Remediation of BTEX and trichloroethene

Current knowledge with special emphasis on phytoremediation
Phytoremediation: BTEX and Trichloroethene

Abstract

The widespread use of industrial chemicals in our highly industrialized society has often caused contamination of large terrestrial and marine areas due to the deliberate and accidental release of organic pollutants into the soil and groundwater. In this review, environmental problems arising from the use of chlorinated solvents and BTEX compounds are described, and an overview about active management strategies for remediation with special emphasis on phytoremediation are presented to achieve a reduction of the total mass of chlorinated solvents and BTEX compounds in contaminated areas. Phytoremediation has been proposed as an efficient, low-cost remediation technique to restore areas contaminated with chlorinated solvents and BTEX compounds. The feasibility of phytoremediation as a remediation tool for these compounds is discussed with particular reference to the uptake and metabolism of these compounds, and a future perspective on the use of phytoremediation for the removal of chlorinated solvents and BTEX compounds is given.

Keywords

Biodegradation BTEX metabolism phytoremediation soil pollution TCE uptake 

Abbreviations

BTEX

Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, o-, m-, p-Xylene

CH

Chloral hydrate

DCA

Dichloroacetic acid

DCVC

S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-1-cysteine

DCVG

S-(1,2-dichloro-vinyl) glutathione

PCE

Tetrachloroethene

TCA

Trichloroacetic acid

TCE

Trichloroethene

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Sytsma L, Mulder J, Schneider J, Negri C, Hinchman, R, Gatliff, E (1997): Uptake and fate of organohalogens from contaminated groundwater in woody plants. Book of Abstracts ‘213th ACS National Meeting’, American Chemical Society, Washington, AGRO-029Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    Squillace PJ, Moran MJ, Lapham WW, Price CV, Clawges RM, Zogorski JS (1999): Volatile organic compounds in untreated ambient groundwater of the United States, 1985–1995. Environ Sci Technol 33, 4176–4187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    McCulloch A, Aucott ML, Graedel TE, Kleiman G, Midgley PM, Li YF (1999): Industrial emissions of TCE, PCE, and dichloromethane-reactive chlorine emissions inventory. J Geophys Res 104, 8417–8427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Butler EC, Hayes KF (1999): Kinetics of the transformation of TCE and PCE by iron sulfide. Environ Sci Technol 33, 2021–2027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Kastner JR, Domingo JS, Denham M, Molina M, Brigmon R (2000): Effect of chemical oxidation on subsurface microbiology and TCE biodegradation. Biorem J 4, 219–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    DeWeerd KA, Flanagan WP, Brennan MJ, Principe JM, Spivack JL (1998): Biodegradation of TCE and dichloromethane in contaminated soil and groundwater. Biorem J 2, 29–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Brack W, Rottler H, Frank H (1998): Volatile fractions of landfill leachates and their effect onChlamydomonas reinhardtiiIn-vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence. Environ Sci Technol 17, 1982–1991Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Baehr AL, Stackelberg PE, Baker RJ (1999): Evaluation of the atmosphere as a source of volatile organic compounds in shallow groundwater. Water Resour Res 35, 127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Travis BJ, Rosenberg ND (1997): Modelingin-situ bioremediation of TCE at Savannah river — Effetcs of product toxicity and microbial interaction on TCE degradation. Environ Sci Technol 31, 3093–3102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Cho JS, Wilson JT, DiGiulio DC, Vardy JA, Choi W (1997): Implementation of natural attenuation at a JP-4 jet fuel release after active remediation. Biodegradation 8, 265–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Shen Y (1998): In vitro cytotoxicity of BTEX metabolites in hela cells. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 34, 229–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Plata-Chebbah L.personal communication Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    CERCLIS report No MID980499966 (1988): Health assessment for Springfield township dump site, Oakland country, Michigan, region 5. Gov Rep, Atlanta, 14 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Singh HB, Salas L, Viezee W, Sitton B, Ferek R (1992): Measurement of volatile organic chemicals at selected sites in California. Atmos Environ 26, 2929–2946Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Kaneko T, Wang PY, Sato A 1997): Assessment of the health effects of TCE. Ind Health 35, 301–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Kuo HW, Chiang TF, Lo H, Chan CC, Lai JS, Wang JD (1997): Exposure assessment of volatile organic compounds from water in Taiwan metropolitan and petrochemical areas. