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Feminist Issues

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 67–80 | Cite as

The situation of women at berkeley between 1870 and 1915

  • Maresi Nerad
Articles

Keywords

Home Economic Feminist Issue Woman Faculty Woman Student Woman Faculty Member 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    Frederick Rudolph,The American College and University (New York: Vintage Books, 1962), p. 314.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    See Mabel Newcomer,A Century of Higher Education for American Women (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1959); Thomas Woody,A History of Women’s Education in the United States, vol. 2 (New York: Science Press, 1929); and Barbara M. Solomon,In the Company of Educated Women (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Verne A. Stadtman,The University of California, 1868-1968: A Centennial Publication of the University of California (San Francisco: McGraw-Hill, 1970).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mary McLean Olney, “Oakland, Berkeley, and the University of California,” interviewed by Willa Baum, pp. 130-39. Regional Oral History Project, 1973. University of California Archives, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    In 1870 there were 210,768 women in California and 349,379 men.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Elizabeth Griego, “A Study of Women Faculty Members in California in the Late Nineteenth Century” (Paper delivered at the History of Education Conference, Stanford University, October 1986).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Patricia Graham, “The Cult of True Womanhood: Past and Present,” inAll of Us Are Present: The Stephens College Symposium. Women’s Education: The Future, eds. Eleanor Bender, Bobbie Burk, Nancy Walker (Columbia, Missouri: James Madison Research Institute, 1984), pp. 9–32. See also Barbara Welter, “The Cult of True Womanhood: 1820-1860,” inWomen’s Experience in America, eds. Esther Katz and Anita Rapone (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1980), pp. 193-218.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Geraldine Joncich Clifford, “ ‘Shaking Dangerous Questions from the Crease’: Gender and American Higher Education,”Feminist Issues 3, no. 2 (Fall 1983): 3–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lynn Gordon, “Women With Missions: Varieties of College Life in the Progressive Era” (Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 1980).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gerda Lerner, “The Rise of Feminist Consciousness,” inAll of Us Are Present: The Stephens College Symposium. Women’s Education: The Future, eds. Eleanor Bender, Bobbie Burk, Nancy Walker (Columbia, Missouri: James Madison Research Institute, 1984).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    On this point I differ from Lynn Gordon. She dates the arrival of a feminist consciousness at 1915. She disregards the fact that its development is a process and goes through several stages. See Maresi Nerad, “Gender Stratification in Higher Education: The History of the Department of Home Economics At Berkeley, 1916-1962” (Ph.D., diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1987).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    President’s Biennial Report, 1900-1902, p. 63. University of California Archives, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Patricia A. Graham, “Expansion and Exclusion: A History of Women in American Higher Education,”Signs 3, no. 4 (1978): 766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Summary of Degrees and Certificates Awarded by the University of California, 1864-1933/34, compiled by the Registrar, 1934. University of California Archives, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    President’s Biennial Report, 1898-1900, p. 21.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Karen Blair,The Clubwoman as Feminist: True Womanhood Redefined, 1864-1914 (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1980).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ibid., p. 95.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gordon, “Women with Missions,” p. 125.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lerner, “Rise of Feminist Consciousness,” p. 36.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Clifford, “ ‘Shaking Dangerous Questions from the Crease.’ ” p. 37.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gordon, “Women with Missions,” p. 126.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ibid., p. 128.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lerner, “Rise of Feminist Consciousness,” p. 40.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    “The Prytaneans: An Oral History, 1901-1920,” vol. 1, p. 47. Regional Oral History Project, 1970. University of California Archives, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    University Chronicle, vol. 21,1919, p. 245. University of California Archives, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    President’s Biennial Report, 1900-1902, p. 237.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lerner, “Rise of Feminist Consciousness,” p. 43.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mary Bennett Ritter,More Than Gold in California (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1933).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    President’s Biennial Report, 1898-1900, p. 20.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    The Berkeleyan 3, no. 2:15-16.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Since 1986 biographical information on faculty who are dead has become public information and is kept in the University Archives.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    See Michael Otten,University Authority and the Student (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Herbert A. Simon,Administrative Behavior, 3rd ed. (New York: The Free Press, 1976).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Otten,University Authority and the Student, p. 55.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    The office of dean of men was created in 1923 under President Barrows, when the Student Affairs Committee, a rules enforcement agency, lost its influence, and when the custom of a senior student serving as the president’s secretary ceased to exist.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    This was Wheeler’s intention. Lucy Sprague, however, resisted becoming the “warden of women.” See Lucy Sprague, “Pioneering in History,” p. 43. Regional Oral History Project 1962. University of California Archives, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    “The Prytaneans: An Oral History”, p. 47.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Otten,University Authority and the Student, p. 56.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lucy Sprague, “Pioneering in History,” p. 44.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lucy Sprague Mitchell,Two Lives (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1953).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Register: Officers and Students, 1915. University of California Archives, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. Nine of the thirteen members of the Club House Loan Committee were women.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    For an extended discussion of the history of home economics at Berkeley, see Maresi Nerad, “Gender Stratification in Higher Education: The History of Home Economics at the University of California, 1912-1962,”Women Studies International Forum 10, no. 2 (1987).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Daily Californian, 1 September 1904, p. 1.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Report of Committee on Home Economics, University of California, 16 February 1916. University of California Archives, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  45. 45.

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© Springer 1987

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  • Maresi Nerad

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