Sex Roles

, Volume 37, Issue 9–10, pp 623–642 | Cite as

Gender differences in pay histories and views on pay entitlement among university students

  • Serge Desmarais
  • James Curtis


Income Gender Difference Social Comparison Hourly Wage Comparison Standard 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, J. S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In Berkowitz, L. (ed.),Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Armstrong, J. P., & Armstrong, H. (1988).The double ghetto. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart.Google Scholar
  3. Austin, W., & McGinn, N. C. (1977). Sex differences in choice of distribution rules.Journal of Personality, 45, 379–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beutell, N. I., & Brenner, O. C. (1986). Sex differences in work values.Journal of Vocational Behavior, 28, 29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blau, F. D., & Ferber, M. A. (1986).The economics of women, men, and work. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  6. Boldizar, J. P., Perry, D. G., & Perry, L. C. (1988). Gender and reward distributions: A test of two hypotheses.Sex Roles, 19, 569–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bylsma, W. H., & Major, B. (1992). Two routes to eliminating gender differences in personal entitlement: Social comparisons and performance evaluation.Psychology of Women Quarterly, 16, 193–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bylsma, W. H., & Major, B. (1994). Social comparisons and contentment: Exploring the psychological costs of the gender wage gap.Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 241–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bylsma, W. H., Major, B., & Cozzarelli, B. (1995). The influence of legitimacy appraisals on the determinants of entitlement beliefs.Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 17, 223–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Callahan-Levy, C. M., & Messé, L. A. (1979). Sex differences in the allocation of pay.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 433–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Christofides, L. N., & Swindinsky, R. (1994). Wage determination by gender and visible minority status: Evidence from the 1989 LMAS.Canadian Public Policy, 20, 34–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crosby, F. J. (1976). A model of egoistical relative deprivation.Psychological Review, 83, 85–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crosby, F. J. (1982).Relative deprivation and working women. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Deaux, K., & Farris, E. (1977). Attributing causes for one’s own performance: The effects of sex, norms and outcome.Journal of Research in Personality, 11, 59–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Desmarais, S., & Curtis, J. (1997). “Gender and perceived pay entitlement: Testing for effects of experience with income.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 141–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Festinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes.Human Relations, 7, 117–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gartrell, C. D. (1987). Network approaches to social evaluation.Annual Review of Sociology, 13, 49–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goodman, P. S. (1974). An examination of referents used in the evaluation of pay.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 12, 170–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Greenberger, E., & Steinberg, L. D. (1983). Sex differences in early labor force experience: Harbinger of things to come.Social Forces, 62, 467–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hansen, R. D., & O’Leary, V. E. (1985). Sex-determined attributions: In V. E. O’Leary, R. K. Unger, & B. S. Wallston (Eds.).Women, gender and social psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  21. Jackson, L. A., Gardner, P. D., & Sullivan, L. A. (1992). Explaining gender differences in self-pay expectations: Social comparison standards and perceptions of fair pay.Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 252–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kahn, A., O’Leary, V. E., Krulewitz, J. E., & Lamm, H. (1980a). Equity and equality: Male and female means to a just end.Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 1, 173–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kahn, A., Nelson, R. E., & Gaeddert, W. P. (1980b). Sex of and sex composition of group as determinants of reward allocation.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 737–750.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kidder, L. H., Belletrie, G., & Cohn, E. S. (1977). Secret ambitions and public performances.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 70–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kruglanski, A. W., & Mayseless, O. (1990). Classic and current social comparison research: Expanding the perspective.Psychological Bulletin, 108, 195–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Labor Canada (1987).Women in the Labor Force. Ottawa, Ontario: Publication Distribution Service, Labor Canada.Google Scholar
  27. Lenney, E. (1977). Women’s self-confidence in achievement settings.Psychological Bulletin, 84, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Leventhal, G. S., & Lane, D. W. (1970). Sex, age, and equity behavior.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 15, 312–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lewin-Epstein, N. (1981).Youth employment during highschool. Washington, DC: National Centre for Education Statistics.Google Scholar
  30. Major, 1B. (1987). Gender, justice and the psychology of entitlement. In P. Shaver, & C. Hendrick (Eds.),Review of personality and social psychology: Sex and gender (Vol. 7), Newbury Park, Sage.Google Scholar
