Transformation of ginseng saponins to ginsenoside rh2 by acids and human intestinal bacteria and biological activities of their transformants
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When ginseng water extract was incubated at 60°C in acidic conditions, its protopanaxadiol ginsenosides were transformed to ginsenoside Rg3 and ▵20-ginsenoside Rg3. However, protopanaxadiol glycoside ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2 and Rc isolated from ginseng were mostly not transformed to ginsenoside Rg3 by the incubation in neutral condition. The transformation of these ginsenosides to ginsenoside Rg3 and ▵20-ginsenoside Rg3 was increased by increasing incubation temperature and time in acidic condition: the optimal incubation time and temperature for this transformation was 5 h and 60°C resepectively. The transformed ginsenoside Rg3 and ▵20-ginsenoside Rg3 were metabolized to ginsenoside Rh2 and ▵20-ginsenoside Rh2, respectively, by human fecal microflora. Among the bacteria isolated from human fecal microflora,Bacteroides sp.,Bifidobacterium sp. andFusobacterium sp. potently transformed ginsenoside Rg3 to ginsenoside Rh2. Acid-treated ginseng (AG) extract, fermented AG extract, ginsenoside Rh2 and protopanaxadiol showed potent cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines. AG extract, fermented AG extract and protopanaxadiol potently inhibited the growth ofHelicobacter pylori.
Key wordsGinseng Ginsenoside Rg3 Intestinal bacteria Ginsenoside Rh2 Helicobacter pylori Cytotoxicity
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