern, J., Russell, P. and Atkins Webster, E.W. (1959) Treatment of terminal leukemic relapse by total-body irradiation and intravenous infusion of stored autologous bone marrow obtained during remission.N. Engl. J. Med. 260, 675–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    McFarland, W., Granville, N.B. and Dameshek, W. (1959) Autologous bone marrow infusion as an adjunct in therapy of malignant disease.Blood 14, 503–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clifford, P., Clift, R.A. and Duff, J.K. (1961) Nitrogen-mustard therapy combined with autologous marrow infusion.Lancet 1, 687–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Buckner, C.D., Clift, R.A., Fefer, A., Neiman, P.E., Storb, R. and Thomas, E.D. (1974) Treatment of blastic transformation of chronic granulocytic leukemia by high dose cyclo-phosphamide, total body irradiation and infusion of cryo-preserved autologous marrow.Exp. Hematol. 2, 138–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Goldman, J.M., Catovsky, D. and Galton, D.A.G. (1978) Reversal of blast-cell crisis in C.G.L. by transfusion of stored autologous buffy-coat cells.Lancet 1, 437–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Körbling, M., Burke, P., Braine, H., Elfenbein, G., Santos, G. and Kaizer, H. (1981) Successful engraftment of blood derived normal hemopoietic stem cells in chronic myelogenous leukemia.Exp. Hematol. 9, 684–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mehta, J., Powles, R.L., Shepherd, V., Dainton, M. and Treleaven, J. (1993) Transplantation of autologous peripheral blood stem cells mobilized using GM-CSF for acute leukemia with myelofibrosis.Leuk. Lymphoma 11, 157–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kessinger, A., Vose, J.M., Bierman, P.J. and Armitage, J.O. (1991) High-dose therapy and autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation for patients with bone marrow metas-tases and relapsed lymphoma: an alternative to bone marrow purging.Exp. Hematol. 19, 1013–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    To, L.B., Roberts, M.M., Haylock, al (1992) Comparison of haematological recovery times and supportive care requirements of autologous recovery phase peripheral blood stem cell transplants, autologous bone marrow transplants and allogeneic bone marrow transplants.Bone Marrow Transplant. 9, 277–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Peters, W.P., Rosner, G., Ross, al (1993) Comparative effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on priming peripheral blood progenitor cells for use with autologous bone marrow after high dose chemotherapy.Blood 81, 1709–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Talpaz, M. and Spitzer, G. (1984) Low natural killer cell activity in the bone marrow of healthy donors with normal natural killer cell activity in the peripheral blood.Exp. Hematol. 12, 629–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roberts, M.M., To, L.B., Gillis, al. (1993) Immune reconstitution following peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, autologous bone marrow transplantation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.Bone Marrow Transplant. 12, 469–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mehta, J., Powles, R., Singhal, S. and Treleaven, J. (1995) Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation may result in increased relapse of acute myeloid leukaemia due to reinfusion of a higher number of malignant cells.Bone Marrow Transplant. 15, 652–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Körbling, M., Fliedner, T.M., Holle, al. (1991) Autologous blood stem cell (ABSCT) versus purged bone marrow transplantation (pABMT) in standard risk AML: influence of source and cell composition of the autograft on hemopoietic reconstitution and disease-free survival.Bone Marrow Transplant. 7, 343–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gribben, J.G., Neuberg, D., Barber, al. (1994) Detection of residual lymphoma cells by polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood is significantly less predictive for relapse than detection in bone marrow.Blood 83, 3800–07.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Corradini, P., Voena, C., Astolh, al. (1995) High-dose sequential chemoradiotherapy in multiple myeloma: Residual rumor cells are detectable in bone marrow and peripheral blood cell harvests and after autografting.Blood 85, 1596–1602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liberti, G., Pearce, R., Taghipour, G., Majolino, I. and Goldstone, A.H. (1994) Comparison of peripheral blood stem-cell and autologous bone marrow transplantation for lymphoma patients: a case-controlled analysis of the EBMT Registry data.Ann. Oncol. 5 (Suppl. 2), S151–53.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hutchinson, R.M., Bell, A.J., Duguid, al (1994) Guidelines for the collection, processing and storage of human bone marrow and peripheral stem cells for transplantation.Transfus. Med. 4, 165–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mehta, J., Powles, R., Cabral, al. (1995) Comparison of Cobe Spectra and Haemonetics MCS-3P cell separators for harvesting peripheral blood stem cells.Bone Marrow Transplant, (accepted for publication).