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 59, 708–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Reese E, Kimbrough RD (1993): Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives. Environ Health Persp 101, 167–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Salanitro JP, Dorn PB, Huesemann MH, Moore KO, Rhodes IA, Rice Jackson LM, Vipond TE Western MM, Wisniewski HL (1997): Crude oil hydrocarbon bioremediation and soil ecotoxicity assessment. Environ Sci Technol 31, 1769–1776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Regno V, Arulgnanendran J, Nirmalakhandran N (1998): Microbial toxicity in soil medium. Ecotoxic Environ Safe 39, 48–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Welp G, Brummer GW (1999): Effects of organic pollutants on soil microbial activity - The influence of sorption, solubility, and speciation. Ecotoxic Environ Safe 43, 83–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Heller A (1904): Über die Wirkung ätherischer Öle und einige verwandter Körper auf die Pflanzen. Flora 93, 1–31Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Deigaard L, Haselhoff A, Nijboer M, Weber K (2000): Towards a new European approach for the selection of soil remediation alternatives. Proceedings of ‘7th Int FZK/TNO Conf on Contaminated Soil-ConSoil 2000’, Telford Publishing, London, pp 155–156Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    McFee JN, Rasmussen GP, Young CM (1985): The design and demonstration of a fluidized bed incinerator for the destruction of hazardous organic materials in soils. J Hazard Mater 12, 129–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Trick L, Kuehl MA, Uschan RM (1989): Use of a batch asphalt plant for remediation of soils contaminated by volatile organic compounds. Proceedings of ‘43rd Ind Waste Conf’, Vol date 1988, 61–65Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Wang X, Fu J, Sheng G, Min Y, Peng P, Lee SC, Chan LY, Chan CY, Lin Y (1999): Removal and emission of volatile organic compounds in Datansha wastewater treatment plant, Guangzhou. Huanjing Huaxue 18, 157–162 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Meyer O, Warrelmann J, von Reis H (1995): Pilot plant stage bioremediation of CKW-and BTEX-contaminated soil by insitu infiltration in combination with on-site water and air treatment at model site Eppelheim. Soil Environ 5, 843–852Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    O’Niell WL, Nzengung VA (2000): Treatment of organic-contaminated water in microbial mat bioreactors. In: Wickramanayake GB (Ed). Proceedings of ‘2nd Int Conf on Remediation of Chlorinated Recalcitrant Compounds’, Battelle Press, Columbus, pp 349–352Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Phelps TJ, Niedzielski JJ, Schram RM, Herbes SE, White DC (1990): Biodegradation of TCE in continuous-recycle expanded-bed bioreactors. Appl Environ Microbiol 56, 1702–1709Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Shin HS, Lim JL (1996): Performance of packed-bed bioreactors for the cometabolic degradation of TCE by phenol-oxidizing microorganisms. Environ Technol 17, 1351–1359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Gleason PJ, Kavanaugh MC, Ozbilgen MM, Blowers MA, Carroll PJ, Kuersteiner JD, Boone TJ (1991): A remediation program that is working. Hazard Mater Control 4, 25–31Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Barrera JA (1993): Air sparging and vapor extraction as a means of removing chlorinated and BTEX compounds in complex groundwater conditions. Ground Water Manage 17, 541–555Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Kirtland BC, Aelion CM (2000): Petroleum mass removal from low permeability sediment using air sparging/soil vapor extraction: impact of continuous or pulsed operation. J Contam Hydrol 41, 367–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Kubota K, Hashimoto M, Gohda H, Iwasaki K, Yagi O (1999): Degradation of TCE in soil columns byMethylocystis sp. M. In: Alleman B.C., Leeson A. (Eds). Proceedings of ‘5th Int.In-Situ On-Site Biorem Symp’ Batelle Press, Columbus, pp 101–106Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Doring S, Schulze S, Werner P (1999): Elimination of chlororganic compounds by adsorption and simultaneous microbiological degradation on activated carbon. Biol Abwasserreinig 12, 187–195Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    DeFlaun MF, Condee CW (1997): Electrokinetic transport of bacteria. J Hazard Mater 55, 263–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    Kelly WR, Saliga MP, Machesky ML, Freedman DL (1996): Biodegradation of BTEX under iron-reducing conditions in batch microcosms. eeding of ‘WEFTEC ’96-96th Annu Conf Expo’ Water Environment Federation, Alexandria, pp 161–172Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Gu B, Liang L, Cameron P, West OR, Korte N (1997): Degradation of TCE and PCB by Fe and Fe-Pd bimetals in the presence of a surfactant and a cosolvent. Proceeding