Advertisement

Phytoparasitica

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 293–304 | Cite as

Pod wart disease of peanuts

  • G. Kritzman
  • A. Shani-CahaniEmail author
  • B. Kirshner
  • Yehudit RivenEmail author
  • Z. Bar
  • J. KatanEmail author
  • A. GrinsteinEmail author
Research Paper

Abstract

Peanut pod wart, a relatively new disease to peanut culture, was first reported in Israel in 1988 attacking peanut plants and causing dark warts on the pod. The causal agents are variousStreptomyces spp. Scanning electron microscopy showed a significant difference between healthy and diseased tissues of the exocarp and mesocarp layers of the pod; there were no effects on the endocarp layer. The mesocarp cells of infected tissue were smaller and more compressed than those of healthy tissue. In most cases two cells under the peak of the wart were extremely large and the cells growing from them toward the surface were uneven, forming the shape of a fan. The pathogen could be isolated from the soil and rhizosphere, but in the pod it was found only in the waited tissue. The microorganisms isolated from the warts belong to different groups ofStreptomyces spp.; subsequent pathogenicity tests proved their virulence to a limited host range. In potato, these isolates ofStreptomyces spp. caused deep pitted scab; in peanuts they caused warts. Peanut seeds which developed in infected pods were free of the pathogen if the shell was undamaged. However, the pathogen is surface seedborne, and contaminated seeds during the mechanical cracking process.

Key Words

Streptomyces spp. seeds seedborne potato scab 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bar, Z. (1992) Intensification of soilborne diseases of peanuts in the arid zone of Israel.Phytoparasitica 20:232 (abstr.).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ben-Yephet, Y., Mhameed, S., Frank, Z.R. and Katan, J. (1991) Effect of the herbicide ethalfluralin on net blotch disease of peanut pods.Plant Dis. 75:1123–1126.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Doering-Saad, C., Kampfer, P., Manulis, S., Kritzman, G., Schneider, J., Zakrzewska-Czerwinska, J., Schrempf, H. and Barash, I. (1992) Diversity amongStreptomyces strains causing potato scab.Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 58: 3932–3940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Easton, G.D. and Nagle, M.E. (1979) Efforts to control shallow and deep-pitted scab.18th Ann. Wash. State Potato Conf. Trade Fair (Moses Lake, WA, USA), pp. 61-74.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Faucher, E., Paradis, E., Goyer, C., Hodge, N.C., Hogue, R., Stall, R.E. and Beaulieu, C. (1995) Characterization of streptomycetes causing deep-pitted scab of potato in Quebec, Canada.Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45:222–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Grinstein, A., Kritzman, G., Hetzroni, A., Gamliel, A., Mor, M. and Katan, J. (1995) The border effect of soil solarization.Crop Prot. 14:315–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Keinath, A.B. and Loria, R. (1989) Population dynamics ofStreptomyces scabies and other actinomycetes as related to common scab of potato.Phytopathology 79:681–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kritzman, G. and Grinstein, A. (1991) Formalin application against soilborneStreptomyces.Phytoparasitica 19:248–249 (abstr.).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kutzner, H.J. (1986) The family Streptomycetaceae.in: Starr, M.P. [Ed.] The Prokaryotes. Vol. 2, pp. 2028–2090. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lapwood, D.H., Wellings, L.W. and Hawkins, J.H. (1973) Irrigation as a practical means to control potato common scab (S. scabies): Final experiment and conclusions.Plant Pathol. 22:35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Martin, W.H. (1923) Influence of soil moisture and acidity on development of potato scab.Soil Sci. 16: 69–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sanford, G.B. (1923) The relation of soil moisture to the development of common scab of potato.Phytopathology 13:231–236.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Walker, J.C. (1952) Diseases of Vegetable Crops. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., London, UK.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Plant PathologyARO, The Volcani CenterBet DaganIsrael
  2. 2.Lab. for Research on Pest Management ApplicationInst. of Agricultural Engineering, ARO, The Volcani CenterBet DaganIsrael
  3. 3.Hevel Maon EnterprisesM.P. NegevIsrael
  4. 4.Dept. of Plant Pathology and MicrobiologyThe Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of AgricultureRehovotIsrael

Personalised recommendations