Advertisement

Silurian Leptaeninae (Brachiopoda) from Gotland, Sweden

  • Ole A. Hoel
Article

Abstract

Strophomenid brachiopods belonging to the generaLeptaena andLepidoleptaena are described from the uppermost Llandovery — Ludlow succession of Gotland, Sweden. In Gotland,Lepidoleptaena comprises the single speciesL. poulseni, andLeptaena includes four species:L. rhomboidalis, L. sperion, L. depressa andL. parvirugata n. sp.L. depressa shows a considerable amount of morphological variation, which is recognised in the two new subspeciesLeptaena depressa visbyensis n. ssp. from the Llandoverian — Wenlockian Visby Formation, andL. depressa lata n. ssp. from the mid-Wenlockian Slite Group. The distribution of the different species is largely substrate-dependent, withLeptaena rhomboidalis andLepidoleptaena poulseni adapted to high-energy environments with firm substrates, whereas the remaining species preferred fine-grained substrates in low-energy environments.

Keywords

Silurian Gotland Brachiopoda Strophomenida Leptaeninae Leptaena Lepidoleptaena 

Kurzfassung

Die zu den GattungenLeptaena undLepidoleptaena gehörenden strophomeniden Brachiopoden aus der Abfolge vom höchsten Llandovery bis zum Ludlow von Gotland, Schweden, werden beschrieben. Auf Gotland istLepidoleptaena nur durch eine einzige Art vertreten:L. poulseni; Leptaena hingegen umfasst dort vier Arten:L. rhomboidalis, L. sperion, L. depressa undL. parvirugata n. sp. Innerhalb vonL. depressa gibt es eine beträchtliche morphologische Variabilität, weshalb hier zwei neue Unterarten aufgestellt werden:L. depressa visbyensis n. ssp. aus der Visby-Formation (Llandoverium — Wenlockium) undL. depressa lata n. ssp. aus der Slite-Gruppe (mittleres Wenlockium). Die Verteilung der unterschiedlichen Arten ist weitgehend vom Substrat abhängig, wobeiLeptaena rhomboidalis undLepidoleptaena poulseni an energiereiche Lebensräume mit festen Substraten angepasst waren; die übrigen Arten bevorzugten feinkörnige Substrate in energieärmeren Lebensräumen.

