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, Volume 74, Issue 3, pp 393–423 | Cite as

Are Spondylosoma and Staurikosaurus (Santa Maria Formation, Middle-Upper Triassic, Brazil) the oldest saurischian dinosaurs?

  • Peter M. Galton
Article

Abstract

Spondylosoma absconditum (Ladinian, Middle Triassic) lacks certain Dinosauriformes-Dinosauria characters (sigmoid curve and epipophyses in neck, distally placed deltopectoral crest on humerus) and those present (accessary hyposphene-hypantra vertebral articulations, three sacral vertebrae, elongate pubis) also occur in the Rauisuchia (Crurotarsi, Suchia, Rauisuchiformes).Spondylosoma is tentatively referred to the Rauisuchidae because, as indicated by the ventrolaterally directed sacral ribs, the ilium was held obliquely (and not vertically as in the Poposauridae).Staurikosaurus pricei (Carnian, Upper Triassic), one of the oldest dinosaurs, possesses autapomorphies of Dinosauriformes, Dinosauria, Saurischia, and Herrerasauridae, but it retains certain plesiomorphic characters (subcircular distal end to tibia, ?proximally placed deltopectoral crest, axially unshortened neural spine to sacral 1, ?scapular spine unreduced distally) not present inHerrerasaurus (Carnian, Ischigualasto Formation, Argentina). However, the femur is more derived in the loss of the trochanteric shelf and reduction of the lesser trochanter (as also occurs in some prosauropods). The two vertebrae sacrum ofStaurikosaurus is a plesiomorphic character for Dinosauria (also in other herrerasaurids, German Upper Triassic prosauropodSellosaurus gracilis — ?males), to which was added either a caudosacral (e.g. Santa Maria prosauropodSaturnalia, Sellosaurus gracilis — ?females) or a dorsosacral (e.g. Ischigualasto theropodEoraptor and prosauropodRiojasaurus). Agrosaurus (Upper Triassic, Durdham Down, England — not Australia) is not a herrerasaurid; it is referred to the prosauropod dinosaurThecodontosaurus antiquus (Upper Triassic, Durdham Down).

Keywords

Cervical Vertebra Transverse Process Middle Triassic Dorsal Vertebra Posterior View 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Kurzfassung

Spondylosoma absconditum (Ladin, Mitteltrias) fehlen bestimmte Merkmale der Dinosauriformes-Dinosauria, wie ein sigmoidal gebogener Hals mit Epipophysen sowie ein distal ansetzender Deltopectoralkamm auf dem Humerus. Die, welche vorhanden sind (zusätzliche Zwischenwirbelgelenke vom Typ Hyposphen-Hypantrum, drei Sakralwirbel, verlängertes Pubis), kommen auch bei den Rauisuchia (Crurotarsi, Suchia, Rauisuchiformes) vor.Spondylosoma wird mit Vorbehalt zu den Rauisuchidae gestellt. Wie die nach ventrolateral gerichteten Sakralrippen zeigen, stand das Ilium schräg (und nicht senkrecht wie bei den Poposauriden).Staurikosaurus pricei, einer der ältesten Dinosaurier, besitzt Autapomorphien der Dinosauriformes, Dinosauria, Saurischia und Herrerasauridae, aber behält bestimmte plesiomorphe Merkmale bei (rundliches distales Ende der Tibia, ?proximal ansetzender Deltopectoralkamm, axial unverkürzte Dornfortsätze bis zum Sakralwirbel 1, ?distal nicht reduzierte Spina der Scapula), die beiHerrerasaurus (Carnian, Ischigualasto Formation, Argentinien) nicht vorhanden sind. Allerdings ist das Femur stärker abgeleitet, weil die Trochanter-Kante verloren ging und der anteriore Trochanter reduziert wurde (was auch bei manchen Prosauropoden vorkommnt). Die zwei Sakralwirbel vonStaurikosaurus sind ein für die Dinosauria plesiomorphes Merkmal (auch bei anderen Herrerasauriden und bei den ?Männchen des deutschen ProsauropodenSellosaurus gracilis). Diesen zwei Sakralwirbeln wurde entweder ein Caudosakralwirbel hinzugefügt (z.B. bei dem Santa Maria-ProsauropodenSaturnalia und bei den ?Weibchen vonSellosaurus gracilis) oder ein Dorsosakralwirbel (wie bei dem Ischigualasto-TheropodenEoraptor und dem ProsauropodenRiojasaurus). Agrosaurus (Obertrias, Durdham Down, England — nicht Australien) ist kein Herrerasauride, sondern er wird zu dem prosauropoden DinosaurierThecodontosaurus antiquus (Obertrias, Durdham Down) gestellt.

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Copyright information

© E.Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter M. Galton
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Naturopathic MedicineUniversity of BridgeportBridgeportUSA

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