Economic Botany

, 9:3

Chlorophyll derivatives—Their chemistry? commercial preparation and uses

  • John C. Kephart


These products are commercially obtained in the United States to the extent of about 80,000 pounds annually by extraction of about 32,000,000 pounds of alfalfa, for the most part by only three concerns. They are finding increasing use, not only in the manufacture of popular deodorants but also in medicinal preparations for treating anemia and hypertension, as a healing agent and in oral hygiene.

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Angelo, L. [Clinical studies on chloro- phyll]. La Riforma Medica 47: 83. 1931.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aoki, S. Experimental studies on effect of chlorophyll upon formation of haemoglobin. Sci-I- Kwai Med. Jour. 50: 1. 1931.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Banning, Mary. Practical methods of making and using multilayer filters. Jour. Opt. Soc. Am. 37: 792. 1947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barnes, T. C. Experimental studies of healing agents for human skin. Hahne- mann Mon. 83: 493. 1948.Google Scholar
  5. 4a.
    —, et al. Am. Jour. Surg. 82: 720. 1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.
    Becquerel, E. Action des rayons différem- ment refrangibles sur l’iodure et le bro- mure d’ argent; influence des matières colorantes. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris] 79: 185. 1874.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    Berzelius, J. Untersuchung des Blattgrüns (Chlorophylls). Ann. Chemie 27: 296. 1838.Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    Bcyersdorfer, P., und Hess, W. Über die Einwirkung von ultravioletten Strahlen auf Saccharose Lösungen. Ber. Deut. Chem. Ges. 57: 1708. 1924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    Blum, H. F. Medical Physics.Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    Böhi, J. Zinkoxyd und Chlorophyll als optische Sensibilisatoren. Hclvet. Chim. Acta 12: 121. 1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 10.
    Bollman, J. L., and Sheard, C. The bili- rubin content of the blood following injections of chlorophyll. Am. Jour. Physiol. 83: 239. 1927.Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    Bowers, W. F. Chlorophyll in wound heal- ing and suppurative disease. Am. Jour. Surg. 73: 37. 1947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 12.
    British Patent No. 387,934. 1933.Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    Burgi. E. Chlorophyll als Pharmakon. 1932.Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    -. Das Chlorophyll als blutbildendes und belebendes Agens. Therapeutische Monatshefte. Jan.-Feb., 1918.Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    Buttitta, P. L. Azione del chlorofillinato di sodio sulla coagulazione del sangue. Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper. 22: 593. 1946.Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Carpenter, E. B. Clinical experiences with chlorophyll preparations. With particu- lar reference to chronic osteomyelitis and chronic ulcers. Am. Jour. Surg. 77: 167. 1949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 17.
    Chipault, J. R., and Lundberg, W. O. Course and mechanism of autoxidation of fats. Univ. Minn., Hormel Inst., Ann. Rep. 1946–47: 9–14. [Chem. Abst. 44: 8135. 1950].Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    Combes, F. C., et al. Chlorophyll in topi- cal therapy. N. Y. State Jour. Med. 52: 1025. 1952.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    Conant, J. B., and Mover, W. W. Studies in chlorophyll series. III. Products of the phase test. Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. 52: 3013. 