Schlüsselwörter

Silur Gotland Brachiopoda Strophomenida Leptaeninae Leptaena Lepidoleptaena 

References

  1. Amsden, T.W. 1951. Brachiopods of the Henryhouse Formation (Silurian) of Oklahoma. — Journal of Paleontology25: 69–96.Google Scholar
  2. Amsden, T.W. 1958. Stratigraphy and Paleontology of the Hunton Group in the Arbuckle Mountain Region. — Oklahoma Geological Survey Bulletin78: 1–199.Google Scholar
  3. Amsden, T.W. 1978. Articulate Brachiopods of the Quarry Mountain Formation (Silurian), Eastern Oklahoma. — Oklahoma Geological Survey Bulletin125: 1–75.Google Scholar
  4. Baarli, B.G. 1995. Orthacean and strophomenid brachiopods from the Lower Silurian of the central Oslo Region. — Fossils and Strata39: 1–93.Google Scholar
  5. Barrande, J. 1879. Système Silurien du centre de la Bohême. 1ère partie. Recherches paléontologiques,5. Classe des Mollusques. Ordre des Brachiopodes. — 226 p., 153 pls., Prague & Paris.Google Scholar
  6. Bassett, M.G. 1974. The articulate Brachiopods from the Wenlock Series of the Welsh Borderland and South Wales,3. — Palaeontographical Society Monographs128 (541): 79–122, pls. 18–32.Google Scholar
  7. Bassett, M.G. 1977. The articulate Brachiopods from the Wenlock Series of the Welsh Borderland and South Wales,4. — Palaeontographical Society Monographs130 (547): 123–176, pls. 33–47.Google Scholar
  8. Bassett, M.G. 1979. Brachiopods. — In:Jaanusson, V.;Laufeld, S. &Skoglund, R., eds., Lower Wenlock faunal and floral dynamics — Vattenfallet section, Gotland. — Sveriges Geologiska UndersökningC 762: 185–206.Google Scholar
  9. Bassett, M.G. &Cocks, L.R.M. 1974. A review of Silurian brachiopods from Gotland. — Fossils and Strata3: 1–56.Google Scholar
  10. Bergström, J. 1968. Upper Ordovician Brachiopods from Västergötland, Sweden. — Geologica et Palaeontologica2: 1–35.Google Scholar
  11. Bjerkéus, M. &Eriksson, M. 2001. Late Silurian reef development in the Baltic Sea. — Geologiska Föreningens I Stockholm Förhandlingar123: 169–179.Google Scholar
  12. Boucot, A.J. 1973. Early Paleozoic Brachiopods of the Moose River Synclinorium. — United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper784: 1–81.Google Scholar
  13. Boucot, A.J.;Johnson, J.G.;Harper, C. &Walmsley, V.G. 1966. Silurian brachiopods and gastropods of southern New Brunswick. — Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin140: 1–45.Google Scholar
  14. Calner, M. &Jeppsson, L. 2003. Carbonate platform evolution and conodont stratigraphy during the middle Silurian Mulde Event, Gotland, Sweden. — Geological Magazine140 (2): 173–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cherns, L. 1983. The Hemse-Eke Boundary. Facies relationships in the Ludlow Series of Gotland, Sweden. — Sveriges Geologiska UndersökningC 800: 1–44.Google Scholar
  16. Cherns, L. &Bassett, M.G. in press. A framework sequence stratigraphy for the Silurian of Gotland. — Journal of the Geological Society of London.Google Scholar
  17. Cocks, L.R.M. 1967. Llandovery stropheodontids from the Welsh Borderland. — Palaeontology10 (2): 245–265.Google Scholar
  18. Cocks, L.R.M. 1968. Some strophomenacean brachiopods from the British Lower Silurian. — Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), (Geology)19 (4): 142–203.Google Scholar
  19. Cocks, L.R.M. 1978. A review of British Lower Palaeozoic brachiopods, including a synoptic revision of Davidson’s monograph. — Palaeontographical Society Monographs131 (549): 1–256.Google Scholar
  20. Cocks, L.R.M. &Rong, Jia-Yu 2000. Strophomenida. — In:Williams, A.;Brunton, C.H.C. &Carlson, S.J., eds., Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part H. Brachiopoda (revised),2–3: 216–348, Lawrence, Kans., Boulder, Colo. (University of Kansas Press).Google Scholar
  21. Dalman, J.W. 1828. Uppställning och Beskrifning af de i Sverige funne Terebratuliter. — Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar [för 1827]: 85–155.Google Scholar
  22. Davidson, T. 1866–1871. A monograph of the British fossil Brachiopoda, Vol. 3 (7). Silurian: No. 1. Palaeontographical Society Monograph19 (84): 1–88, pls. 1–12 (1866); No. 2. Palaeontographical Society Monograph20 (87): 89–168, pls. 13–22 (1867); No. 3. Palaeontographical Society Monographs 22 (96): 169–248, pls. 23–37 (1869); No. 4. Palaeontographical Society Monograph24 (108): 249–397, pls. 38–50 (1871).Google Scholar
  23. Flodén, T.;Bjerkéus, M.;Tuuling, I. &Eriksson, M. 2001. A Silurian reefal succession in the Gotland area, Baltic Sea. — Geologiska Föreningens I Stockholm Förhandlingar123: 137–152.Google Scholar
  24. Hall, J. &Clarke, J.M. 1894. An introduction to the study of the genera of Palaeozoic Brachiopoda. Natural History of New York, Palaeontology, 8 (2). — xvi + 394 p., pls. 21–84, Albany (New York Geological Survey. Charles van Benthuysen & Sons).Google Scholar
  25. Harper, C.W. 1973. Brachiopods of the Arisaig Group (Silurian — lower Devonian) of Nova Scotia. — Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin215: 1–163.Google Scholar
  26. Havlíček, V. 1963. eled Leptaenidae (Brachiopoda) v eském siluru a devonu. — asopis Narodni Museum132 (4): 220–225.Google Scholar
  27. Havlíček, V. 1967. Brachiopoda of the suborder Strophomenidina in Czechoslovakia. — Rozpravy Ústredního Ústavu Geologického33: 1–235.Google Scholar
  28. Havlíček, V. &Štorch, P. 1967. Silurian brachiopods and benthic communities in the Prague Basin (Czechoslovakia). — Rozpravy Ústredniho Ústavu Geologického48: 1–275.Google Scholar