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shimazaki, C., Oku, N., Ashihara, al. (1992) Collection of peripheral blood stem cells mobilized by high-dose Ara-C plus VP-16 or aclarubicin followed by recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor.Bone Marrow Transplant. 10, 341–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pettengell, R., Morgenstern, G.R., Woll, al. (1993) Peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation in lymphoma and leukemia using a single apheresis.Blood 82, 3770–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bensinger, W., Singer, J., Appelbaum, al. (1993) Autologous transplantation with peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells collected after administration of recombinant granulocyte stimulating factor.Blood 81, 3158–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vadhan-Raj, S., Papadopoulos, N., Burgess, M., Patel, S., Linke, K., Plager, C., Hayes, C., Arcenas, A., Kudelka, A., Williams, D., Garrison, L. and Benjamin, R. (1993) Optimization of Dose and Schedule of PIXY 321 (GM-CSF/IL-3 Fusion Protein) to Alternate Chemotherapy Induced Multilineage Myelosuppression in Patients With Sarcomas [abstract 1640]Proc. Am. Soc. Clin. Oncol. 12, 470.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schmitz, N., Dreger, P., Suttorp, al. (1995) Primary transplantation of allogeneic peripheral blood progenitor cells mobilized by filgrastim (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor).Blood 85, 1666–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bensinger, W.I., Weaver, C.H., Appelbaum, al. (1995) Transplantation of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells mobilized by recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.Blood 85, 1655–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Körbling, M., Przepiorka, D., Huh, al. (1995) Allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation for refractory leukemia and lymphoma: potential advantage of blood over marrow allografts.Blood 85, 1659–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kîrbling, M., Hunstein, W., Fliedner, al. (1989) Disease-free survival after autologous bone marrow transplantation in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia.Blood 74, 1898–1904.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Linker, C.A., Ries, C.A., Damon, L.E., Rugo, H.S. and Wolf, J.L. (1993) Autologous bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia using busulfan plus etoposide as a preparative regimen.Blood 81, 311–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Burnett, A.K., Tansey, P., Watkins, al. (1984) Transplantation of unpurged autologous bone-marrow in acute myeloid leukaemia in first remission.Lancet 2, 1068–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Laporte, J.P., Douay, L., Lopez, al. (1994) One hundred twenty-five adult patients with primary acute leukemia autografted with marrow purged by mafosfa-mide: a 10-year single institution experience.Blood 84, 3810–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sanz, M.A., De la Rubia, J., Sanz, al. (1993) Busulfan plus cyclophosphamide followed by autologous blood stem-cell transplantation for patients with acute myelo-blastic leukemia in first complete remission: a report from a single institution.J. Clin. Oncol. 11, 1661–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Keating, A., Rowlings, P.A., Horowitz, M.M., Dicke, K., Gale, R.P. and Klein, J.P. (1994) Comparison of HLA-identical sibling and autologous bone marrow transplants for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).Blood 84 (Suppl1), 201a.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gorin, N.C., Labopin, M., Esperou-Bourdeau, H. and Gluckman, E. (1994) Comparison of allogeneic and autologous bone marrow transplantation for acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) in Europe. An EBMT survey.Blood 84 (Suppl 1), 211a.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zittoun, R.A., Mandelli, F., Willemze, al. (1995) Autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation compared with intensive chemotherapy in acute myelogenous leukemia.N. Engl J. Med. 332, 217–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    De la Rubia, J., Sanz, G.F., Martinez, al. (1994) Autologousblood stem cell transplantation in acute myeloblastic leukemia in first remission.Blood 84 (Suppl 1), 213a.