Advertisement

Paläontologische Zeitschrift

, 82:308 | Cite as

On a theropod scapula (Upper Cretaceous) from the Marília Formation, Bauru Group, Brazil

  • Elaine Batista Machado
  • Diogenes de A. Campos
  • Alexander W. A. Kellner
Article

Abstract

The record of theropod dinosaurs in Brazil is very scarce. One of the most promising lithostratigraphic units for those reptiles is the Bauru Group. The dinosaur remains found in this unit are mainly those of sauropods, while theropods are represented mostly by teeth. Here we describe a right scapula (housed at the Earth Science Museum of the Departamento Nacional de Produção Mineral/Rio de Janeiro) that is the first theropod scapula reported from the Cretaceous of Brazil and only the second osteological evidence of the Tetanurae from the Bauru Group. The specimen was recovered from the outskirts of Peirópolis, in Minas Gerais State. Comparisons with other theropod dinosaurs are limited, but the overall morphology of the new specimen indicates that it is neither a member of the Abelisauridae nor a member of the Avialae. It also differs from more basal members of the Theropoda, but its overall shape is consistent with several derived members of the Tetanurae, likely a non-avialan maniraptoran. Despite the lack of precision in its taxonomic position, the new specimen confirms the presence of non-avialan Maniraptora in the Bauru Group.

Keywords

Dinosauria Theropoda scapula Bauru Group Upper Cretaceous Brazil 

Kurzfassung

Der Fossilbericht theropoder Dinosaurier von Brasilien ist immer noch sehr dürftig. Eine der aussichtsreichsten Gesteinseinheiten für das Auffinden dieser Reptilien ist die Bauru-Gruppe. Bisher gefundene Dinosaurier aus dieser Einheit sind überwiegend Sauropoden, während Theropoden hauptsächlich durch Zähne vertreten sind. Wir beschreiben hier eine rechte Scapula (aufbewahrt im Geowissenschaftlichen Museum des Departamento Nacional de Produção Mineral/Rio de Janeiro), welche die erste Theropoden-Scapula aus der Kreide Brasiliens und erst den zweiten Skelett-Nachweis von Tetanuren aus der Bauru-Gruppe darstellt. Das Exemplar stammt aus der Umgebung von Peirópolis, im Bundestaat Minas Gerais. Obwohl Vergleiche mit anderen Theropoden limitiert sind, deutet die generelle Morphologie des Exemplares darauf hin, dass es sich weder um einen Abelisauriden noch um einen Avialen handelt. Es unterscheidet sich auch deutlich von den Scapulae anderer basaler Theropoden, ähnelt jedoch jenen fortschrittlicher Tetanuren und gehört höchstwahrscheinlich zu einem Maniraptoren außerhalb der Avialae. Trotz dieser Unsicherheit in der taxonomischen Zuordnung bestätigt dieses neue Material somit das Vorhandensein nichtavialer Maniraptoren in der Bauru-Gruppe.

