The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging

, Volume 12, Issue 7, pp 433–450 | Cite as

Sarcopenia: Its assessment, etiology, pathogenesis, consequences and future perspectives

  • Y. RollandEmail author
  • S. Czerwinski
  • G. Abellan van Kan
  • J. E. Morley
  • M. Cesari
  • G. Onder
  • J. Woo
  • R. Baumgartner
  • F. Pillard
  • Y. Boirie
  • W. M. C. Chumlea
  • B. Vellas


Sarcopenia is a loss of muscle protein mass and loss of muscle function. It occurs with increasing age, being a major component in the development of frailty. Current knowledge on its assessment, etiology, pathogenesis, consequences and future perspectives are reported in the present review. On-going and future clinical trials on sarcopenia may radically change our preventive and therapeutic approaches of mobility disability in older people.


Muscle Strength Muscle Mass Resistance Training Skeletal Muscle Mass Muscle Protein Synthesis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Landi, F., et al., Body mass index and mortality among older people living in the community. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1999.47(9): p. 1072–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rosenberg, Summary comments. Am J Clin Nutr, 1989(50): p. 1231–3.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schwartz, R.S., Sarcopenia and physical performance in old age: introduction. Muscle Nerve Suppl, 1997.5: p. S10–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hughes, V.A., et al., Longitudinal changes in body composition in older men and women: role of body weight change and physical activity. Am J Clin Nutr, 2002. 76(2): p. 473–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vandervoort, A.A., Aging of the human neuromuscular system. Muscle Nerve, 2002. 25(1): p. 17–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Roubenoff, R. and V.A. Hughes, Sarcopenia: current concepts. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2000.55(12): p. M716–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Morley, J.E., et al., Sarcopenia. J Lab Clin Med, 2001.137(4): p. 231–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Evans, W., Functional and metabolic consequences of sarcopenia. J Nutr, 1997. 127(5 Suppl): p. 998S-1003S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gallagher, D., et al., Appendicular skeletal muscle mass: effects of age, gender, and ethnicity. J Appl Physiol, 1997. 83(1): p. 229–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baumgartner, R.N., et al., Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in New Mexico. Am J Epidemiol, 1998.147(8): p. 755–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baumgartner, R., In vivo body composition studies. Ann NY Acad Sci ed. Body composition in healthy aging, ed. W.J. Yasumura S, Pierson RN Jr. Vol. 904. 2000. 437–448.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rolland, Y., et al., Sarcopenia, calf circumference, and physical function of elderly women: a cross-sectional study. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2003.51(8): p. 1120–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Janssen, I., et al., Skeletal muscle cutpoints associated with elevated physical disability risk in older men and women. Am J Epidemiol, 2004.159(4): p. 413–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Melton, L.J., 3rd, et al., Epidemiology of sarcopenia. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2000.48(6): p. 625–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kallman, D.A., C.C. Plato, and J.D. Tobin, The role of muscle loss in the age-related decline of grip strength: cross-sectional and longitudinal perspectives. J Gerontol, 1990. 45(3): p. M82–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Janssen, I., et al., The healthcare costs of sarcopenia in the United States. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2004. 52(1): p. 80–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thomas, D.R., Loss of skeletal muscle mass in aging: Examining the relationship of starvation, sarcopenia and cachexia. Clin Nutr, 2007.26(4): p. 389–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Morley, J.E., Weight loss in the nursing home. J Am Med Dir Assoc, 2007. 8(4): p. 201–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Morley, J.E., D.R. Thomas, and M.M. Wilson, Cachexia: pathophysiology and clinical relevance. Am J Clin Nutr, 2006. 83(4): p. 735–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Friedman, P.J., A.J. Campbell, and T.H. Caradoc-Davies, Prospective trial of a new diagnostic criterion for severe wasting malnutrition in the elderly. Age Ageing, 1985. 14(3): p. 149–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Girasole, G., et al., Oestrogens prevent the increase of human serum soluble interleukin-6 receptor induced by ovariectomy in vivo and decrease its release in human osteoblastic cells in vitro. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 1999.51(6): p. 801–7.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Waters, D.L., et al., Skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and lean body mass in healthy exercising elderly. Mech Ageing Dev, 2003.124(3): p. 301–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    van Kan, G.A., et al., Frailty: toward a clinical definition. J Am Med Dir Assoc, 2008. 9(2): p. 71–2.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Abellan Van Kan, A., et al., The I.A.N.A Task Force on frailty assessment of older people in clinical practice. J Nutr Health Aging, 2008.12(1): p. 29–37.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chumlea, W.C., et al., Techniques of assessing muscle mass and function (sarcopenia) for epidemiological studies of the elderly. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 1995.50 Spec No: p. 45–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chumlea, W.C., A.F. Roche, and P. Webb, Body size, subcutaneous fatness and total body fat in older adults. Int J Obes, 1984. 8(4): p. 311–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chumlea, W.C. and R.N. Baumgartner, Status of anthropometry and body composition data in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr, 1989.50(5 Suppl): p. 1158–66; discussion 1231–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Baumgartner RN, W.D., Sarcopenia and sarcopenic-obesity. Pathy MSJ ed. Principles and Practice of Geriatric Medicine. Vol. 2. 2006, United Kingdom: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. 909–933.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Heymsfield, S.B., et al., Appendicular skeletal muscle mass: measurement by dualphoton absorptiometry. Am J Clin Nutr, 1990.52(2): p. 214–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen, Z., et al., Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a valid tool for assessing skeletal muscle mass in older women. J Nutr, 2007.137(12): p. 2775–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim, J., et al., Intermuscular adipose tissue-free skeletal muscle mass: estimation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in adults. J Appl Physiol, 2004.97(2): p. 655–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Newman, A.B., et al., Sarcopenia: alternative definitions and associations with lower extremity function. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2003.51(11): p. 1602–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Janssen, I., S.B. Heymsfield, and R. Ross, Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2002.50(5): p. 889–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Delmonico, M.J., et al., Alternative definitions of sarcopenia, lower extremity performance, and functional impairment with aging in older men and women. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2007.55(5): p. 769–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Song, M.Y., et al., Sarcopenia and increased adipose tissue infiltration of muscle in elderly African American women. Am J Clin Nutr, 2004.79(5): p. 874–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Visser, M., et al., Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2005. 60(3): p. 324–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chumlea, W.C. and A.F. Roche, Ultrasonic and skinfold caliper measures of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness in elderly men and women. Am J Phys Anthropol, 1986.71(3): p. 351–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Reeves, N.D., C.N. Maganaris, and M.V. Narici, Ultrasonographic assessment of human skeletal muscle size. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2004.91(1): p. 116–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chumlea, W.C., R.N. Baumgartner, and A.F. Roche, Specific resistivity used to estimate fat-free mass from segmental body measures of bioelectric impedance. Am J Clin Nutr, 1988.48(1): p. 7–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chumlea, W.C., et al., Bioelectric and anthropometric assessments and reference data in the elderly. J Nutr, 1993.123(2 Suppl): p. 449–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Baumgartner, R.N., W.C. Chumlea, and A.F. Roche, Estimation of body composition from bioelectric impedance of body segments. Am J Clin Nutr, 1989.50(2): p. 221–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Janssen, I., et al., Estimation of skeletal muscle mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis. J Appl Physiol, 2000. 