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Petersen, F.B., Lynch, M.H.E., Clift, al. (1993) Autologous marrow transplantation for patients with acute myeloid leukemia in untreated first relapse or in second complete remission.J. Clin. Oncol 11, 1353–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Meloni, G., De Fabritiis, P., Petti, M.C. and Mandelli, F. (1990) BAVC regimen and autologous bone marrow transplantation in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia in second remission.Blood 75, 2282–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chopra, R., Goldstone, A.H., McMillan, al. (1991) Successful treatment of acute myeloid leukemia beyond first remission with autologous bone marrow transplantation using busulfan/cyclophosphamide and unpurged marrow: the British autograft group experience.J. Clin. Oncol. 9, 1840–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schiffman, K., Clift, R., Appelbaum, al. (1993) Consequences of cryopreserving first remission autologous marrow for use after relapse in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.Bone Marrow Transplant. 11, 227–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fiäre, D., Lepage, E., Sebban, al. (1993) Adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a multicentric randomized trial testing bone marrow transplantation as postremission therapy.J. Clin. Oncol 10, 1990–2001.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Doney, K., Buckner, C.D., Fisher, al. (1993) Autologous bone marrow transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Bone Marrow Transplant. 12, 315–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Proctor, S.J., Hamilton P.J., Taylor, al. (1988) A comparative study of combination chemotherapy versus marrow transplant in first remission in adult acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.Br. J. Haematol. 69, 35–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Vey, N., Blaise, D., Stoppa, al. (1994) Bone marrow transplantation in 63 adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first complete remission.Bone Marrow Transplant. 14, 383–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Powles, R., Mehta, J., Singhal, al. (1995) Autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation followed by maintenance chemotherapy for adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remission: 50 cases from a single center.Bone Marrow Transplant. 16, 241–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fletcher, J.A., Lynch, E.A., Kimball, V.M., Donnelly, M., Tantravahi, R. and Sallan, S.E. (1991) Translation (9;22) is associated with extremely poor prognosis in intensively treated children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Blood 77, 435–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Carella, A.M., Frassoni, F., Pollicardo, al. (1995) Philadelphia-chromosome-negative peripheral blood stem cells can be mobilized in the early phase of recovery after a myelosuppressive chemotherapy in Philadelphia-chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.Br. J. Haematol 89, 535–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Goto, T., Nishikori, M., Arlin, al. (1982) Growth characteristics of leukemic and normal hematopoietic cells in Ph’ + chronic myelogenous leukemia and effects of intensive treatment.Blood 59, 793–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    The Italian Cooperative Study Group on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. (1994) Interferon alfa-2a as compared with conventional chemotherapy for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia.N. Engl J. Med. 330, 820–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    McGlave, P.B., De Fabritiis, P., Deisseroth, al. (1994) Autologous transplants for chronic myelogenous leukaemia: results from eight transplant groups.Lancet 343, 1486–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Barnett, M.J., Eaves, C.J., Phillips, al. (1994) Auto-grafting with cultured marrow in chronic myeloid leukemia: results of a pilot study.Blood 84, 724–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Carella, A.M., Pollicardo, N., Pungolino, al. (1993) Mobilization of cytogenetically ‘normal’ blood progenitors cells by intensive conventional chemotherapy for chronic myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Leuk. Lymphoma 9, 477–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kuss, B.J., Sage, R.E., Shepherd, K.M., Hardingham, J. and Nicola, M. (1993) High dose hydroxyurea in collection of Philadelphia chromosome-negative stem cells in chronic myeloid leukaemia.Leuk. Lymphoma 10, 73–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kantarjian, H.M., Talpaz, M., Hester, al. (1995) Collection of peripheral-blood diploid cells from chronic myelogenous leukemia patients early in the recovery phase from myelosuppression induced by intensive-dose chemotherapy.J. Clin. Oncol. 13, 553–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rabinowe, S.N., Soiffer, R.J., Gribben, al. (1993) Autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for poor prognosis patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.Blood 82, 1366–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Khouri, I.F., Keating, M.J., Vriesendorp, al. (1994) Autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Preliminary results.J. Clin. Oncol. 