Schlüsselwörter

Dinosauria Theropoda Scapula Bauru-Gruppe obere Kreide Brasilien 

References

  1. Bertini, R.J. 1996. Evidências de Abelisauridae (Carnosauria: Saurischia) do Neocretáceo da Bacia do Paraná.— In: Boletim do IV Simpósio sobre o Cretáceo do Brasil: 267–271.Google Scholar
  2. Bertini, R.J.;Marshall, L.G.;Gayet, M. &Brito, P. 1993. Vertebrate faunas from the Adamantina and Marília Formations (Upper Baurú Group, Late Cretaceous, Brazil) in their stratigraphic and paleobiogeographic context. — Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen188 (1): 71–101.Google Scholar
  3. Bonaparte, J.R;Ferigolo, J. &Ribeiro, A.M. 1999. A new early Late Triassic saurischian dinosaur from Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. — In:Tomida, Y.;Rich, T.H. &Vickers-Rich, P., eds., Proceedings of the Second Gondwana Dinosaur Symposium: 89–109, Tokyo (National Science Museum of Tokyo).Google Scholar
  4. Bonaparte, J.F.;Novas, F.E. &Coria, R.A. 1990.Carnotaurus sastrei Bonaparte, the horned, lightly built carnosaur from the middle Cretaceous of Patagonia. — Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County416: 1–42.Google Scholar
  5. Brochu, C.A. 2003. Osteology ofTyrannosaurus rex: insights from a nearly complete skeleton and high-resolution computed tomographic analysis of the skull. — Society of Vertebrate Paleontology Memoir7: 1–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Calvo, J.O.;Porfiri, J.D.;González-Riga, B. &Kellner, A.W.A. 2007. A new Cretaceous terrestrial ecosystem from Gondwana with the description of a new sauropod dinosaur. — Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências79 (3): 529–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Candeiro, C.R.A.;Abranches, C.T.;Abrantes, E.A.;Avilla, L.S.;Martins, V.C.;Moreira, A.L.;Torres, S.R. &Bergqvist, L. P. 2004. Dinosaur remains from western Sào Paulo State, Brazil (Bauru Basin, Adamantina Formation, Upper Cretaceous). — Journal of South American Earth Sciences18: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Charig, A.J. &Milner, A.C. 1997.Baryonyx walkeri, a fish-eating dinosaur from the Wealden of Surrey. — Bulletin of the Natural History Museum, Geology Series53 (1): 11–70.Google Scholar
  9. Colbert, E.H. 1970. A saurischian dinosaur from the Triassic of Brazil. — American Museum Novitates2405: 1–39.Google Scholar
  10. Fara, E.;Saraiva, A.A.F.;Campos, D.A.;Moreira, J.K.R.;Siebra, D.C &Kellner, A.W.A. 2005. Controlled excavations in the Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation (Early Cretaceous, Araripe Basin, northeastern Brazil): stratigraphic, palaeoenvironmental and palaeoecological implications. — Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology218: 145–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fernandes, L.A. &Coimbra, A.M. 1996. A Bacia Bauru (Cretáceo Superior, Brasil). — Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências68 (2): 195–205.Google Scholar
  12. Fernandes, L.A. &Coimbra, A.M. 2000. Revisão estratigráfica da parte oriental da Bacia Bauru (Neocretáceo). — Revista Brasileira de Geociências30 (4): 717–728.Google Scholar
  13. Galton, P.M. 2000. AreSpondylosoma andStaurikosaurus (Santa Maria Formation, Middle-Upper Triassic, Brazil) the oldest saurischian dinosaurs? — Paläontologische Zeitschrift74 (3): 393–123.Google Scholar
  14. Gauthier, J. 1986. Saurischian monophyly and the origin of birds. — In:Padian, K., ed., The Origin of Birds and the Evolution of Flight. — Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences8: 1–55.Google Scholar
  15. Holtz, T.R. Jr. 1998. Spinosaurs as crocodile mimics. — Science282: 1276–1277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Holtz, T.R.; Jr.Molnar, R.E. &Currie P.J. 2004. Basal Tetanurae. — In:Weishampel, D.B.;Dodson, P. &Osmólska, H., eds., The Dinosauria. Second Edition: 71–110, Berkeley (University of California Press).Google Scholar
  17. Kellner, A.W.A. 1996. Remarks on Brazilian dinosaurs. — Memoirs of the Queensland Museum39 (3): 611–626.Google Scholar
  18. Kellner, A.W.A. 1999. Short note on a new dinosaur (Theropoda, Coelurosauria) from the Santana Formation (Romualdo Member, Albian), northeastern Brazil. — Boletim do Museu Nacional49: 1–8.Google Scholar
  19. Kellner, A.W.A. &Campos, D.A. 1996. First Early Cretaceous theropod dinosaur from Brazil with comments on Spinosauridae. — Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie, Abhandlungen199 (2): 151–166.Google Scholar
  20. Kellner, A.W.A. &Campos, D.A. 1999. Vertebrate paleontology in Brazil — a review. — Episodes22 (3): 238–251.Google Scholar
  21. Kellner, A.W.A. &Campos, D.A. 2000. Brief review of dinosaur studies and perspectives in Brazil. — Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências72 (4): 509–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kellner, A.W.A. &Campos, D.A. 2002. On a theropod dinosaur (Abelisauria) from the continental Cretaceous of Brazil. — Arquivos do Museu Nacional60 (3): 163–170.Google Scholar