89(2): p. 465–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Narici, M. and P. Cerretelli, Changes in human muscle architecture in disuse-atrophy evaluated by ultrasound imaging. J Gravit Physiol, 1998.5(1): p. P73–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Martin, A.D., et al., Anthropometric estimation of muscle mass in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1990. 22(5): p. 729–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Heymsfield, S.B., et al., Anthropometric measurement of muscle mass: revised equations for calculating bone-free arm muscle area. Am J Clin Nutr, 1982. 36(4): p. 680–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Baumgartner, R.N., et al., Sarcopenic obesity predicts instrumental activities of daily living disability in the elderly. Obes Res, 2004.12(12): p. 1995–2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Heymsfield, S.B., et al., A radiographie method of quantifying protein-calorie undernutrition. Am J Clin Nutr, 1979. 32(3): p. 693–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rantanen, T., et al., Handgrip strength and cause-specific and total mortality in older disabled women: exploring the mechanism. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2003. 51(5): p. 636–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Overend, T.J., et al., Knee extensor and knee flexor strength: cross-sectional area ratios in young and elderly men. J Gerontol, 1992.47(6): p. M204–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Visser, M., et al., Reexamining the sarcopenia hypothesis. Muscle mass versus muscle strength. Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study Research Group. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2000.904: p. 456–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bassey, E.J., et al., Leg extensor power and functional performance in very old men and women. Clin Sci (Lond), 1992. 82(3): p. 321–7.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lauretani, F., et al., Age-associated changes in skeletal muscles and their effect on mobility: an operational diagnosis of sarcopenia. J Appl Physiol, 2003. 95(5): p. 1851–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Callahan, D., et al., Assessment of lower extremity muscle power in functionallylimited elders. Aging Clin Exp Res, 2007.19(3): p. 194–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cunningham, D.A., et al., Ageing and isokinetic plantar flexion. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1987.56(1): p. 24–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Larsson, L., G. Grimby, and J. Karlsson, Muscle strength and speed of movement in relation to age and muscle morphology. J Appl Physiol, 1979.46(3): p. 451–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Poulin, M.J., et al., Eccentric and concentric torques of knee and elbow extension in young and older men. Can J Sport Sci, 1992.17(1): p. 3–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vandervoort, A.A., J.F. Kramer, and E.R. Wharram, Eccentric knee strength of elderly females. J Gerontol, 1990.45(4): p. B125–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Roubenoff, R., Sarcopenia: effects on body composition and function. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2003. 58(11): p. 1012–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rolland, Y.M., et al., Loss of appendicular muscle mass and loss of muscle strength in young postmenopausal women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2007. 62(3): p. 330–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Baumgartner, R.N., et al., Predictors of skeletal muscle mass in elderly men and women. Mech Ageing Dev, 1999. 107(2): p. 123–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Malbut, K.E., S. Dinan, and A. Young, Aerobic training in the ‘oldest old’: the effect of 24 weeks of training. Age Ageing, 2002. 31(4): p. 255–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zachwieja, J.J. and K.E. Yarasheski, Does growth hormone therapy in conjunction with resistance exercise increase muscle force production and muscle mass in men and women aged 60 years or older? Phys Ther, 1999.79(1): p. 76–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Morley, J.E. and R.N. Baumgartner, Cytokine-related aging process. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2004. 59(9): p. M924–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Goodpaster, B.H., et al., Attenuation of skeletal muscle and strength in the elderly: The Health ABC Study. J Appl Physiol, 2001.90(6): p. 2157–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kortebein, P., et al., Effect of 10 days of bed rest on skeletal muscle in healthy older adults. Jama, 2007.297(16): p. 1772–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Lee, J.S., et al., Associated Factors and Health Impact of Sarcopenia in Older Chinese Men and Women: A Cross-Sectional Study. Gerontology, 2007. 53(6): p. 166–172.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sheffield-Moore, M., et al., Postexercise protein metabolism in older and younger men following moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2004.287(3): p. E513–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Coggan, A.R., et al., Skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance training in 60- to 70-yr-old men and women. J Appl Physiol, 1992.72(5): p. 1780–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Charifi, N., et al., Effects of endurance training on satellite cell frequency in skeletal muscle of old men. Muscle Nerve, 2003.28(1): p. 87–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Yarasheski, K.E., J.J. Zachwieja, and D.M. Bier, Acute effects of resistance exercise on muscle protein synthesis rate in young and elderly men and women. Am J Physiol, 1993. 265(2 Pt 1): p. E210–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hasten, D.L., et al., Resistance exercise acutely increases MHC and mixed muscle protein synthesis rates in 78–84 and 23–32 yr olds. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2000. 278(4): p. E620–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jozsi, A.C., et al., Changes in power with resistance training in older and younger men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 1999.54(11): p. M591–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Welle, S., C. Thornton, and M. Statt, Myofibrillar protein synthesis in young and old human subjects after three months of resistance training. Am J Physiol, 1995. 268(3 Pt 1): p. E422–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fiatarone, M.A., et al., Exercise training and nutritional supplementation for physical frailty in very elderly people. N Engl J Med, 1994.330(25): p. 1769–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Yarasheski, K.E., et al., Resistance exercise training increases mixed muscle protein synthesis rate in frail women and men >/=76 yr old. Am J Physiol, 1999.277(1 Pt 1): p. El 18–25.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ivey, F.M., et al., Effects of age, gender, and myostatin genotype on the hypertrophic response to heavy resistance strength training. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2000. 55(11):p. M641–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Cress, M.E., et al., Exercise: effects on physical functional performance in independent older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 1999.54(5): p. M242–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hikida, R.S., et al., Effects of high-intensity resistance training on untrained older men. II. Muscle fiber characteristics and nucleo-cytoplasmic relationships. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2000. 55(7): p. B347–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hagerman, F.C., et al., Effects of high-intensity resistance training on untrained older men. I. Strength, cardiovascular, and metabolic responses. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2000.55(7): p. B336–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hameed, M., S.D. Harridge, and G. Goldspink, Sarcopenia and hypertrophy: a role for insulin-like growth factor-1 in aged muscle? Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 2002. 30(1): p. 15–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Trappe, S., Master athletes. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2001. 11 Suppl: p. S196–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Raguso, CA., et al., A 3-year longitudinal study on body composition changes in the elderly: role of physical exercise. Clin Nutr, 2006.25(4): p. 573–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Edstrom, E., et al., Factors contributing to neuromuscular impairment and sarcopenia during aging. Physiol Behav, 2007. 