12, 748–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bastion, Y., Felman, P., Dumontet, C., Espinouse, D. and Coiffier, B. (1992) Intensive radio chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in young patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.Bone Marrow Transplant. 10, 467–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bartlett-Pandite, L., Soiffer, R., Gribben, al. (1994) Autologous and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for B-cell CLL: balance between toxicity and efficacy.Blood 84 (Suppl 1), 536a.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zomas, A., Mehta, J., Powles, al. (1994) Unusual infections following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.Bone Marrow Transplant. 14, 799–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    McElwain, T.J., and Powles, R.L. (1983) High-dose intravenous melphalan for plasma-cell leukaemia and myeloma.Lancet 2, 822–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Singhal, S., Powles, R., Cunningham, D. et al. (1995) Clearance of paraprotein after autografting for multiple myeloma.Bone Marrow Transplant. 16, (in press).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Reece, D.E., Barnett, M.J., Connors, al (1993) Treatment of multiple myeloma with intensive chemotherapy followed by autologous BMT using marrow purged with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide.Bone Marrow Transplant. 11, 139–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schiller, G., Vescio, R., Freytes, al. (1995) Transplantation of CD34 + peripheral blood progenitor cells after high-dose chemotherapy for patients with advanced myeloma.Blood 86, 390–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cunningham, D., Paz-Ares, L., Milan, al. (1994) High-dose melphalan and autologous bone marrow transplantation as consolidation in previously untreated myeloma.J. Clin. Oncol. 12, 759–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Anderson, K.C., Barut, B.A., Ritz, J.,et al. (1991) Monoclonal antibody-purged autologous bone marrow transplantation therapy for multiple myeloma.Blood 77, 712–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Bjîrkstrand, B., Ljungman, P., Bird, J.M., Samson, D. and Gahrton, G. (1995) Double high-dose chemoradiotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation can induce molecular remissions in multiple myeloma.Bone Marrow Transplant. 15, 367–71.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dimopoulos, M.A., Alexanian, R., Przepiorka, al. (1993) Thiotepa, busulfan, and cyclophosphamide: a new preparative regimen for autologous marrow or blood stem cell transplantation in high-risk multiple myeloma.Blood 82, 2324–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Harousseau, J.L., Attal, M., Divine, al. (1995) Comparison of autologous bone marrow transplantation and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation after first remission induction treatment in multiple myeloma.Bone Marrow Transplant. 15, 963–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jagannath, S., Vesole, D.H., Glenn, J., Crowley, J. and Barlogie, B. (1992) Low-risk intensive therapy for multiple myeloma with combined autologous bone marrow and blood stem cell support.Blood 80, 1666–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Barlogie, B., Jagannath, S., Vesole, al. (1994) Total therapy (TT) for 202 newly diagnosed patients (pts) with multiple myeloma (MM).Blood 84 (Suppl 1), 386a.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Powles, R., Cunningham, D., Malpas, al. (1994) A randomised trial of maintenance therapy with Intron-A following high-dose melphalan and ABMT in myeloma.Blood 84 (Suppl 1), 535a.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Cunningham, D., Powles, R., Malpas, al (1995) A randomised trial of maintenance interferon following high dose chemotherapy in multiple myeloma (manuscript in preparation).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Chopra, R., McMillan, A.K., Linch, al. (1993) The place of high-dose BEAM therapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation in poor-risk Hodgkin’s disease. A single-center eight-year study of 155 patients.Blood 81, 1137–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Reece, D.E., Connors, J.M., Spinelli, al. (1994) In- tensive therapy with cyclophosphamide, carmustine, etoposide +/- cisplatin, and autologous bone marrow transplantation for Hodgkin’s disease in first relapse after combination chemotherapy.Blood 83, 1193–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Anderson, J.E., Litzow, M.R., Appelbaum, al. (1993) Allogeneic, syngeneic, and autologous marrow transplantation for Hodgkin’s disease: the 21-year Seattle experience.J. Clin. Oncol. 11, 2342–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Carella, A.M., Carlier, P., Congiu, al. (1991) Autologous bone marrow transplantation as adjuvant treatment for high-risk Hodgkin’s disease in first complete remission after MOPP/ABVD protocol.Bone Marrow Transplant. 