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Graptolithen aus ordovizischen Geschieben und die frühe Stammesgeschichte der Graptolithen

  • Dietmar Andres
Article

Zusammenfassung

Primitive Graptolithen aus dem Ordoviz werden mit dem rezenten PterobranchierRhabdopleura verglichen. Es wird abgeleitet, daß diese bäumchenförmigen primitiven GraptolithenRhabdopleura-ähnliche kriechende Vorläufer hatten. Die Entwicklung aller Graptolithen ausRhabdopleura-ähnlichen Vorfahren ist wahrscheinlich. — Der Weichkör-per der Graptolithen besaß zwei Arme wieRhabdopleura.

Beobachtungen an der Oberfläche des Graptolithen-Gehäuses stützen eine vonBeklemishev (1951) geäußerte Hypothese: Die Individuen der Graptolithen konnten ihre Gehäuse verlassen und lagerten beim Herumkriechen außen mit der Kopfscheibe Material ab (den sogenannten Cortex). Eine derartige sekundäre Gehäuseverdickung ist bei den rezenten Pterobranchiern be-kannt.

Abstract

Primitive Ordovician Graptolites are compared with the recent PterobranchRhabdopleura. It is concluded that these tree-like primitive Ordovician Graptolites had creepingRhabdopleura-like ancestors. Probably all Graptolites developed fromRhabdopleura-like ancestors. — The soft parts of Graptolites had two arms likeRhabdopleura.

Observations on the outer surface of Graptolites supportBeklemishev’s hypothesis, that Graptolite individuals were able to leave their tubes: moving outside on their tubes the individuals deposited material by their cephalic shields, forming the so called Cortex. A similar secondary deposition on the housing is known in recent Pterobranchs.

Résumé

Des Graptolithes primitifs de l’Ordovicien sont comparés avec le Ptérobranche actuelRhabdopleura. On peut démontrer que ces Graptoliths primitifs en forme de buisson avaient des ancêtres rampants comparables àRhabdopleura. II est probable que tous les Graptolithes ont évolué a partir d’ancêtres ressemblant àRhabdopleura. — Les individus des Graptolithes comportaient deux bras comme c’est le cas chezRhabdopleura.

De nouvelles observations à la surface extérieure du squelette des Graptolithes confirment une hypothese émise parBeklemishev (1951): Les individus pouvaient quitter leur loge et, en rampant à l’extérieur, ils sécrétaient avec leur disque céphalique une substance dite cortex. Un tel épaississement secondaire du squelette est connu chez les Ptérobranches actuels.

Peзимe:

Пpимитивныe opдoвикa cpaвнивaютcя c п ocлeдними плeвpы. н пpишeл к вывoду чтo этих дepeв ьeв кaк пpимитивный opдoвикa бы лa пoлзучaя плeв pыпoдoбных пpeдкoв. Нaвepнoe вce paзpaбoтaл плeвpe изпoдoбн ых пpeдкoв. — Мягкиe чacти былo двa opу жия кaк.

Зaмeчaния пo нapужнoй пoв epхнocти e пoд дepжки в гипoтeз у, e л юдeй кoтopыe cмoг ли пoки нуть cвoи тpубки: зa пepeх oд нa их тpубки лиц х paнeниe мaтepиaльных их ч epeпнoй щитoв, oбpaзующих т aк нaзывaeмую кopу. Анaлoги чный втopичный ocaждeния нa жильe являeтcя изв ecтным в пocлeдниe.

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© E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dietmar Andres
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipl.-Geol. Dietmar AndresInstitut für Paläontologie der Freien UniversitätBerlin 33

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