92(1-2): p. 129–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Lauretani, F., et al., Axonal degeneration affects muscle density in older men and women. Neurobiol Aging, 2006.27(8): p. 1145–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Belanger, A.Y. and A.J. McComas, Extent of motor unit activation during effort. J Appl Physiol, 1981.51(5): p. 1131–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Andersen, J.L., G. Terzis, and A. Kryger, Increase in the degree of coexpression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle fibers of the very old. Muscle Nerve, 1999. 22(4): p. 449–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Essen-Gustavsson, B. and O. Borges, Histochemical and metabolic characteristics of human skeletal muscle in relation to age. Acta Physiol Scand, 1986. 126(1): p. 107–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Oertel, G., Changes in human skeletal muscles due to ageing. Histological and histochemical observations on autopsy material. Acta Neuropathol (Berl), 1986. 69(3-4): p. 309–13.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lexell, J., Human aging, muscle mass, and fiber type composition. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 1995.50 Spec No: p. 11–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    McComas, A.J., 1998 ISEK Congress Keynote Lecture: Motor units: how many, how large, what kind? International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology. J Electromyogr Kinesiol, 1998. 8(6): p. 391–402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Doherty, T.J., Invited review: Aging and sarcopenia. J Appl Physiol, 2003. 95(4): p. 1717–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Doherty, T.J., et al., Effects of motor unit losses on strength in older men and women. J Appl Physiol, 1993. 74(2): p. 868–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Larsson, L., B. Sjodin, and J. Karlsson, Histochemical and biochemical changes in human skeletal muscle with age in sedentary males, age 22–65 years. Acta Physiol Scand, 1978. 103(1): p. 31–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Lee, C.E., A. McArdle, and R.D. Griffiths, The role of hormones, cytokines and heat shock proteins during age-related muscle loss. Clin Nutr, 2007.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Porter, M.M., A.A. Vandervoort, and J. Lexell, Aging of human muscle: structure, function and adaptability. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 1995.5(3): p. 129–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Fargnoli, J., et al., Decreased expression of heat shock protein 70 mRNA and protein after heat treatment in cells of aged rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1990. 87(2): p. 846–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Edstrom, E., et al., Atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1 are downregulated in aging-related loss of skeletal muscle. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2006.61(7): p. 663–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Volpi, E., et al., The response of muscle protein anabolism to combined hyperaminoacidemia and glucose-induced hyperinsulinemia is impaired in the elderly. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2000. 85(12): p. 4481–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Boirie, Y., et al., Differential insulin sensitivities of glucose, amino acid, and albumin metabolism in elderly men and women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2001. 86(2): p. 638–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Goulet, E.D., et al., No difference in insulin sensitivity between healthy postmenopausal women with or without sarcopenia: a pilot study. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2007. 32(3): p. 426–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Boirie, Y., et al., Tissue-specific regulation of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic protein synthesis rates by insulin. Diabetes, 2001.50(12): p. 2652–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Guillet, C. and Y. Boirie, Insulin resistance: a contributing factor to age-related muscle mass loss? Diabetes Metab, 2005.31 Spec No 2: p. 5S20–5S26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Guillet, C., et al., Impaired anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis is associated with S6K1 dysregulation in elderly humans. Faseb J, 2004. 18(13): p. 1586–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Roubenoff, R., Catabolism of aging: is it an inflammatory process? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2003.6(3): p. 295–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rasmussen, B.B. and S.M Phillips, Contractile and nutritional regulation of human muscle growth. Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 2003. 31(3): p. 127–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Dionne, I.J., K.A. Kinaman, and E.T. Poehlman, Sarcopenia and muscle function during menopause and hormone-replacement therapy. J Nutr Health Aging, 2000. 4(3): p. 156–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Phillips, S.K., et al., The weakness of old age is not due to failure of muscle activation. J Gerontol, 1992.47(2): p. M45–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kramer, P.R., S.F. Kramer, and G. Guan, 17 beta-estradiol regulates cytokine release through modulation of CD16 expression in monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Arthritis Rheum, 2004.50(6): p. 1967–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Jacobsen, D.E., et al., Postmenopausal HRT and tibolone in relation to muscle strength and body composition. Maturitas, 2007.58(1): p. 7–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Taaffe, D.R., et al., Estrogen replacement, muscle composition, and physical function: The Health ABC Study. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2005. 37(10): p. 1741–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Gower, B.A. and L. Nyman, Associations among oral estrogen use, free testosterone concentration, and lean body mass among postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2000. 85(12): p. 4476–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Volpi, E., R. Nazemi, and S. Fujita, Muscle tissue changes with aging. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2004.7(4): p. 405–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Brown, M., S.J. Birge, and W.M. Kohrt, Hormone replacement therapy does not augment gains in muscle strength or fat-free mass in response to weight-bearing exercise. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 1997.52(3): p. B166–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Morley, J.E., Growth hormone: fountain of youth or death hormone? J Am Geriatr Soc, 1999.47(12): p. 1475–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Musaro, A., et al., IGF-1 induces skeletal myocyte hypertrophy through calcineurin in association with GATA-2 and NF-ATc1. Nature, 1999. 400(6744): p. 581–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Chen, Y., J.D. Zajac, and H.E. MacLean, Androgen regulation of satellite cell function. J Endocrinol, 2005. 186(1): p. 21–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Blackman, M.R., et al., Growth hormone and sex steroid administration in healthy aged women and men: a randomized controlled trial. Jama, 2002. 288(18): p. 2282–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lange, K.H., et al., GH administration and discontinuation in healthy elderly men: effects on body composition, GH-related serum markers, resting heart rate and resting oxygen uptake. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2001. 55(1): p. 77–86.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Papadakis, M.A., et al., Growth hormone replacement in healthy older men improves body composition but not functional ability. Ann Intern Med, 1996. 124(8): p. 708–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Thompson, J.L., et al., The effects of recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I and growth hormone on body composition in elderly women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1995. 80(6): p. 1845–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Rudman, D., et al., Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old. N Engl J Med, 1990. 323(1): p. 1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Yarasheski, K.E., et al., Effect of growth hormone and resistance exercise on muscle growth and strength in older men. Am J Physiol, 1995.268(2 Pt 1): p. E268–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Clavel, S., et al., Atrophy-related ubiquitin ligases, atrogin-1 and MuRF1 are up-regulated in aged rat Tibialis Anterior muscle. Mech Ageing Dev, 2006. 127(10): p. 794–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Morley, J.E., et al., Longitudinal changes in testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone in healthy older men. Metabolism, 1997. 