8, 99–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mills, W., Chopra, R., McMillan, A., Pearce, R., Linch, D.C. and Goldstone, A.H. (1995) BEAM chemotherapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation for patients with relapsed or refractory non Hodgkin’s lymphoma.J. Clin. Oncol. 13, 588–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rapoport, A.P., Rowe, J.M., Kouides, al. (1993) One hundred autotransplants for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin’s disease and lymphoma: value of pretransplant disease status for predicting outcome.J. Clin. Oncol. 11, 2351–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wheeler, C., Strawderman, M., Ayash, al. (1993) Prognostic factors for treatment outcome in autotransplantation of intermediate-grade and high-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma with cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and etoposide.J. Clin. Oncol. 11, 1085–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Haioun, C., Lepage, E., Gisselbrecht, al. (1994) Comparison of autologous bone marrow transplantation with sequential chemotherapy for intermediate-grade and high-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in first complete remission: a study of 464 patients.J. Clin. Oncol. 12, 2543–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Verdonck, L.F., van Putten, W.L., Hagenbeek, al. (1995) Comparison of CHOP chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplantation for slowly responding patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.N. Engl. J. Med. 332, 1045–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Philip, T., Guglielmi, C, Hagenbeek, al. (1995) Autologous bone marrow transplantation as compared with salvage chemotherapy in relapses of chemotherapy-sensitive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.New Engl. J. Med. 333, 1540–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Miller, J.S., Arthur, D.C, Litz, C.E., Neglia, J.P., Miller, W.J. and Weisdorf, D.J. (1994) Myelodysplastic syndrome after autologous bone marrow transplantation: an additional late complication of curative cancer therapy.Blood 83, 3780–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Talbot, D.C, Powles, R.L., Sloane, al. (1990) Cyclosporine-induced graft-versus-host disease following autologous bone marrow transplantation in acute myeloid leukaemia.Bone Marrow Transplant. 6, 17–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rizzoli, V., Carella, A.M., Carlo-Stella, C. and Mangoni, L. (1990) Autologous marrow transplantation in acute lym-phoblastic leukemia: control of residual disease with ma-fosfamide and induction of syngeneic GVHD with cyclosporin. The Italian Mafosfamide Study Group.Bone Marrow Transplant. 6 Suppl. 1, 76–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Carella, A.M., Gaozza, E., Raffo, al. (1991) Therapy of acute phase chronic myelogenous leukemia with intensive chemotherapy, blood cell autorransplant and cyclosporine A.Leukemia 5, 517–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yeager, A.M., Vogelsang, G.B., Jones, al. (1992) Induction of cutaneous graft-versus-host disease by administration of cyclosporine to patients undergoing autologous bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia.Blood 79, 3031–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Morecki, S., Revel Vilk, S., Nabet, al. (1992) Immuno-logical evaluation of patients with hematological malignancies receiving ambulatory cytokine-mediated immunotherapy with recombinant human interferon-alpha 2a and interleukin-2.Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 35, 401–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Nagler, A., Ackerstein, A., Or, al. (1992) Adoptive immunotherapy with mismatched allogeneic peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) following autologous bone marrow transplantation (ABMT).Exp. Hematol. 20, 705.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Benyunes, M.C., Massumoto, C., York, al. (1993) Interleukin-2 with or without lymphokine-activated killer cells as consolidative immunotherapy after autologous bone marrow transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia.Bone Marrow Transplant. 12, 159–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Rowe, J.M., Ryan, D.H., Nilsson, al. (1994) Chronic myelogenous leukemia treated with autologous bone marrow transplantation followed by roquinimex.Blood 84 (Suppl 1), 204a.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Neubauer, M.A., Benyunes, M.C, Thompson, al. (1994) Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) precursor cell activity is present in infused peripheral blood stem cells and in the blood after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.Bone Marrow Transplant. 13, 311–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • George Marcoullis
    • 1
  • Jayesh Mehta
    • 2
  • Jennie Treleaven
    • 2
  1. 1.Haematology/Oncology CentreNicosiaCyprus
  2. 2.Leukaemia and Myeloma UnitsRoyal Marsden HospitalSurreyUK

Personalised recommendations