Advertisement

Contemporary Jewry

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 11–30 | Cite as

American jewry in the light of middleman minority theories

  • Walter P. Zenner
Article

Conclusion

The value of middleman minority theories, albeit imperfect, lies in their general comparative framework for the study of Jewish communities, as well as in their delineation of clear hypotheses relating occupational structure and Jewish economic roles to general social system characteristics. Jews are not confmed solely to middleman roles, though many of the roles Jews occupy can be seen as such in a metaphorical sense. Nevertheless, even when some segment of these theories is rejected as inapplicable, e.g., the sojourning hypotheses, questions about the nature of Jewish-held occupations are raised that might otherwise be ignored.

Implicit in any set of theories is a program of research and a set of queries for researchers. Middleman minority studies focus attention on the community’s socioeconomic structure and its association with both minority and external relations. Intemal cohesion-disintegration and culture content are related to ties with outsiders. Occupational roles filled by Jews in one society can be compared with similar or dissimilar roles played by Jews, Armenians, Huguenots and Overseas Chinese in other settings.

The sociological study of American Jewry is neither an ethnic group survey valuable only for its own purposes, nor a minute segment of the study of American society, but is part of general comparative sociology.

Keywords

Family Firm Jewish Community American Sociological Review Contemporary JEWRY Occupational Structure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adler. S. and Connelly, T.E. 1960 From Ararat to Suburbia. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.Google Scholar
  2. Andreski S. 1963 “An economic interpretation of anti-Semitism.” Jewish Journal of Sociology, 5:201–213.Google Scholar
  3. Aris, Stephen 1970 Jews in Business. Harmondsforth: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  4. Blalock, H.H. 1967 Toward a Theory of Minority Group Relations. N. Y.: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. Bonacich, Edna 1972 “A theory of etbnic antagonism: the split labor market.” American Sociological Review 37:547–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonacich, Edna 1973 “A theory of middleman minorities.” American Sociological Review, 38:583–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonacich. Enda, Ivan Light, and Charles W. Choy 1976 Small business among Koreans in Los Angeles. Paper presented at Smithsonian Institution Conference on the New Immigration. Center for Immigration and Ethnic Studies. Wasbington, D.C.Google Scholar
  8. Brandes, J. 1971 Immigrants to Freedom. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.Google Scholar
  9. Cahnman. W.J. 1974 “Pariahs, strangers and court-Jews-a conceptual clarification.” Sociological Analysis, 35, 3:155–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caroll, Betty Boyd 1973 Italian Repatriation from the United States, 1900–1914, N.Y.: Center for Migration Studies.Google Scholar
  11. Cayton, J.R., and St. C. Drake 1962 Black Metropolis revised ed. N.Y.: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, Abner 1974 Two-Dimensional Man. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  13. Cuddihy, J.M. 1974 The Ordeal of Civility. N.Y.: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  14. Dotson, F.. and L. Dotson 1968 The Indian Minority of Zambia, Rhodesia and Malawi, New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Duker, A.G. 1960 “Notes on tbe cultural life of American Jewry.” Jewish Journal of Sociology, 2:98–102.Google Scholar
  16. Elazar, D.J. 1976 Community & Polity, Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.Google Scholar
  17. Fauman, J.S. 1941 “The Jews in tbe waste industry in Detroit.” Jewish Social Studies, 3:41–56.Google Scholar
  18. Friedman, Milton 1962 Capitalism & Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  19. Golomb, L. 1975 “Brokers of morality: the socio-cultural adaptation of a Thai enclave in Malaysia. Paper given at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, December 4.Google Scholar
  20. Gross, N. (ed.) 1975 Jewish Economic History. N.Y.: Schocken. Articles originally published in Encyclopedia Judaica, 1971.Google Scholar
  21. Gutwirth. J. 1968 “Antwerp Jewry today.” Jewish Journal of Sociology, 10:121–138.Google Scholar
  22. Gutwirth. J. 1972 “The structure of a Hasidic community in Montreal.” Jewish Journal of Sociology. 14, 1:43–62.Google Scholar
  23. Halpern, Ben 1956 The American Jew. N.Y.: Herzl Press.Google Scholar
  24. Harap, Louis 1976 The Jew in American Literature. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.Google Scholar
  25. Heilman, Samuel 1976 Synagogue Life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  26. Hentoff, Nat, et al. 1969 Black Anti-Semitism & Jewish Racism, N.Y.: R.W. Baron (Schocken ed., 1970).Google Scholar
