The virtual eco-costs ‘99 A single LCA-based indicator for sustainability and the eco-costs-value ratio (EVR) model for economic allocation
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In literature, many models (qualitatively as well as quantitatively) can be found to cope with the problem of communicating results of LCA analyses with decision takers. In a previous article of this Journal, an LCA-based single indicator for emissions is proposed: the ‘virtual pollution prevention costs ‘99’ (Vogtländer et al. 2000a).
Material depletion, applying ‘material depletion costs’, to be reduced by recycling
Energy consumption, applying ‘eco-costs of energy’ being the price of renewable energy
Toxic emissions, applying the ‘virtual pollution prevention costs ‘99’
Labour (the environmental impacts of office heating, lighting, computers, commuting, etc.)
production assets (equipment, buildings, transport vehicles, etc.)
To overcome allocation problems of the indirect components of complex product-service systems, a methodology of economic allocation has been developed, based on the so called Eco-costs/ Value Ratio (EVR) model.
This EVR calculation model appears to be a practical and powerful tool to assess the sustainability of a product, a service, or a product-service combination.
Key wordsAllocation depletion depreciation eco-costs eco-efficiency economic allocation end of life energy EVR indirect environmental impact labour LCA marginal prevention costs materials open loop recycling product-service systems single indicator sustainability recycling virtual pollution prevention costs
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