  29. Hede, J.E. 1921. Gottlands Silurstratigrafi. — Sveriges Geologiska UndersökningC 305: 1–100.Google Scholar
  30. Hisinger, W. 1837–1841. Lethaea suecica seu Petrificata Suecica, iconibus et characteribus illustrata. —1. (1837): 124 pp., pls. l–36;2. (1840): 11 pp., pls. 37–39;3. (1841): 6 pp., pls. 40–42, Stockholm.Google Scholar
  31. Holtedahl, O. 1916. The Strophomenidae of the Kristiania Region. — Det Norske Vitenskaps-Akademi i Oslo. I. Skrifter. Matematisk-Naturvitenskapelig Klasse1915 (12): 1–117.Google Scholar
  32. Jin Jisou &Chatterton, B.D.E. 1997. Latest Ordovician — Silurian articulate brachiopods and biostratigraphy of the Avalanche Lake area, southwestern District of Mackenzie, Canada. — Palaeontographica Canadiana13: 1–169.Google Scholar
  33. Johnson, J.G.;Boucot, A.J. &Murphy, M. 1973. Pidolian and early Gedinnian age brachiopods from the Roberts Mountains Formation of Central Nevada. — University of California Publications in Geological Sciences100: 1–75.Google Scholar
  34. King, W. 1846. Remarks on certain genera belonging to the class Palliobranchiata. — Annals and Magazine of Natural History (1)18: 26–42, 83–94.Google Scholar
  35. Kelly, F.B. 1967. Silurian Leptaenids (Brachiopoda). — Palaeontology10 (4): 590–602.Google Scholar
  36. Lamont, A. 1947. Gala-Tarannon Beds in the Pentland Hills, near Edinburgh. — Geological Magazine84: 193–208, 289–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Laufeld, S. 1974. Silurian Chitinozoa from Gotland. — Fossils and Strata5: 1–130.Google Scholar
  38. Laufeld, S. &Bassett, M.G. 1981. Gotland: The anatomy of a Silurian carbonate platform. — Episodes1981 (2): 1–5.Google Scholar
  39. Lenz, A.C. 1977. Upper Silurian and Lower Devonian brachiopods of Royal Creek, Yukon, Canada,1. Orthida, Strophomenida, Pen-tamerida, Rhynchonellida. — Palaeontographica (A)159: 37–109.Google Scholar
  40. M’Coy, F. 1844. A synopsis of the characters of the Carboniferous Limestone fossils of Ireland. — 207 p., 29 pls., London (Williams & Norgate).Google Scholar
  41. M’Coy, F. 1846. A synopsis of the Silurian fossils of Ireland collected from the several districts by Richard Griffith, F.G.S. — 72 pp., 5 pls., Dublin.Google Scholar
  42. Manten, A.A. 1971. Silurian reefs of Gotland. — Developments in Sedimentology13: 1–539, Amsterdam (Elsevier).Google Scholar
  43. Munthe, H.;Hede, J.E. &von Post, L. 1925. Gottlands Geologi. En översikt. — Sveriges Geologiska UndersökningC 331: 1–130.Google Scholar
  44. Öpik, A.A. 1934. Über Klitamboniten. — Universitatis Tartuensis (Dorpatensis) Acta et Commentationes (A)26 (5): 1–239.Google Scholar
  45. Poulsen, C. 1943. The Silurian faunas of north Greenland. 2. The fauna of the Offley Island Formation. 2. Brachiopoda. — Meddelelser om Grønland72 (3): 1–60.Google Scholar
  46. Rõõmusoks, A.K. 1989. Über die Divergenz der Leptaenidae (Brachiopoda) in der Viru- und Harju-Zeit in Baltoskandia. — Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences in the Estonian SSR, Geology38: 112–117.Google Scholar
  47. Samtleben, C.;Munnecke, A.;Bickert, T. &Pätzold, J. 1996. The Silurian of Gotland (Sweden): Facies interpretation based on stable isotopes in brachiopod shells. — Geologische Rundschau85: 278–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Schuchert, C. 1893. Classification of the Brachiopoda. — American Geologist11: 141–167.Google Scholar
  49. Sokolskaya, A.N. 1954. Strophomenidij Russkogo Platformi [Strophomenids of the Russian Platform]. — Akademija Nauk SSSR. Trudy Paleontologijeskogo Instituta51: 1–191.Google Scholar
  50. Sowerby, J. 1812–22. The Mineral Conchology of Great Britain.1. 234 p., pls. 1–102 (1812–1815);2. 251 p., pls. 103–203 (1815–1818);3. 194 p., pls. 204–306 (1818–22), London.Google Scholar
  51. Sowerby, J. &Sowerby, J. de C. 1821–1823. The Mineral Conchology of Great Britain.4. 160 p., pls. 307–407 (1821–23), London.Google Scholar
  52. Sowerby, J. de C. 1823–1846. The Mineral Conchology of Great Britain.5. 171 p., pls. 408–503 (1823–25);6. 235 p., pls. 504–609 (1826–29);7. 80 p., pls. 610–648 (1840–46), London.Google Scholar
  53. SpjeldnÆs, N. 1957. The Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, Norway.8. Brachiopods of the Suborder Strophomenida. — Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift37: 1–214.Google Scholar
  54. SpjeldnÆs, N. 1984. Epifauna as a tool in autecological analysis of Silurian brachiopods. — Special Papers in Palaeontology32: 225–235.Google Scholar
  55. Villas, E. &Cocks, L.R.M. 1996. The first Early Silurian brachiopod fauna from the Iberian Peninsula. — Journal of Paleontology70 (4): 571–588.Google Scholar
  56. Wahlenberg, G. 1818. Petrificata Telluris Svecanae. — Acta Societatis Regiae Scientiarium Uppsaliensis8: 1–116.Google Scholar
  57. Worsley, D.;Aarhus, N.;Bassett, M.G.;Howe, M.P.A.;Mork, A. &Olaussen, S. 1983. The Silurian succession of the Oslo Region. — Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Bulletin72: 1–57.Google Scholar
  58. Zhang, N. 1989. Wenlockian (Silurian) brachiopods of the Cape Phillips Formation, Baillie Hamilton Island, Arctic Canada,2. — Palaeontographica (A)206: 99–135.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ole A. Hoel
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Geosciences, Department of PaleobiologyUppsala UniversityUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations