, 32:433 | Cite as

Effect of botanical insecticides and bacterial toxins on the gut enzyme of the rice leaffolderCnaphalocrocis medinalis

  • S. Senthil NathanEmail author
  • Paul Gene Chung
  • K. Murugan


The effect of botanical insecticides and bacterial toxins on gut enzyme activity of larvae of the rice leaffolderCnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was investigated. Gut enzyme activities were affected by botanical insecticides and bacterial toxin individually and in combination. When fed a diet of rice leaves treated with botanical insecticides and bacterial toxins, in bioassays the activities of gut tissue enzymes — acid phosphatases (ACP), alkaline phosphatases (ALP) and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPase) — of rice leaffolder larvae were affected. When combined, the effect was more severe at a low concentration. Larvae that were chronically exposed to botanical insecticides and bacterial toxins showed a reduction in weight (59–89%) and exhibited a significant reduction in ACP, ALP and ATPase activities. The combination ofBacillus thuringiensis kurstaki and botanical insecticides caused a decrease of twofold in enzyme activity even at reduced concentration. A synergistic effect was found when botanical insecticides and bacterial toxins were combined at low doses. These effects were most pronounced in early instars. Clear dose-response relationships were established with respect to enzyme activity. In conclusion: (i) biopesticides are relatively safe and biodegradable; (ii) a synergistic effect of botanical insecticides and bacterial toxins was found; (iii) less expensive, readily available and naturally occurring biopesticides could be an alternative for organic and inorganic pesticides in controlling RLF.

Key words

Biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis Bt neem Vitex negundo Cnaphalocrocis medinalis enzyme ACP ALP ATPase 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Senthil Nathan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Paul Gene Chung
    • 1
  • K. Murugan
    • 2
  1. 1.Dept. of Environmental EngineeringChonbuk National UniversityJeonju City, ChonbukSouth Korea
  2. 2.Dept. of ZoologyBharathiar UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

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