Free-air fumigation of mature trees
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A novel system for continuous and controlled free-air fumigation of mature tree canopies with ozone is described. Ozone generated from oxygen is diluted with air in a pressurized tank and conducted into the canopies by a system of 100 PTFE tubes hanging down from a grid fixed above the crowns. With 45 calibrated outlets per tube providing a constant flow of 0.3 1/min each, a total volume of about 10*10*15 m3 comprising 5 beech and 5 spruce canopies is fumigated. The spatial ozone distribution in the fumigated volume as well as surrounding reference tree canopies is controlled by continuous measuring instruments installed at 4 levels and a dense array of passive samplers. The system will later be used for CO2 fumigation as well. Results of the first year of continuos operation, with 2 * ambient ozone levels having been achieved, are reported.
KeywordsBeech FACE free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) fumigation Ozone passive samplers research articles spruce stress
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