46(4): p. 410–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Morley, J.E., et al., Potentially predictive and manipulable blood serum correlates of aging in the healthy human male: progressive decreases in bioavailable testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and the ratio of insulin-like growth factor 1 to growth hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1997.94(14): p. 7537–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Galvao, D.A., et al., Exercise can prevent and even reverse adverse effects of androgen suppression treatment in men with prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis, 2007.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Tenover, J.S., Effects of testosterone supplementation in the aging male. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1992. 75(4): p. 1092–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Morley, J.E., et al., Effects of testosterone replacement therapy in old hypogonadal males: a preliminary study. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1993.41(2): p. 149–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Katznelson, L., et al., Increase in bone density and lean body mass during testosterone administration in men with acquired hypogonadism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1996. 81(12): p. 4358–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Sih, R., et al., Testosterone replacement in older hypogonadal men: a 12-month randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1997. 82(6): p. 1661–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ly, L.P., et al., A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of transdermal dihydrotestosterone gel on muscular strength, mobility, and quality of life in older men with partial androgen deficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2001. 86(9): p. 4078–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Kenny, A.M., et al., Effects of transdermal testosterone on bone and muscle in older men with low bioavailable testosterone levels. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2001. 56(5): p. M266–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Wittert, G.A., et al., Oral testosterone supplementation increases muscle and decreases fat mass in healthy elderly males with low-normal gonadal status. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2003.58(7): p. 618–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Emmelot-Vonk, M.H., et al., Effect of testosterone supplementation on functional mobility, cognition, and other parameters in older men: a randomized controlled trial. Jama, 2008.299(1): p. 39–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Borst, S.E., Interventions for sarcopenia and muscle weakness in older people. Age Ageing, 2004. 33(6): p. 548–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Genazzani, A.D., C. Lanzoni, and A.R. Genazzani, Might DHEA be considered a beneficial replacement therapy in the elderly? Drugs Aging, 2007.24(3): p. 173–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Percheron, G., et al., Effect of 1-year oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone to 60-to 80-year-old individuals on muscle function and cross-sectional area: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med, 2003.163(6): p. 720–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Perry, H.M., 3rd, et al., Longitudinal changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in older people. Metabolism, 1999.48(8): p. 1028–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Szulc, P., et al., Hormonal and lifestyle determinants of appendicular skeletal muscle mass in men: the MINOS study. Am J Clin Nutr, 2004. 80(2): p. 496–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Volpi, E., et al., Exogenous amino acids stimulate net muscle protein synthesis in the elderly. J Clin Invest, 1998.101(9): p. 2000–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Volpi, E., et al., Oral amino acids stimulate muscle protein anabolism in the elderly despite higher first-pass splanchnic extraction. Am J Physiol, 1999. 277(3 Pt 1): p. E513–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Boirie, Y., P. Gachon, and B. Beaufrere, Splanchnic and whole-body leucine kinetics in young and elderly men. Am J Clin Nutr, 1997.65(2): p. 489–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A., et al., Effect of Vitamin D on falls: a meta-analysis. Jama, 2004. 291(16): p. 1999–2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Visser, M, DJ. Deeg, and P. Lips, Low vitamin D and high parathyroid hormone levels as determinants of loss of muscle strength and muscle mass (sarcopenia): the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2003. 88(12): p. 5766–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Bischoff, H.A., et al., In situ detection of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor in human skeletal muscle tissue. Histochem J, 2001.33(1): p. 19–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Boland, R., Role of vitamin D in skeletal muscle function. Endocr Rev, 1986.7(4): p. 434–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Wassner, S.J., et al., Vitamin D Deficiency, hypocalcemia, and increased skeletal muscle degradation in rats. J Clin Invest, 1983.72(1): p. 102–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Jacques, P.F., et al., Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and its determinants in an elderly population sample. Am J Clin Nutr, 1997.66(4): p. 929–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Stein, M.S., et al., Falls relate to vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in an Australian nursing home and hostel. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1999.47(10): p. 1195–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Drinka, P.J., et al., Determinants of vitamin D levels in nursing home residents. J Am Med Dir Assoc, 2007. 8(2): p. 76–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Hamid, Z., et al., Vitamin D deficiency in residents of academic long-term care facilities despite having been prescribed vitamin D. J Am Med Dir Assoc, 2007. 8(2): p. 71–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Morley, J.E., Should all long-term care residents receive vitamin D? J Am Med Dir Assoc, 2007. 8(2): p. 69–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Roubenoff, R., et al., Monocyte cytokine production in an elderly population: effect of age and inflammation. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 1998.53(1): p. M20–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Schaap, L.A., et al., Inflammatory markers and loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength. Am J Med, 2006.119(6): p. 526 e9–17.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Payette, H., et al., Insulin-like growth factor-1 and interleukin 6 predict sarcopenia in very old community-living men and women: the Framingham Heart Study. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2003.51(9): p. 1237–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Morey, M.C., et al., Evaluation of a supervised exercise program in a geriatric population. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1989.37(4): p. 348–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Visser, M., et al., Relationship of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha with muscle mass and muscle strength in elderly men and women: the Health ABC Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2002. 57(5): p. M326–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Cesari, M., et al., Sarcopenia, obesity, and inflammation-results from the Trial of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibition and Novel Cardiovascular Risk Factors study. Am J Clin Nutr, 2005. 82(2): p. 428–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Ferrucci, L., et al., Serum IL-6 level and the development of disability in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1999.47(6): p. 639–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Mitch, W.E. and A.L. Goldberg, Mechanisms of muscle wasting. The role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. N Engl J Med, 1996.335(25): p. 1897–905.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Vincent, K.R., et al., Resistance exercise and physical performance in adults aged 60 to 83. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2002.50(6): p. 1100–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Yudkin, J.S., et al., Inflammation, obesity, stress and coronary heart disease: is interleukin-6 the link? Atherosclerosis, 2000.148(2): p. 209–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Ryan, A.S. and B.J. Nicklas, Reductions in plasma cytokine levels with weight loss improve insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese postmenopausal women. Diabetes Care, 2004.27(7): p. 1699–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Visser, M., et al., Leg muscle mass and composition in relation to lower extremity performance in men and women aged 70 to 79: the health, aging and body composition study. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2002.50(5): p. 897–904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Sipila, S. and H. Suominen, Knee extension strength and walking speed in relation to quadriceps muscle composition and training in elderly women. Clin Physiol, 1994. 