1930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    —, et al. Studies in the chlorophyll series. IV. The degradation of chloro- phyll and allomerized chlorophyll to simple chlorins. Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. 53: 359. 1931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    Dijkstra, B. K. S. Deodorant activity of chlorophyll. Nederl. Tijds. Geneesk. 95: 208. 1951.Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    Dupont, R., et Duhamel, G. Chlorophylle et cancer. Bull. Assoc. Franc. l’étude cancer. 24: 15. 1935.Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    Ellis, C., and Wells, A. A. The chemical action of ultra violet rays. [Rev. ed. by F. F. Heyroth]. 961 pp. 1941.Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    Emerson, R. The relation between maxi- mum rate of photosynthesis and concen- tration of chlorophyll. Jour. Gen. Physiol. 12: 609. 1929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Figge, F. H. J., et al. Cancer detection and therapy. Affinity of neoplastic, em- bryonic, and traumatized tissues for por-phyrins and metalloporphyrins. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. & Med. 68: 640. 1948.Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    Finocchi, G. Considerazioni sull’ uso della chlorofillina nell’ozena. Minerva Med. 43(1): 134. 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 27.
    Fischer, H., and Orth. Die “Chemie des Pyrroles”. Akademische Verlagsgesell- schaft. Leipzig. 1940.Google Scholar
  29. 27a.
    —. Fortschritte der Chlorophyllchemie. Naturwiss. 28: 401. 1940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 28.
    Fleischer, W. E. The relation between chlorophyll content and rate of photo- synthesis. Jour. Gen. Physiol. 18: 573. 1935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 29.
    Frank, C. J., and Loomis, W. E. Photo- synthesis in plants. 500 pp. 1949.Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    Gale, E. S., and Staneslow, B. J. Rheology of carbon paper inks. Am. Ink Maker 28: 34. 1950.Google Scholar
  33. 31.
    Gassner, G., und Goeze, G. Assimilations- verhalten, Chlorophyllgehalt und Tran- spirationsgrösse von Getreideblättern mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Kalium- und Stickstoffernährung. Zeits. Bot. 27: 257. 1934.Google Scholar
  34. 32.
    Ghosh, J. C., and Sen Gupta, S. B. Photo- chemical reduction of methyl red by phenylhydrazine, using chlorophyll solu-tion as sensitizer. Jour. Indian Chem. Soc. 11: 65. 1934.Google Scholar
  35. 33.
    Gruskin, B. Chlorophyll: Its therapeutic place in acute and suppurative disease; preliminary report of clinical use and rationale. Am. Jour. Surg. 49: 49. 1940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 34.
    Hale. U. S. Patent 2,445,778. 1948.Google Scholar
  37. 35.
    -. U. S. Patent 2,460,284. 1949.Google Scholar
  38. 36.
    Harrison, J. W. E., et al. A practical evaluation of “Chlorophyll” in controlling breath odors. Soc. Cosm. Chem., Ann. Meet. 1952.Google Scholar
  39. 37.
    Hoppe-Seyler, F. Über das Chlorophyll der Pflanzen. I. Zeits. Physiol. Chemie 3: 339. 1879.Google Scholar
  40. 38.
    Hormel Inst., Univ. Maine, Ann. Rep. 1946–47.Google Scholar
  41. 39.
    Hughes, J. H., and Latner, A. L. Chloro- phyll and haemoglobin regeneration after haemorrhage. Jour. Physiol. 86: 388. 1936.Google Scholar
  42. 40.
    Johnston, E. S. The functions of radiation in the physiology of plants. II. Some effects of near infra-red radiation on plants. Smithson. Inst. Wash., Publ. Misc. Coll. 87(14): 1–15. 1932.Google Scholar
  43. 41.
    Kennedy, S. R. The influence of mag- nesium deficiency, chlorophyll deficiency, and heat treatments on the rate of photosynthesis ofChlorella. Am. Jour. Bot. 27: 68. 1940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 42.
