Antioxidant principles ofNelumbo nucifera stamens
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In our ongoing study to identity antioxidants from natural sources, the antioxidant activity ofNelumbo nucifera stamens was evaluated for their potential to scavenge stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals, inhibit total reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, in kidney homogenates using 2v,7’-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCHF-DA), and scavenge authentic peroxynitrites (ONOO-). A methanol (MeOH) extract of the stamens ofN. nucifera showed strong antioxidant activity in the ONOO system, and marginal activity in the DPPH and total ROS systems, so were therefore fractionated with several organic solvents, such as dichloromethane (CH2CI2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol (n-BuOH). The EtOAc soluble fraction, which exhibited strong antioxidant activity in all the model systems tested, was further purified by repeated silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies. Seven known flavonoids [kaempferol (1), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl methylester (2), kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol 3-0-β-D-galactopyranoside (4), myricetin 3’,5’-dimethylether 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), kaempferol 3-0-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (6) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (7)], along with β-sitosterol glucopyranoside (8), were isolated. Compound 1 possessed good activities in all the model systems tested. Compounds 2 and 7 showed scavenging activities in the DPPH and ONOO tests, while compounds 3 and 4 were only active in the ONOO test. Conversely, compound 8 showed no activities in any of the model systems tested.
Key wordsNelumbo nucifera Nymphaeceae Flavonoids Antioxidant Free radical 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical Reactive oxygen species (ROS) Peroxynitrite (ONOO)
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