14(4): p. 433–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Corcoran, M.P., S. Lamon-Fava, and R.A. Fielding, Skeletal muscle lipid deposition and insulin resistance: effect of dietary fatty acids and exercise. Am J Clin Nutr, 2007. 85(3): p. 662–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Roubenoff, R., Sarcopenic obesity: does muscle loss cause fat gain? Lessons from rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2000.904: p. 553–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Dirks, A.J., et al., Mitochondrial DNA mutations, energy metabolism and apoptosis in aging muscle. Ageing Res Rev, 2006.5(2): p. 179–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Stump, C.S., et al., Effect of insulin on human skeletal muscle mitochondrial ATP production, protein synthesis, and mRNA transcripts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2003. 100(13): p. 7996–8001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Bua, E.A., et al., Mitochondrial abnormalities are more frequent in muscles undergoing sarcopenia. J Appl Physiol, 2002.92(6): p. 2617–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Kent-Braun, J.A., A.V. Ng, and K. Young, Skeletal muscle contractile and noncontractile components in young and older women and men. J Appl Physiol, 2000. 88(2): p. 662–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Jubrias, S.A., et al., Large energetic adaptations of elderly muscle to resistance and endurance training. J Appl Physiol, 2001.90(5): p. 1663–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Melov, S., et al., Resistance exercise reverses aging in human skeletal muscle. PLoS ONE, 2007.2(5): p. e465.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Dupont-Versteegden, E.E., Apoptosis in muscle atrophy: relevance to sarcopenia. Exp Gerontol, 2005.40(6): p. 473–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Giresi, P.G., et al., Identification of a molecular signature of sarcopenia. Physiol Genomics, 2005. 21(2): p. 253–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Solomon, A. and P. Bouloux, Endocrine therapies for sarcopenia in older men. Br J Hosp Med (Lond), 2006. 67(9): p. 477–81.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Marzetti, E. and C. Leeuwenburgh, Skeletal muscle apoptosis, sarcopenia and frailty at old age. Exp Gerontol, 2006.41(12): p. 1234–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Leeuwenburgh, C., Role of apoptosis in sarcopenia. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2003. 58(11): p. 999–1001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Reed, T., et al., Genetic influences and grip strength norms in the NHLBI twin study males aged 59–69. Ann Hum Biol, 1991.18(5): p. 425–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Arden, N.K. and T.D. Spector, Genetic influences on muscle strength, lean body mass, and bone mineral density: a twin study. J Bone Miner Res, 1997. 12(12): p. 2076–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Huygens, W., et al., Linkage of myostatin pathway genes with knee strength in humans. Physiol Genomics, 2004.17(3): p. 264–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Frederiksen, H., et al., Hand grip strength: a phenotype suitable for identifying genetic variants affecting mid-and late-life physical functioning. Genet Epidemiol, 2002. 23(2): p. 110–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Carmelli, D. and T. Reed, Stability and change in genetic and environmental influences on hand-grip strength in older male twins. J Appl Physiol, 2000. 89(5): p. 1879–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Christensen, K., et al., Genetic and environmental influences on functional abilities in Danish twins aged 75 years and older. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2000.55(8): p. M446–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Sayer, A.A., et al., Does sarcopenia originate in early life? Findings from the Hertfordshire cohort study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2004.59(9): p. M930–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Yliharsila, H., et al., Birth size, adult body composition and muscle strength in later life. Int J Obes (Lond), 2007. 31(9): p. 1392–9.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Huygens, W., et al., Quantitative trait loci for human muscle strength: linkage analysis of myostatin pathway genes. Physiol Genomics, 2005.22(3): p. 390–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Roth, S.M., et al., CNTF genotype is associated with muscular strength and quality in humans across the adult age span. J Appl Physiol, 2001.90(4): p. 1205–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Schrager, M.A., et al., Insulin-like growth factor-2 genotype, fat-free mass, and muscle performance across the adult life span. J Appl Physiol, 2004. 97(6): p. 2176–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Delmonico, M.J., et al., Alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) R577X polymorphism influences knee extensor peak power response to strength training in older men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2007. 62(2): p. 206–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Pfeifer, M., B. Begerow, and H.W. Minne, Vitamin D and muscle function. Osteoporos Int, 2002. 13(3): p. 187–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Roth, S.M., et al., Vitamin D receptor genotype is associated with fat-free mass and sarcopenia in elderly men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2004.59(1): p. 10–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Grundberg, E., et al., Genetic variation in the human vitamin D receptor is associated with muscle strength, fat mass and body weight in Swedish women. Eur J Endocrinol, 2004. 150(3): p. 323–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Geusens, P., et al., Quadriceps and grip strength are related to vitamin D receptor genotype in elderly nonobese women. J Bone Miner Res, 1997.12(12): p. 2082–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Fisher, A.L., Of worms and women: sarcopenia and its role in disability and mortality. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2004.52(7): p. 1185–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Herndon, L.A., et al., Stochastic and genetic factors influence tissue-specific decline in ageing C. elegans. Nature, 2002.419(6909): p. 808–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Kenyon, C., et al., A C. elegans mutant that lives twice as long as wild type. Nature, 1993. 366(6454): p. 461–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Chaput, J.P., et al., Relationship between antioxidant intakes and class I sarcopenia in elderly men and women. J Nutr Health Aging, 2007.11(4): p. 363–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Lord, C., et al., Dietary animal protein intake: association with muscle mass index in older women. J Nutr Health Aging, 2007.11(5): p. 383–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Campbell, W.W., et al., Effects of an omnivorous diet compared with a lactoovovegetarian diet on resistance-training-induced changes in body composition and skeletal muscle in older men. Am J Clin Nutr, 1999.70(6): p. 1032–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Campbell, W.W., et al., Increased energy requirements and changes in body composition with resistance training in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr, 1994. 60(2): p. 167–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Campbell, W.W. and W.J. Evans, Protein requirements of elderly people. Eur J Clin Nutr, 1996. 50 Suppl 1: p. S180–3; discussion S183–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Campbell, W.W., et al., The recommended dietary allowance for protein may not be adequate for older people to maintain skeletal muscle. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2001.56(6): p. M373–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Rooyackers, O.E., et al., Effect of age on in vivo rates of mitochondrial protein synthesis in human skeletal muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1996. 93(26): p. 15364–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Roberts, S.B., et al., Effects of age on energy expenditure and substrate oxidation during experimental underfeeding in healthy men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 1996.51(2):p. B158–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Wilson, M.M. and J.E. Morley, Invited review: Aging and energy balance. J Appl Physiol, 2003. 95(4): p. 1728–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Bennet, W.M., et al., The effect of amino acid infusion on leg protein turnover assessed by L-[15N]phenylalanine and L-[1-13C]leucine exchange. Eur J Clin Invest, 1990. 20(1): p. 41–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Volpi, E., et al., Essential amino acids are primarily responsible for the amino acid stimulation of muscle protein anabolism in healthy elderly adults. Am J Clin Nutr, 2003. 78(2): p. 250–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Campbell, W.W., et al., Effects of resistance training and dietary protein intake on protein metabolism in older adults. Am J Physiol, 1995.268(6 Pt 1): p. E1143–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Welle, S. and C.A. Thornton, High-protein meals do not enhance myofibrillar synthesis after resistance exercise in 62-to 75-yr-old men and women. Am J Physiol, 1998. 