  27. Hill, Lester. Jr. 1977 “The middleman theory: a critique and revision.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Southern Sociological Society, April 1.Google Scholar
  28. Himmelfarb, M. 1974 “Plural Establisbment.” Commentary, 59, 6:69–73.Google Scholar
  29. Howe, Irving 1976 The World of Our Fathers, N.Y.: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  30. Isaacs, Stephen 1974 Jews in American Politics. N.Y.: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  31. Isaacs, StephenJewish Encyclopedia 1903 Funk& Wagnalls, N.Y.Google Scholar
  32. Kuznets, S. 1960 “The economic life and structure of the Jews,” In L. Finkelstein (ed.). The Jews: Their History, Culture and Religion. N.Y.: Harper.Google Scholar
  33. Leon, A. 1970 The Jewish Question: A Marxist Interpretation. N.Y.; Pathfinder Press. 1970 (Orig. ed.. Mexico 1950).Google Scholar
  34. Levy, Sydell Brooks 1976 “Religious norms as boundary maintenance mechanisms: the Hasidic case.” Paper delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association Meeting, November 18.Google Scholar
  35. Leyton, E. 1970 “Composite descent groups in Canada.” In C.C. Harris (ed.). Readings in Kinship in Urban Society, N.Y. and Oxford: Pergamon Press. 179–186 (Orig. pub. Man. OS. 98. 1964).Google Scholar
  36. Lipset, S.M. 1963 “The study of Jewish communities in a comparative context.” Jewish Journal of Sociology, 5:157–166.Google Scholar
  37. Loewen, James W. 1971 The Mississippi Chinese: Between Black and White. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  38. Matz, Milton 1961 “The meaning of the Cbristmas tree to the American Jew.” Jewish Journal of Sociology. 3:129–137.Google Scholar
  39. Merton, Robert K. 1957 “The self-fulfilling propbecy.” In Social Theory & Social Structure. 2nd ed. Glencoe: The Free Press, 421–36 (Orig, pubi. Antiocb Review, Summer 1948).Google Scholar
  40. Mitchell, W.E., and J. Leichter 1967 Kinship & Casework. N.Y.: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  41. Pariser, Diane Axelrod 1973 “The Shtibl congregation: the celebrationof Passover among one group of orthodox Jews.” Albany: S.U.N.Y.-Albany. Department of Anthropology. M.A, Thesis (deposited at Univ. Library).Google Scholar
  42. Plotnicov, L. and M. Silverman 1976 “How Jews identify themselves and wby.” Paper read at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropoligical Association, Nov. 19.Google Scholar
  43. Poll, S. 1962 The Hasidic Community of Williamsburg. (Schocken ed., 1969).Google Scholar
  44. Rinder, Irwin 1958 “Strangers in tbe Land.” Social Problems, 6, 3:253–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rivkin, Ellis 1971 The Shaping of Jewish History. N.Y.: Scribners.Google Scholar
  46. Rogers, David 1968 110 Livingston Street, N.Y.: Random House.Google Scholar
  47. Simmel, Georg 1950 The Sociology of Georg Simmel. Trans, and ed. by Kurt Wolff. Glencoe. Ill.: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  48. Skalre, Marshal 1955 Conservative Judaism. Glencoe: The Free Press (Rev. Ed., 1972).Google Scholar
  49. Stone, Russell 1974 “Religious ethic and the spirit of capitalism.” international Joumal of Middle Eastern Studies, 5:260–273.Google Scholar
  50. Stryker, S. 1958 “Social structure and prejudice.” Social Problems, 6:340–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tartakower, A. 1960 “Polish Jewry in the 18th Century.” Jewish Journal of Sociology, 2:110–114.Google Scholar
  52. Teller, Judd L. 1968 Strangers & Natives. N.Y.: Delacone Press.Google Scholar
  53. White, Leslie 1966 The Social Organization of Ethnological Theory. Houston: Rice University Studies, 52:4.Google Scholar
  54. Wilensky, H., and J. Ladinsky 1967 “From religious community to occupational group: structural assimilation among professors, lawyers, & engineers.” American Sociological Review. 32:541–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Winch, R., S. Greer, and Rae Lesser Blumberg 1967 “Ethnicity & extended familism in an upper-middle class suburb.” American Sociological Review. 32:265–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zenner, W.P. 1966 Syrian Jewish Identification in Israel. Ann Arbor: University Microfilm. Doct. Diss. No. 66-8536.Google Scholar
  57. Zenner, W.P. 1968 “Syrian Jews in three social settings.” Jewish Journal of Sociology, 101–120.Google Scholar
  58. Zenner, W.P. 1971 “International networks of a migrant ethnic group,” In R.F. Spencer (ed.). Migration and Anthropology Seattle: Univ. of Washington Press, 36–48.Google Scholar
  59. Zenner, W.P. 1976a Middleman minority theories—a critical review.” Paper given at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Social Study of Jewry. N.Y.C., September 1.Google Scholar
  60. Zenner, W.P. 1976b “Ethnic solidatiry in tbree middleman minorities.” Paper given at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, November 18.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Walter P. Zenner
    • 1
  1. 1.State University of New YorkAlbany

Personalised recommendations