of ‘Int Containment Technol Conf’ National Technical Information Service, Springfield, pp 760–766Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    Shen P, Rabideau AJ (1998): Enhanced degradation of TCE in the presence of metallic iron and soil/smectites. Hazard Ind Wastes 30, 349–358Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    Hong MS, Farmayan WF, Dortch IJ, Chiang CY, McMillan SK, Schnoor JL (2001): Phytoremediation of MTBE from a groundwater plume. Environ Sci Technol 35 (6): 1231–1239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Newman LA, Wang X, Muiznieks IA, Ekuan G, Ruszaj M, Cortellucci R, Domroes D, Karscig G, Newman T, Crampton RS, Hashmonay RA, Yost MG, Heilman PE, Duffy J, Gordon MP, Strand SE (1999): Remediation of TCE in an artificial aquifer with trees. A controlled field study. Environ Sci Technol 33, 2257–2265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Doty SL, Shang TQ, Wilson AM, Tangen J, Westergreen AD, Newman LA, Strand SE, Gordon MP (2000): Enhanced metabolism of halogenated hydrocarbons in transgenic plants containing mammalian cytochrome P450 2E1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97, 6287–6291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Schroll R, Bierling B, Cao G, Doerfler U, Lahaniati M, Langenbach T, Scheunert I, Winkler R (1994): Uptake pathways of organic chemicals from soil by agricultural plants. Chemosphere 28, 297–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    Briggs GG, Bromilow RH (1983): Relationships Between Lipophilicity and the Distribution of Non-Ionized Chemicals in Barley Shoots Following Uptake By the Roots. Pesticide Science 14(5): 492–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    Rigitano RLO, Briggs GG (1986): Phloem Translocation of Xenobiotics in Plants — A Physicochemical Approach. Pesticide Sci 17, 62–63Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    Burken JG, Schnoor JL (1998): Predictive relationships for uptake of organic contaminants by hybrid poplar trees. Environ Sci Tech 32, 3379–3385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    Toppp E, Scheunert I, Attar A, Korte F (1986): Factors affecting the uptake of14C organic chemicals by plants from soil. Ecotox Env Saf 11, 219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    Newman LA, Strand SE, Choe N, Duffy J, Ekuan G, Ruszaj M, Shurtleff BB, Wilmoth J, Heilman PE, Gordon MP, (1997): Uptake and bioremediation of trichloroethylene by hybrid poplars. Environ Sci Technol 31, 1062–1067CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    Narayanan M, Davis LC, Erickson LE (1995): Fate of Volatile Chlorinated Organic-Compounds in a Laboratory Chamber With Alfalfa Plants. Environ Sci Technol 29, 2437–2444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    Keymeulen R, Schamp N, Van Langenhove H (1993): Factors affecting airbourne monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon uptake by plants. Atmos Environ 27, 175–180Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    Hiatt MH (1999): Leaves as an indicator of exposure to airborne volatile organic compounds. Environ Sci Technol 33, 4126–4133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    Collins CD, Bell, JNB, Crews C, McFarlane A (1997): Uptake and metabolism of benzene by horticultural crops. In: Fourth International Symposium on Responses of Plant Metabolism to Air Pollution and Global Change. in Fourth International Symposium on Responses of Plant Metabolism to Air Pollution and Global Change. Egmond aan ZeeGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Jen MS (1995): Experiemntal method to measure the gaseous uptake of14C-toluene by foliage. Environ Expt Bot 35, 389–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    Reiderer M (1990): Estimating partitioning and transport of organic chemicals in the foligae/atmosphere system: Discussion of a fugacity based model. Environ Sci Technol 24, 829–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    Collins CD, Bell JNB, Crews C (2000): Benzene accumulation in horticultural crops. Chemosphere 40, 109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    Hiatt MH (1998) Bioconcentration factors for volatile organic compounds in vegetation. Analytical Chemistry 70, 851–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    Berthe-Corti L, Conradi B (1998): Microbial cleaning of waste gas containing volatile organic compounds in a bioreactor system with a closed gas circuit. Acta Biotechnol 18, 291–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    Caldwell ME, Suflita JM (2000): Detection of phenol and benzoate as intermediates of anaerobic benzene biodegradation under different terminal electron-accepting conditions. Environ Sci Technol 34, 1216–1220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    Oh YS, Shareefdeen Z (1994): Interactions Between Benzene, Toluene and P-Xylene (Btx) During Their Biodegradation. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 44, 533–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. [59]