    Killian, J. A., and Panzrella, F. P. Com- parative studies of samples of perspira- tion collected from clean and unclean skins of human subjects. Toilet Goods Assoc., Proc, Sci. Sect. 7: 3. 1947.Google Scholar
  45. 43.
    Kostychev, S. Chemical plant physiology. [Eng. Trans. by C. J. Lyon]. 1931.Google Scholar
  46. 44.
    Krasnovskii, A. A., and Brin, G. P. Trans- fer of hydrogen from ascorbic acid to codehydrogenase I under action of light absorbed by chlorophyll. Doklady Akad. Nauk. 67: 325. 1949.Google Scholar
  47. 45.
    Kuen, F. M., und Püringer, Konstantia. Über die sensibilisierende Wirkung der Blattfarbstoffe Chlorophyll, Carotin und Xanthophyll. Biochem. Zeits. 286: 196. 1936.Google Scholar
  48. 46.
    Lowry. Post Grad. Med. 11: 523. 1952.Google Scholar
  49. 47.
    Maiwald, K. Wirkunk höher Nährstoff- gaben auf den Assimilationsapparat. Ang. Bot. 5: 33. 1923.Google Scholar
  50. 48.
    Marchlewski, L. Die Chemie des Chloro- phylls. 1895.Google Scholar
  51. 49.
    McDonnell, C. H., and Domalakes, E. F. Effects of toothbrushing with dentrifices containing chlorophyllin on gingivitis. Jour. Peridont. 23: 219. 1952.Google Scholar
  52. 50.
    McHargue, J. S. The role of manganese in plants. Jour. Am. Chem. Soc. 44: 1592. 1922.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 51.
    German Patent 720,224. 1943.Google Scholar
  54. 52.
    Meyer, H. Physik dunn R. Schichten.Google Scholar
  55. 53.
    Montgomery, R. M., and Nachtigall, H. B. Oral administration of chlorophyll frac- tions for body deodorization. Postgrad. Med. 8: 401. 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 54.
    Mori, Takeshi. Constituents of chloro- phyllin preparations for wound cure. Res. Inst. Nat. Res. Tokyo, Misc. Rep. 17-18: 174. 1950.Google Scholar
  57. 55.
    Niemiro, B. J. Effect of chlorophyll on delayed healing of pilonidal cyst wounds. Jour. Lancet 71: 364. 1951.Google Scholar
  58. 56.
    Anon. Oil, Paint and Drug Reporter. March 14, 1938.Google Scholar
  59. 57.
    Osamu, Makaki. Rept. Jap. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 16: 342. 1942.Google Scholar
  60. 58.
    Patek, A. J. Chlorophyll and regeneration of blood: Effect of administration of chlorophyll derivatives to patients with chronic hypochromic anemia. Arch. Int. Med. 57: 73. 1936.Google Scholar
  61. 59.
    Feed Age. January, 1952.Google Scholar
  62. 60.
    Plotnikow, I., und Weber, K. über den photochemischen Abbau der Nicotin- solze. Chem. Zeit. 55: 237. 1931.Google Scholar
  63. 61.
    Rentz, R. Chlorophyll und Blutbild. Skand. Arch. Physiol. 57: 121. 1929.Google Scholar
  64. 62.
    Roffo, A. H. Photoaktivität des Chloro- phylls. Strahlentherapie 45: 115. 1932.Google Scholar
  65. 63.
    Rothemunde, P. Before Scientific Sect. Amer. Pharm. Mfgrs. Ass. Feb. 3, 1953. (Quoted in Drug and Allied Ind., p. 10, 1953).Google Scholar
  66. 64.
    -. Medical Physics.Google Scholar
  67. 65.
    Ruchkin, V. N. [The quality of linseed oil obtained from flaxseed at early stages of maturity]. Masloboino Zhirovoe Delo 15(6): 6–8. 1939. [Chem. Abst. 34: 3513. 1940].Google Scholar
  68. 66.
    Schertz, F. M. Isolation of chlorophyll, carotene and xanthophyll by. improved methods. Ind. & Eng. Chem. 30: 1073. 1938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 67.
    Schmidt, H. Hydroxy carboxylic acids. U. S. Patent 2,587,906. 1952. [Chem. Abst. 46: 9123. 1952].Google Scholar
  70. 68.
    Schreiber, P. Research and Development Branch, Military Planning Div. Office of the Quartermaster General. Proc. Sci. Sect, Toilet Goods Assoc. 4: 14. 1945.Google Scholar
  71. 69.
    Schülke, H. über die Stoffwechselwirkung der Porphyrine. Biochem. Zeits. 311: 146. 1942.Google Scholar
  72. 70.
    Schunck, E. Proc. Roy. Soc. London 39: 348. 1885; 44: 448. 1888. [Cited by R. Willstaeter, Investigations on Chloro-phyll. Ref. 86].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 71.