  23. Kellner, A.W.A. &Mader, B.J. 1997. Archosaur teeth from the Cretaceous of Morocco. — Journal Paleontology71 (3): 525–527.Google Scholar
  24. Kellner, A.W.A.;Maisey, J.G. &Campos, D.A. 1994. Fossil down feather from the Lower Cretaceous of Brazil. — Palaeontology37 (3): 489–492.Google Scholar
  25. Langer, M.C. 2004. Basal Saurischia. — In:Weishampel, D.B.;Dodson, P. &Osmólska, H., eds., The Dinosauria, Second Edition: 25–46, Berkeley (University of California Press).Google Scholar
  26. Leal, L.A.;Azevedo, S.A.;Kellner, A.W.A. &Rosa, Á.A.S. 2004. A new early dinosaur (Sauropodomorpha) from the Caturrita Formation (Late Triassic), Paraná Basin, Brazil. — Zootaxa690: 1–24.Google Scholar
  27. Leonardi, G. 1994. Annotated atlas of South America tetrapod footprints (Devonian to Holocene). — 247 p., Brasilia (Companhia de Pesquisa e Recursos Minerais — CPRM).Google Scholar
  28. Machado, E.B. &Kellner, A.W.A. 2005. Notas sobre Spinosauridae (Theropoda, Dinosauria). — Anuário do Instituto de Geociências —UFRJ28 (1): 158–173.Google Scholar
  29. Machado, E.B.;Kellner, A.W.A. &Campos, D.A. 2005. On a theropod scapula from the Late Cretaceous (Bauru Group) of Brazil. — Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology25 (3): 86A.Google Scholar
  30. Madsen, J.H. Jr. 1976.Allosaurus fragilis: a revised osteology. — Bulletin Geological and Mineral Survey, Utah109: 1–163.Google Scholar
  31. Madsen, J.H. Jr. &Welles, S.P. 2000.Ceratosaurus (Dinosauria, Theropoda) a revised osteology. — Miscellaneous Publications of the Utah Geological Survey2: 1–80.Google Scholar
  32. Maisey, J.G., ed., 1991. Santana fossils: an illustrated atlas. — 459 p., Neptune (T. F. H.).Google Scholar
  33. Makovicky, P.J.;Apesteguía, S. &Agnolin, F. 2005. The earliest dromaeosaurid theropod from South America. — Nature437: 1007–1011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Martill, D.M.;Cruickshank, A.R.I.;Frey, E.;Small, P.G. &Clarke, M. 1996. A new crested maniraptoran dinosaur from the Santana Formation (Lower Cretaceous) of Brazil. — Journal of the Geological Society of London153:5–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Medeiros, M.A. 2006. Large Theopod teeth from the Eocenomanian of Northeastern Brazil and the occurrence of Spinosauridae. — Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia9 (3): 333–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Medeiros, M.A. &Schultz, CL. 2002. A fauna dinossauriana da Laje do Coringa, Cretáceo Médio do Nordeste do Brasil. — Arquivos do Museu Nacional60 (3): 155–162.Google Scholar
  37. Naish, D.;Martill, D.M. &Frey, E. 2004. Ecology, sistematics and biogeographical relationships of dinosaurs, including a new theropod, from the Santana Formation (?Albian, Early Cretaceous) of Brazil. — Historical Biology16: 57–70.Google Scholar
  38. Norell, M.A. &Makovicky, P.J. 1999. Important features of the dromaeosaurid skeleton II: information from newly collected specimens ofVelociraptor mongoliensis. — American Museum Novitates3282: 1–45.Google Scholar
  39. Novas, F.E. &Puerta, P.F. 1997. New evidence concerning avian origins from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia. — Nature387: 390–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Novas, F.E.;Borges Ribeiro, L.C &Carvalho, I.S. 2005. Maniraptoran theropod ungual from the Marília Formation (Upper Cretaceous), Brazil. — Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires7 (1): 31–36.Google Scholar
  41. Perle, A.;Chiappe, L.M.;Rinchen, B.;Clark, J.M. &Norell, M.A. 1994. Skeletal morphology ofMononykus olecraniis (Theropoda: Avialae) from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia. — American Museum Novitates3105: 1–29.Google Scholar
  42. Sereno, P.C.;Beck, A.L.;Dutheil, D.B.;Gado, B.;Larsson, H.C.E.;Lyon, G.H.;Marcot, J.D., Rauhut, O.W.M.;Sadleir, R.W.;Sidor, CA.;Varricchio, D.J.;Wilson, G.P. &Wilson, J.A. 1998. A long-snouted predatory dinosaur from Africa and the evolution of spinosaurids. — Science282: 1298–1302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Soares, P.C.;Landim, P.M.B.;Fulfaro, V.J. &Sobreiro Neto, A.F. 1980. Ensaio de caracterização estratigráfica do Cretáceo no Estado de São Paulo: Grupo Bauru. — Revista Brasileira de Geociências10 (3): 177–185.Google Scholar
  44. Souza, J.J. Jr. 1984. O Grupo Bauru na porção mais setentrional da Bacia Sedimentar do Paraná. — Anais do 33° Congresso Brasileiro de Geología2: 944–957.Google Scholar
  45. Zhou, Z. 1995. IsMononykus a bird? — The Auk112 (4): 958–963.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elaine Batista Machado
    • 1
  • Diogenes de A. Campos
    • 2
  • Alexander W. A. Kellner
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Geologia e PaleontologiaMuseu Nacional/UFRJSao CristóvãoRio de Janeiro - RJ
  2. 2.Departamento Nacional de Produçâo MineralMuseu de Ciências da TerraUrcaRio de Janeiro- RJ

Personalised recommendations