274(4Pt 1): p. E677–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Katsanos, C.S., et al., Aging is associated with diminished accretion of muscle proteins after the ingestion of a small bolus of essential amino acids. Am J Clin Nutr, 2005. 82(5): p. 1065–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Dardevet, D., et al., Stimulation of in vitro rat muscle protein synthesis by leucine decreases with age. J Nutr, 2000.130(11): p. 2630–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Rasmussen, B.B., et al., Insulin resistance of muscle protein metabolism in aging. Faseb J, 2006. 20(6): p. 768–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Fujita, S., et al., Aerobic exercise overcomes the age-related insulin resistance of muscle protein metabolism by improving endothelial function and Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling. Diabetes, 2007.56(6): p. 1615–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Ferrucci, L., et al., Designing randomized, controlled trials aimed at preventing or delaying functional decline and disability in frail, older persons: a consensus report. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2004.52(4): p. 625–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Rantanen, T., Muscle strength, disability and mortality. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 2003. 13(1): p. 3–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Rosenberg, I.H., Sarcopenia: origins and clinical relevance. J Nutr, 1997. 127(5 Suppl):p. 990S-991S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Fleg, J.L. and E.G. Lakatta, Role of muscle loss in the age-associated reduction in VO2 max. J Appl Physiol, 1988. 65(3): p. 1147–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Janssen, I., Influence of sarcopenia on the development of physical disability: the Cardiovascular Health Study. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2006.54(1): p. 56–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Jensen, G.L., Obesity and functional decline: epidemiology and geriatric consequences. Clin Geriatr Med, 2005.21(4): p. 677–87, v.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Ensrud, K.E., et al., Correlates of impaired function in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1994.42(5): p. 481–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Sarkisian, C.A., et al., Modifiable risk factors predict functional decline among older women: a prospectively validated clinical prediction tool. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2000.48(2): p. 170–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Friedmann, J.M., T. Elasy, and G.L. Jensen, The relationship between body mass index and self-reported functional limitation among older adults: a gender difference. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2001.49(4): p. 398–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Visser, M., et al., High body fatness, but not low fat-free mass, predicts disability in older men and women: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr, 1998. 68(3): p. 584–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Zamboni, M., et al., The relationship between body composition and physical performance in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1999.47(12): p. 1403–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Davison, K.K., et al., Percentage of body fat and body mass index are associated with mobility limitations in people aged 70 and older from NHANES III. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2002.50(11): p. 1802–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Sternfeld, B., et al., Associations of body composition with physical performance and self-reported functional limitation in elderly men and women. Am J Epidemiol, 2002. 156(2): p. 110–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Zoico, E., et al., Physical disability and muscular strength in relation to obesity and different body composition indexes in a sample of healthy elderly women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 2004.28(2): p. 234–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Villareal, D.T., et al., Physical frailty and body composition in obese elderly men and women. Obes Res, 2004.12(6): p. 913–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Rolland, Y., et al., Muscle strength in obese elderly women: effect of recreational physical activity in a cross-sectional study. Am J Clin Nutr, 2004.79(4): p. 552–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Ford, E.S., A.H. Mokdad, and W.H. Giles, Trends in waist circumference among U.S. adults. Obes Res, 2003.11(10): p. 1223–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Lebrun, C.E., et al., Fat mass rather than muscle strength is the major determinant of physical function and disability in postmenopausal women younger than 75 years of age. Menopause, 2006.13(3): p. 474–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Janssen, I., P.T. Katzmarzyk, and R. Ross, Body mass index is inversely related to mortality in older people after adjustment for waist circumference. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2005. 53(12): p. 2112–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Bigaard, J., et al., Waist circumference, BMI, smoking, and mortality in middle-aged men and women. Obes Res, 2003.11 (7): p. 895–903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Kanaya, A.M., et al., Association of total and central obesity with mortality in postmenopausal women with coronary heart disease. Am J Epidemiol, 2003.158(12): p. 1161–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Griffiths, R.D., Muscle mass, survival, and the elderly ICU patient. Nutrition, 1996. 12(6): p. 456–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Cosqueric, G., et al., Sarcopenia is predictive of nosocomial infection in care of the elderly. Br J Nutr, 2006.96(5): p. 895–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Newman, A.B., et al., Strength, but not muscle mass, is associated with mortality in the health, aging and body composition study cohort. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2006. 61(1): p. 72–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Newman, A.B., et al., Strength and muscle quality in a well-functioning cohort of older adults: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2003. 51(3): p. 323–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Buchner, D.M., et al., Evidence for a non-linear relationship between leg strength and gait speed. Age Ageing, 1996.25(5): p. 386–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Rantanen, T., et al., Coimpairments as predictors of severe walking disability in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2001.49(1): p. 21–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Janssen, I., et al., Skeletal muscle mass and distribution in 468 men and women aged 18–88 yr. J Appl Physiol, 2000. 89(1): p. 81–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Lynch, N.A., et al., Muscle quality. I. Age-associated differences between arm and leg muscle groups. J Appl Physiol, 1999.86(1): p. 188–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Singh, A.S., et al., Cross-sectional relationship between physical fitness components and functional performance in older persons living in long-term care facilities. BMC Geriatr, 2006.6: p. 4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Guralnik, J.M., et al., Progressive versus catastrophic loss of the ability to walk: implications for the prevention of mobility loss. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2001. 49(11): p. 1463–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Roth, S.M., R.F. Ferrell, and B.F. Hurley, Strength training for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. J Nutr Health Aging, 2000.4(3): p. 143–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Nelson, M.E., et al., Physical activity and public health in older adults: recommendation from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 2007.116(9): p. 1094–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Hakkinen, K., et al., Changes in agonist-antagonist EMG, muscle CSA, and force during strength training in middle-aged and older people. J Appl Physiol, 1998. 84(4): p. 1341–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Taaffe, D.R., et al., Once-weekly resistance exercise improves muscle strength and neuromuscular performance in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1999.47(10): p. 1208–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Fielding, R.A., et al., Activity adherence and physical function in older adults with functional limitations. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2007.39(11): p. 1997–2004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Strength training among adults aged >65 years — United States 2001., in MMWR. 2004, US department of health and human services. p. 25–28.Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Cardinale, M., et al., Whole-body vibration can reduce calciuria induced by high protein intakes and may counteract bone resorption: A preliminary study. J Sports Sci, 2007.25(1):p. 111–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Cardinale, M. and J. Rittweger, Vibration exercise makes your muscles and bones stronger: fact or fiction? J Br Menopause Soc, 2006.12(1): p. 12–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Bogaerts, A., et al., Impact of whole-body vibration training versus fitness training on muscle strength and muscle mass in older men: a 1-year randomized controlled trial. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2007.62(6): p. 630–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Morley, J.E., Anorexia and weight loss in older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2003.58(2): p. 131–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Heiat, A., V. Vaccarino, and H.M. Krumholz, An evidence-based assessment of federal guidelines for overweight and obesity as they apply to elderly persons. Arch Intern Med, 2001. 161(9): p. 1194–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Elia, M., Obesity in the elderly. Obes Res, 2001.9 Suppl 4: p. 244S-248S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Morais, J.A., S. Chevalier, and R. Gougeon, Protein turnover and requirements in the healthy and frail elderly. J Nutr Health Aging, 2006.10(4): p. 272–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Houston, D.K., et al., Dietary protein intake is associated with lean mass change in older, community-dwelling adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. Am J Clin Nutr, 2008. 87(1): p. 150–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Fujita, S. and E. Volpi, Amino acids and muscle loss with aging. J Nutr, 2006. 136(1 Suppl): p. 277S-80S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Timmerman, K.L. and E. Volpi, Amino acid metabolism and regulatory effects in aging. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2008.11(1): p. 45–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Drummond, M.J., et al., Skeletal muscle protein anabolic response to resistance exercise and essential amino acids is delayed with aging. J Appl Physiol, 2008.Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Hayes, A. and P.J. Cribb, Effect of whey protein isolate on strength, body composition and muscle hypertrophy during resistance training. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2008.11(1): p. 40–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Rieu, I., et al., Increased availability of leucine with leucine-rich whey proteins improves postprandial muscle protein synthesis in aging rats. Nutrition, 2007. 23(4: p. 323–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Kim, J.H., et al., Lifelong exercise and mild (8%) caloric restriction attenuate ageinduced alterations in plantaris muscle morphology, oxidative stress and IGF-1 in the Fischer-344 rat. Exp Gerontol, 2008.43(4): p. 317–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Dirks Naylor, A.J. and C. Leeuwenburgh, Sarcopenia: the role of apoptosis and modulation by caloric restriction. Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 2008. 36(1): p. 19–24.Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Arnal, M.A., et al., Protein pulse feeding improves protein retention in elderly women. Am J Clin Nutr, 1999.69(6): p. 1202–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Boirie, Y., et al., Slow and fast dietary proteins differently modulate postprandial protein accretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 1997.94(26): p. 14930–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Dangin, M., et al., Influence of the protein digestion rate on protein turnover in young and elderly subjects. J Nutr, 2002.132(10): p. 3228S-33S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Wolfson, L., et al., Training balance and strength in the elderly to improve function. J Am Geriatr Soc, 1993.41(3): p. 341–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Sayer, A.A., et al., Falls, sarcopenia, and growth in early life: findings from the Hertfordshire cohort study. Am J Epidemiol, 2006.164(7): p. 665–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Szulc, P., et al., Increased bone resorption in moderate smokers with low body weight: the Minos study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2002. 87(2): p. 666–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Bhasin, S., et al., The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men. N Engl J Med, 1996. 335(1): p. 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Ottenbacher, K.J., et al., Androgen treatment and muscle strength in elderly men: A meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2006. 54(11): p. 1666–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Bhasin, S. and J.G. Buckwalter, Testosterone supplementation in older men: a rational idea whose time has not yet come. J Androl, 2001. 22(5): p. 718–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Borst S.E., et al., Anabolic effects of testosterone are preserved during inhibition of 5alpha-reductase. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2007. 293(2): p. E507–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Parsons, J.K., et al., Serum testosterone and the risk of prostate cancer: potential implications for testosterone therapy. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2005. 14(9): p. 2257–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Venken, K., et al., Bone and muscle protective potential of the prostate-sparing synthetic androgen 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone: evidence from the aged orchidectomized male rat model. Bone, 2005. 36(4): p. 663–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Li, J.J., et al., Discovery of Potent and Muscle Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators through Scaffold Modifications. J Med Chem, 2007. 50(13): p. 3015–3025.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Takala, J., et al., Increased mortality associated with growth hormone treatment in critically ill adults. N Engl J Med, 1999. 341(11): p. 785–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Frost, R.A., G.J. Nystrom, and C.H. Lang, Regulation of IGF-I mRNA and signal transducers and activators of transcription-3 and -5 (Stat-3 and -5) by GH in C2C12 myoblasts. Endocrinology, 2002. 143(2): p. 492–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Leroith, D. and P. Nissley, Knock your SOCS off! J Clin Invest, 2005. 115(2): p. 233–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Leger, B., et al., Human sarcopenia reveals an increase in SOCS-3 and myostatin and a reduced efficiency of Akt phosphorylation. Rejuvenation Res, 2008. 11(1): p. 163–175B.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Barbieri, M., et al., Chronic inflammation and the effect of IGF-I on muscle strength and power in older persons. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2003. 284(3): p. E481–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Cappola, A.R., et al., Association of IGF-I levels with muscle strength and mobility in older women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2001. 86(9): p. 4139–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Onder, G., et al., Body mass index, free insulin-like growth factor I, and physical function among older adults: results from the ilSIRENTE study. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2006. 291(4): p. E829–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Thompson, J.L., et al., Effects of human growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I, and diet and exercise on body composition of obese postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1998. 83(5): p. 1477–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Pollak, M., Insulin-like growth factor physiology and cancer risk. Eur J Cancer, 2000. 36(10): p. 1224–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Cobb, L.J., et al., Partitioning of IGFBP-5 actions in myogenesis: IGF-independent anti-apoptotic function. J Cell Sci, 2004.117(Pt 9): p. 1737–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Artaza, J.N., et al., Myostatin inhibits myogenesis and promotes adipogenesis in C3H 10T(1/2) mesenchymal multipotent cells. Endocrinology, 2005.146(8): p. 3547–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Schuelke, M., et al., Myostatin mutation associated with gross muscle hypertrophy in a child. N Engl J Med, 2004. 350(26): p. 2682–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Siriett, V., et al., Antagonism of myostatin enhances muscle regeneration during sarcopenia. Mol Ther, 2007.15(8): p. 1463–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Petersen, A.M., et al., Smoking impairs muscle protein synthesis and increases the expression of myostatin and MAFbx in muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2007. 