effect of ginsenoside Rd on nitric oxide system induced by lipopolysaccharide plus TNF-α in C6 rat glioma cells
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Effects of ginsenosides on nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide plus TNF-a (LNT) were examined in C6 rat glioma cells. Among several ginsenosides, ginsenoside Rd showed a complete inhibition against LNT-induced NO production. Ginsenoside Rd attenu-ated LNT-induced increased phosphorylation of ERK. Among several immediate early gene products, only Jun B and Fra-1 protein levels were increased by LNT, and ginsenoside Rd attenuated Jun B and Fra-1 protein levels induced by LNT. Furthermore, LNT increased AP-1 DNA binding activities, which were partially inhibited by ginsenoside Rd. Our results suggest that ginsenoside Rd exerts an inhibitory action against NO production via blocking phosphory-lation of ERK, in turn, suppressing immediate early gene products such as Jun B and Fra-1 in C6 glioma cells.
Key wordsGinsenoside Rd Lipopolysaccharide TNF-α Nitric oxide C6 glioma cell ERK Jun B Fra-1
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