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Paläontologische Zeitschrift

, Volume 61, Issue 1–2, pp 109–131 | Cite as

The new Early Ordovician (Hunneberg Stage) graptolite genusParadelograptus (Kinnegraptidae), its phylogeny and biostratigraphy

  • Bernd-D. Erdtmann
  • Jörg Maletz
  • Juan Carlos Gutierrez Marco
Article

Abstract

Recent field investigations in the Sierra Morena (SW Spain), at the Hunneberg Mountain, Västergötland (Sweden) and in corresponding strata of the Cow Head Group (W. Newfoundland, Canada) as well as in the Lancefieldian (La2 to Bel) black shale bands of Victoria (Australia) have produced, inter alia, a diverse fauna of very delicate multibranched biradiate graptoloids (without bithecae), which possess “goniograptid” to “kinnegraptid” thecae and an adventitious number and arrangement of dichotomies (ranging from none to 6th and higher orders), reminiscent of the dendroid Adelograptinae Mu 1974. These characteristic forms are here assembled in the new genusParadelograptus, a genus which by virtue of its specific thecal morphology and its “adelograptoid” branching pattern is regarded as intermediate between the dendroid Adelograptinae Mu 1974 and the graptoloid family Kinnegraptidae Mu, 1974, into which this genus is here included. The following species are assigned toParadelograptus: P. onubensis n. sp. (type species),P. antiquus (Hall 1899),P. pritchardi (Hall 1899),P. smithi (Harris & Thomas 1938a),P. ramulosus (Harris & Thomas 1938a),P. sedecimus (Harris & Thomas (1938a),P. rarus (Harris & Thomas 1938a),P. problematicus (- “Clonograptus tenellus var. problematica”) Harris & Thomas 1938a,P. mosseboensis n. sp., andP. kinnegraptoides n. sp. A close relation toParadelograptus is also presumed for “Clonograptustenellus sensu lato” Cooper & Stewart 1979, “Tetragraptus”chapmani Keble & Harris 1934, “Tetragraptus”bulmani Thomas 1973, and “Tetragraptus”clarkefieldi Thomas & Keble in Harris & Thomas 1938b. Morphogenetic relations betweenParadelograptus and the dichograptinid (?) genusTrichograptus Nicholson 1876, the sigmagraptinid generaLaxograptus Cooper & Fortey 1982 andEtagraptus Ruedemann, 1904 as well as to the previously established kinnegraptid generaKinnegraptus Skoglund 1961,Prokinnegraptus Mu 1974, andWuninograptus Ni 1981 are also postulated. PhylogeneticallyParadelograptus demonstrates that conservative anisograptoid features, such as the isograptid proximal branching mode and the adventitious positions of dicalycal thecae are retained and transferred both to the middle-late Arenig Kinnegraptidae and to the Sigmagraptinae, whereas the loss of bithecae, elongation of prothecal “tubes” (a goniograptid character) and formation of thecal apertural “lappets” as well as thecal periderm attenuation (kinnegraptid characters) are already introduced in stratigraphically early species belonging toParadelograptus.

Stratigraphically all species are characteristic of the globally transgressive Hunneberg Stage of Tjernvik, 1956 which corresponds to the interval La2 to Bel of the Australasian stages or to the interval not represented by strata of Tremadoc or Arenig age in their areas in Great Britain, where a hiatus separates these series.

Keywords

Ordovician Black Shale Ordovician Graptolite Graptolite Fauna High Order Dichotomy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Kurzfassung

Neuere Geländeuntersuchungen in der Sierra Morena (SW Spanien), am Hunneberg, Vastergötland (Schweden), und in gleichaltrigen unterordovizischen Schichten der Cow Head Gruppe (W. Neufundland, Kanada) sowie in der Lancefield-Bendigo Stufe (La2-Bel) von Victoria (Australien) erbrachten eine reiche Fauna zum Teil sehr feingliedriger, vielästiger, biradiater Graptoloiden (ohne Bitheken) mit »goniograptiden« bis »kinnegraptiden« Theken und einer ungeordneten Verteilung von Dichotomien. Diese Formen werden hier in einer neuen GattungParadelograptus n. gen. zusammengefaßt. Diese Gattung wird aufgrund ihrer spezifischen Thekenmorphologie und des »adelograptiden« Verzweigungsmodus als Übergangstaxon zwischen der dendroiden (bitheken-führenden) Unterfamilie Adelograptinae Mu 1974 und der graptoloiden Familie Kinnegraptidae Mu 1974 eingegliedert, zu denen diese neue Gattung gestellt wird. Folgende neue sowie bisher bekannte Arten werdenParadelograptus zugeordnet:P. onubensis n. sp. (Typusart),P. mosseboensis n. sp.,P. kinnegraptoides n. sp.,P. antiquus (Hall 1899),P. pritcbardi (Hall 1899),P. smithi (Harris & Thomas 1938a),P. ramulosus (Harris & Thomas 1938a),P. sedecimus (Harris & Thomas 1938a)P. rarus (Harris & Thomas 1938a) sowieP. problematicus (= »Clonograptustenellus var. problematica« Harris & Thomas 1938a). Weiterhin ist eine nane Verwandt-schaft für die folgenden Formen zu vermuten: »Clonograptustenellus sensu lato« Cooper & Stewart 1979, »Tetragraptus«chapmani Keble & Harris 1934, »Tetragraptus«clarkefieldi Thomas & Keble in Harris & Thomas 1938b und für »Tetragraptus«bulmani Thomas 1973. Morphogenetische Verbindungen zwischenParadelograptus und der dichograptiden (?) GattungTrichograptus Nicholson 1876, der sigmagraptiniden GattungenLaxograptus Cooper & Fortey 1982 undEtagraptus Ruedemann 1904 sowie den bisher bekannten kinnegraptiden GattungenKinnegraptus Skoglund 1961,Prokinnegraptus Mu 1974 undWuninograptus Ni 1981 werden ebenfalls vermutet. Entwicklungsgeschichtlich überlieferte anisograptide Merkmale wie die »isograptide« Proximalentwicklung und die unregelmäßige Anordnung der dikalykalen Theken bis hin zu den mittel-bis oberarenigischen Vertretern der Kinnegraptidae und Sigmagraptinae werden offensichtlich beibehalten, wohingegen Merkmale wie der Verlust der Bitheken und die Auslängung der prothekalen Bereiche (goniograptides Merkmal), die Ausbildung von Mün-dungsfortsätzen der Sikula und der Theken sowie die Peridermverdünnung (kinnegraptide Merkmale) bereits bei einigenParadelograptus- Arten sich im evolutiven Entwicklungsverlauf befinden bzw. vorgebildet sind.

Stratigraphisch gesehen sind dieParadelograptus-Arten charakteristisch für die weltweite transgressive Hunneberg-Stufe von Tjernvik (1956), die mit dem La2 bis Bel in Australien und Neuseeland zu korrelieren ist. In den Typusgebieten der Tremadoc- und Arenig-Stufen in Nordwales ist dieser geologische Abschnitt ablagerungsmäßig nicht repräsentiert bzw. enthält eine Diskordanz, die diesem Intervall entsprechen würde.

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Copyright information

© E. Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bernd-D. Erdtmann
    • 1
  • Jörg Maletz
    • 1
  • Juan Carlos Gutierrez Marco
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Geologie und Paläontologie der Technischen Universität BerlinBerlin 12
  2. 2.Departamento de Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencias GeologicasUniversidad ComplutenseMadridSpanien

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