293(3): p. E843–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Solomon, A.M. and P.M. Bouloux, Modifying muscle mass — the endocrine perspective. J Endocrinol, 2006.191(2): p. 349–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Nakatani, M., et al., Transgenic expression of a myostatin inhibitor derived from follistatin increases skeletal muscle mass and ameliorates dystrophic pathology in mdx mice. Faseb J, 2008. 22(2): p. 477–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Ohsawa, Y., et al., Muscular atrophy of caveolin-3-deficient mice is rescued by myostatin inhibition. J Clin Invest, 2006.116(11): p. 2924–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Haidet, A.M., et al., Long-term enhancement of skeletal muscle mass and strength by single gene administration of myostatin inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2008. 105(11): p. 4318–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Lemoine, S., et al., Estrogen receptor alpha mRNA in human skeletal muscles. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2003. 35(3): p. 439–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Wiik, A., et al., Oestrogen receptor beta is present in both muscle fibres and endothelial cells within human skeletal muscle tissue. Histochem Cell Biol, 2005. 124(2): p. 161–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Bischoff-Ferrari, H.A., et al., Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Jama, 2005.293(18): p. 2257–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Janssen, H.C., M.M. Samson, and H.J. Verhaar, Vitamin D deficiency, muscle function, and falls in elderly people. Am J Clin Nutr, 2002.75(4): p. 611–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Candow, D.G. and P.D. Chilibeck, Effect of creatine supplementation during resistance training on muscle accretion in the elderly. J Nutr Health Aging, 2007. 11(2): p. 185–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Brose, A., G. Parise, and M.A. Tarnopolsky, Creatine supplementation enhances isometric strength and body composition improvements following strength exercise training in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2003.58(1): p. 11–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Willoughby, D.S. and J.M. Rosene, Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myogenic regulatory factor expression. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2003.35(6): p. 923–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Bermon, S., et al., Effects of creatine monohydrate ingestion in sedentary and weighttrained older adults. Acta Physiol Scand, 1998. 164(2): p. 147–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Chrusch, M.J., et al., Creatine supplementation combined with resistance training in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2001. 33(12): p. 2111–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Eijnde, B.O., et al., Effects of creatine supplementation and exercise training on fitness in men 55–75 yr old. J Appl Physiol, 2003. 95(2): p. 818–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Gotshalk, L.A., et al., Creatine supplementation improves muscular performance in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2002. 34(3): p. 537–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Jakobi, J.M., et al., Neuromuscular properties and fatigue in older men following acute creatine supplementation. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2001. 84(4): p. 321–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Rawson, E.S., M.X. Wehnert, and P.M. Clarkson, Effects of 30 days of creatine ingestion in older men. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1999. 80(2): p. 139–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Rawson, E.S. and P.M. Clarkson, Acute creatine supplementation in older men. Int J Sports Med, 2000. 21(1): p. 71–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Tarnopolsky, M.A. and A. Safdar, The potential benefits of creatine and conjugated linoleic acid as adjuncts to resistance training in older adults. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, 2008. 33(1): p. 213–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Carter, C.S., et al., Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition intervention in elderly persons: effects on body composition and physical performance. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2005. 60(11): p. 1437–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Onder, G., et al., Relation between use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and muscle strength and physical function in older women: an observational study. Lancet, 2002. 359(9310): p. 926–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Han, Y., M.S. Runge, and A.R. Brasier, Angiotensin II induces interleukin-6 transcription in vascular smooth muscle cells through pleiotropic activation of nuclear factor-kappa B transcription factors. Circ Res, 1999. 84(6): p. 695–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Vescovo, G., et al., Improved exercise tolerance after losartan and enalapril in heart failure: correlation with changes in skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain composition. Circulation, 1998. 98(17): p. 1742–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Payne, G.W., Effect of inflammation on the aging microcirculation: impact on skeletal muscle blood flow control. Microcirculation, 2006. 13(4): p. 343–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Onder, G., C.D. Vedova, and M. Pahor, Effects of ACE inhibitors on skeletal muscle. Curr Pharm Des, 2006. 12(16): p. 2057–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Haslett, P., et al., The metabolic and immunologie effects of short-term thalidomide treatment of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses, 1997. 13(12): p. 1047–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Calabrese, L.H., N. Zein, and D. Vassilopoulos, Safety of antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy in patients with chronic viral infections: hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and HIV infection. Ann Rheum Dis, 2004. 63 Suppl 2: p. ii18-ii24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Robinson, S.M., et al., Diet and its relationship with grip strength in communitydwelling older men and women: the Hertfordshire cohort study. J Am Geriatr Soc, 2008. 56(1): p. 84–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Silventoinen, K., et al., Heritability of body size and muscle strength in young adulthood: a study of one million Swedish men. Genet Epidemiol, 2008. 32(4): p. 341–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Mascher, H., et al., Repeated resistance exercise training induces different changes in mRNA expression of MAFbx and MuRF-1 in human skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2008. 294(1): p. E43–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Marzetti, E., et al., Effects of short-term GH supplementation and treadmill exercise training on physical performance and skeletal muscle apoptosis in old rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol, 2008. 294(2): p. R558–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Phillips, T. and C. Leeuwenburgh, Muscle fiber specific apoptosis and TNF-alpha signaling in sarcopenia are attenuated by life-long calorie restriction. Faseb J, 2005. 19(6): p. 668–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Semba, R.D., F. Lauretani, and L. Ferrucci, Carotenoids as protection against sarcopenia in older adults. Arch Biochem Biophys, 2007. 458(2): p. 141–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France and Serdi Éditions 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Rolland
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • S. Czerwinski
    • 4
  • G. Abellan van Kan
    • 3
  • J. E. Morley
    • 5
    • 6
  • M. Cesari
    • 7
  • G. Onder
    • 8
  • J. Woo
    • 9
  • R. Baumgartner
    • 10
  • F. Pillard
    • 11
  • Y. Boirie
    • 12
    • 13
  • W. M. C. Chumlea
    • 4
  • B. Vellas
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Inserm, U558ToulouseFrance
  2. 2.University of Toulouse IIIToulouseFrance
  3. 3.Department of Geriatric MedicineCHU ToulouseToulouseFrance
  4. 4.Department of Community Health, Lifespan Health Research Center, Boonshoft School of MedicineWright State University Dayton
  5. 5.Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical CenterSt Louis
  6. 6.Medical Center, and Division of Geriatric MedicineSaint Louis UniversitySt LouisUSA
  7. 7.Department of Aging and Geriatric ResearchUniversity of Florida - Institute on AgingGainesville
  8. 8.Department of Gerontological, Geriatric and Physiatric SciencesCatholic University of Sacred HeartRomeItaly
  9. 9.Division of geriatrics, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics. The Prince of Wales HospitalChinese University of Hong-KongChina
  10. 10.Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, School of Public Health and Information SciencesUniversity of LouisvilleLouisville
  11. 11.Service d’Exploration de la Fonction Respiratoire et de Medecine du SportHôpital LarreyToulouse Cedex 9
  12. 12.UFR Médecine, UMR1019, Unité Nutrition HumaineUniversity Clermont 1France
  13. 13.Clinical Nutrition UnitCHU Clermont-FerrandFrance

Personalised recommendations