The effect of microclimate variables on development ofClonostachys rosea and biocontrol ofBotrytis cinerea was investigated on rose leaves and crop residues. C.rosea established and sporulated abundantly on inoculated leaflets incubated for 7–35 days at 10°, 20° and 30°C and then placed on paraquat—chloramphenical agar (PCA) for 15 days at 20°C. On leaflets kept at 10°C, the sporulation after incubation on PCA increased from 60% to 93% on samples taken 7 to 21 days after inoculation, but decreased to 45% on material sampled after 35 days. A similar pattern was observed on leaves incubated at either 20° or 30°C. The sporulation ofC. rosea on leaf disks on PCA was not affected when the onset of high humidity occurred 0, 4, 8, 12 or 16 h after inoculation. However, sporulation was reduced to 54–58% on leaflets kept for 20–24 h under dry conditions after inoculation and before being placed on PCA. The fungus sporulated on 68–74% of the surface of leaf disks kept for up to 24 h at high humidity after inoculation, but decreased to 40–51% if the high humidity period before transferral to PCA was prolonged to 36–48 h. The growth ofC. rosea on leaflets was reduced at low inoculum concentrations (103 and 104 conidia/ml) because of competition with indigenous microorganisms, but at higher concentrations (105 and 106 conidia/ml) the indigenous fungi were inhibited. Regardless of the time of application ofC. rosea in relation toB. cinerea, the pathogen’s sporulation was reduced by more than 99%. The antagonist was able to parasitize hyphae and conidiophores ofB. cinerea in the leaf residues. AsC. rosea exhibited flexibility in association with rose leaves under a wide range of microclimatic conditions, and in reducingB. cinerea sporulation on rose leaves and residues, it can be expected to suppress the pathogen effectively in rose production systems.
Biological control Botrytis cinereaClonostachys roseacrop residues Gliocladium roseummicroclimate variables rose Rosa hybrida