    Ferro A, Kennedy J (1997): Fate of benzene in soils planted with alfalfa: Uptake, volatilization, and degradation. ACS Symposium Series 664, 223–237Google Scholar
  60. [60]
    Anderson TA, Walton BT (1992): Comparative plant uptake and microbial degradation of TCE in the rhizospheres of five plant species — Implications for bioremediation of contaminated surface soils. NTIS report ORN/VTM-12017, 204 pGoogle Scholar
  61. [61]
    Tsao CW, Song HG, Bartha R (1998): Metabolism of benzene, toluene, and xylene hydrocarbons in soil. Appl Environ Microbiol 64, 4924–4929Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    Durmishidze SV, Ugrekhelidze D, Djikia AN, Tsevelidze D (1969): The intermediate products of enzymatic oxidation of benzene and phenol. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 184, 466–469Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    Ugrekhelidze D, Korte F, Kvesitadze G (1997): Uptake and transformation of benzene and toluene by plant leaves. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 37, 24–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. [64]
    Orchard BJ, Doucette WJ, Chard JK, Bugbee B (2000): Uptake of trichloroethylene by hybrid poplar trees grown hydroponically in flow-through plant growth chambers. Environ Toxicol Chem 19, 895–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. [65]
    Scheunert I, Topp E, Schmitzer J, Klein W, Korte F (1985): Formation and fate of bound residues of [C-14] benzene and [C-14] chlorobenzenes in soil and plants. Ecotox Environ Saf 9, 159–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. [66]
    Fisher JW (2000): Physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for trichloroethylene and its oxidative metabolites. Environ Health Perspect 108, 265–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. [67]
    Bull RJ (2000): Mode of action of liver tumor induction by trichloroethylene and its metabolites, trichloroacetate and dichloroacetate. Environ Health Perspect 108, 241–59Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    Rhomberg LR (2000): Dose-response analyses of the carcinogenic effects of trichloroethylene in experimental animals. Environ Health Perspect 108, 343–58Google Scholar
  69. [69]
    Moore MM, Harrington-Brock K (2000): Mutagenicity of trichloroethylene and its metabolites: implications for the risk assessment of trichloroethylene. Environ Health Perspect 108, 215–23Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    Lash LH, Fisher JW, Lipscomb JC, Parker JC (2000): Metabolism of trichloroethylene. Environmental Health Perspectives 108: 177–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. [71]
    Wiltse CC, Rooney WL, Chen Z, Schwab AP, Banks MK (1998): Greenhouse evaluation of agronomic and crude oil phytoremediation potential among alfalfa genotypes. J Environ Qual 27, 169–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. [72]
    Cornejo JJ, Munoz FG, Ma CY, Stewart AJ (1999): Studies on the decontamination of air by plants. Ecotoxicology 8, 311–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. [73]
    Hollowell GP, Kuykendall LD, Gillette WK, Hashem FM, Hou LH, Tatem HE, Dutta SK (1999): Genetic transfer and expression of plasmid RP4 — TOL in Sinorhizabium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum and B-elkanii. Soil Biol Biochem 31, 1811–1819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. [74]
    Gordon I, Sojka SA, Gordon MP (2000): US 6080915 A, Patent CA Section: 3, 8 pp, Cont-in-part of US Ser No 369,886Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    Walton BT, Hoylman AM, Perez MM, Anderson TA, Johnson TR, Guthrie EA, Christman RF (1994): Rhizosphere microbial communities as plant defense against toxic substances in soils. ACS Symposium Series 563: 82–92 1994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. [76]
    Yaws CL (1998): Chemical properties handbook: physical, thermodynamic, environmental, transport and safety properties for organic and inorganic chemicals. New York, London: McGraw-HillGoogle Scholar
  77. [77]
    Schnabel WE, Dietz AC, Burken JG, Schnoor JL, Alvarez PJ (1997): Uptake and transformation of trichloroethylene by edible garden plants. Water Research 31: 816–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. [78]
    Gibson DT, Mahedevan V, Davy JJ (1974): Bacterial metabolism of para-and meta-xylene — Oxidation of the aromatic ring. J Bacteriology 119 (3) 930–936Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ecomed Publishers 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and TechnologyImperial College of Science Technology and MedicineLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of CopenhagenCopenhagen ØDenmark
  3. 3.Department of Plant Tissue CulturesInstitute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Czech Academy of SciencesPraha 6Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations