Constitutents and the antitumor principle ofAllium victorialis var.platyphyllum
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To search for cytotoxic components fromAllium victorialis, MTT assays on each extract and an isolated component, gitogenin 3-O-lycotetroside, were performed against cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicities of most extract were shown to be comparatively weak, though IC50 values of CHCl3 fraction was found to be <31.3–368.4 μg/ml. From the incubated methanol extract at 36°C, eleven kinds of organosulfuric flavours were predictable by GC-MS performance. The most abundant peak was revealed to be 2-vinyl-4H-1,3-dithiin (1) by its mass spectrum. Further, this extract showed significant cytotoxicities toward cancer cell lies. Silica gel column chromatography of the n-butanol fraction led to the isolation of gitogenin 3-O-lycotetroside (3) along with astragalin (4) and kaempferol 3, 4′-di-O-β-D-glucoside (5). This steroidal saponin exhibited significant cytotoxic activities (IC50, 6.51–36.5 μg/ml) over several cancer cell lines. When compound3 was incubated for 24 h with human intestinal bacteria, a major metabolite was produced and then isolated by silica gel column chromatography. By examining parent- and prominent ion peak in FAB-MS spectrum of the metabolite, the structure was speculated not to be any of prosapogenins of3, suggesting that spiroketal ring were labile to the bacterial reaction. These suggest that disulfides produced secondarily are the antitumor principles.
Key wordsAllium victorialis Liliaceae Organosulfuric Steroidal saponin Cytotoxicity
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