    Serling, M. E. Control of body and breath odors with chlorophyll fractions. Vet. Med. 45: 291. 1950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 71a.
    —. Clinical use of therapeutic agents containing chlorophyll. Vet. Med. 47: 155. 1952.Google Scholar
  75. 72.
    Smith, L. W. Chlorophyll: an experimen- tal study of its water-soluble derivatives. Remarks upon history, chemistry, tox- icity and antibacterial properties of water-soluble chlorophyll derivatives as therapeutic agents. Am. Jour. Med. Sci. 207: 647. 1944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 73.
    —, and Livingston, A. E. Wound heal- ing, an experimental study of water solu- ble chlorophyll derivatives in conjunc- tion with various antibacterial agents. Am. Jour. Surg. 67: 30. 1945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 73a.
    —, and Sano, M. E. Chlorophyll: an experimental study of its water soluble derivatives. IV. The effect of water solu- ble chlorophyll derivatives and other agents upon fibroblasts in tissue culture. Jour. Lab. Clin. Med. 29: 241. 1944.Google Scholar
  78. 74.
    —, and Spaulding, E. H. The bacteri- cidal and bacteriostatic action of water soluble chlorophylla upon standard pathogenic cultures. Am. Jour. Med. Sci. 207: 647. 1944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 75.
    Wright, H. P. Present status of gold therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Ca- nadian Med. Assoc, Jour. 59: 3.59. 1948.Google Scholar
  80. 76.
    Stokes, G. G. On the supposed identity of biliverdin with chlorophyll with remarks on the constitution of chlorophyll. Proc. Roy. Soc. London 13: 144. 1864.Google Scholar
  81. 77.
    Stoklasa, J. Über die Bedeutung der Ein- wirkung der ultravioletten Strahlen auf die photochemische Synthese der Kohle-hydrate in der chlorophyllhaltigen Zelle. Strahlentherapie 6: 119. 1915.Google Scholar
  82. 78.
    Tinao, M. M., e Vidal, A. Z. Medicamen- tos protectores de la piel para las radi- aciones ultravioletas. Trab. Inst. Nac. Cien. Med. 6: 443. 1945-46.Google Scholar
  83. 79.
    Tixier, L., et al. La thérapeutique des maladies par excès de cholestérol. Rev. Med. Paris 54: 204. 1937.Google Scholar
  84. 80.
    U. S. Patent 2,481,366. 1950.Google Scholar
  85. 81.
    Verdeil, F. Recherches sur la matière colorante verte des plantes et sur la matière rouge du sang. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. [Paris] 33: 689. 1851.Google Scholar
  86. 82.
    Vidal, Antonio. Photosensitizing and photo- protector substances. II. Trab. Inst. Nac. Cien. Med. 6: 465. 1945-46.Google Scholar
  87. 83.
    Wagner-Jauregg, “Chemische Therapie”. Basel. 1948.Google Scholar
  88. 84.
    Wasielewski, E. V., und Albrecht, A. Der Wirkungsmechanismus des Chlorophylls bei der Desodoration. Arzn. Forsch. 2: 448. 1952.Google Scholar
  89. 85.
    Westcott, F. H. Oral chlorophyll fractions for body and breath deodorization. N. Y. State Jour. Med. 50: 698. 1950.Google Scholar
  90. 86.
    Willstaeter, R., and Stoll, A. Investiga- tions on chlorophyll. (Trans. by Schertz and Merz].Google Scholar
  91. 87.
    Winterstein, A., und Stein, Gertrud. Frak- tionierung. und. Reindarstellung. orga- nischer Substanzen nach dem Prinzip der chromatographischen Adsorptionsanalyse. Zeits. Physiol. Chemie 220: 247. 1933.Google Scholar
  92. 88.
    Wunderer, A. The use of light filters for- ultraviolet wavelengths in the protection of human skin against strong radiation. Chem. Zeit. 65: 294. 1941.Google Scholar
  93. 89.
    Zickgraf, G. Ueber parenterale Chloro- phyllintherapie. Münch. Med. Wochen- schrift 79: 998. 1932.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1955

Authors and Affiliations

  • John C. Kephart
    • 1
  1. 1.National Chlorophyll and Chemical Co.Lamar

Personalised recommendations