  31. Major, B. (1989). Gender differences in comparisons and entitlement: Implications for comparable worth.Journal of Social Issues, 45, 99–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Major, B. (1994). From disadvantage to deserving: Comparisons, justifications and the psychology of entitlement. In M. Zanna (Ed.),Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 26), pp. 293–355, San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  33. Major, B., & Adams, J. B. (1983). The role of gender, interpersonal orientation and self presentation in distributive justice behavior.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 598–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Major, B., & Deaux, K. (1982). Individual differences in justice behavior. In J. L. Greenberg, & R. L. Cohen (Eds.),Equity and justice in social behavior. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  35. Major, B., & Forcey, B. (1985). Social comparisons and pay evaluations: Preferences for same-sex and same-job wage comparisons.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 21, 393–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Major, B., & Konar, J. (1984). An investigation of sex differences in pay expectations and their possible causes.Academy of Management Journal, 27, 777–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Major, B., McFarlin, D., & Gagnon, D. (1984). Overworked and underpaid: On the nature of gender differences in personal entitlement.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1399–1412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Major, B., & Testa, M. (1989). Social comparison processes and judgments of entitlement and satisfaction.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25, 101–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Marini, M. M. (1989). Sex differences in earnings in the United States.Annual Review of Sociology, 15, 343–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McFarlin, D. B., Frone, M., Major, B., & Konar, E. (1989). Predicting career-entry pay expectations: The role of gender-based comparisons.Journal of Business and Psychology, 3, 331–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Medrich, E. A., Roizen, J. A., Rubin, V., & Buckley, S. (1982).The serious business of growing up. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  42. Messé, L. A., & Watts, 1B. L. (1983). Complex nature of the sense of fairness: Internal standards and social comparison as bases for reward evaluations.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 84–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mikula, G. (1974). Nationality, performance, and sex as determinants of reward allocations.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 435–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Moore, D. (1990). Discrimination and deprivation: The effects of social comparisons.Social Justice Research, 4, (1), 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mortimer, J. T., Finch, M. D., Owens, T. J., & Shanahan, 1M. (1990).Youth and Society, 22(2), 201–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. National Committee on Pay Equity (1986, April).Newsletter. Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  47. Nieva, V. F., & Gutek, B. A. (1981).Women and work: A psychological perspective. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  48. Oldham, G. R., Nottenburg, G., Kassner, M. W., Ferris, G., Fedor, D., & Masters, M. (1982). The selection and consequences of job comparisons.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 29, 84–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pritchard, R. D. (1969). Equity theory: A review and critique.Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4, 176–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pritchard, R. D., Jorgenson, D., & Dunnette, M. (1972). The effects of perceptions of equity and inequity on worker performance.Journal of Applied Psychology, 50, 75–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Reis, H. T., & Jackson, L. A. (1981). Sex differences in reward allocation: Subjects, partners, and tasks.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 465–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stake, J. E. (1983). Factors in reward distribution: Allocator motive, gender, and protestant ethic endorsement.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 410–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Stake, J. E. (1985). Exploring the basis of sex differences in third party allocations.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1621–1629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Statistics Canada. (1995).Earnings of men and women, 1993. Ottawa (Catalog No. 13–217).Google Scholar
  55. Summers, T. P., & DeNisi, A. S. (1990). In search of Adams’s other: Reexamination of referents used in the evaluation of pay.Human Relations, 43, 497–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959).The social psychology of groups. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  57. Treiman, D. J., & Hartmann, H. I. (1981).Women, work, and wages: Equal pay for jobs of equal value. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.Google Scholar
  58. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics(1981).School and work among youth during the 1970’s. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  59. Watts, B. L., Messé, L. A., & Vallacher, R. R. (1982). Toward understanding sex differences in pay allocations: Agency communion, and reward distribution behavior.Sex Roles, 12, 1175–1188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Weick, K. E. (1966). The concept of equity in the perception of pay.Administrative Science Quarterly, 11, 414–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. White, L. K., & Brinkerhoff, A. (1981). The sexual division of labor: Evidence from childhood.Social Forces, 60, 170–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wittig, M. A., Marks, G., & Jones, G. A. (1981). Luck versus effort attributions: Effect on reward allocations to self and others.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 7, 71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wood, J. V (1989). Theory and research concerning social comparisons of personal attributes.Psychological Bulletin, 106, 231–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Serge Desmarais
    • 1
  • James Curtis
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of GuelphOntarioCanada
  2. 2.University of WaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations