Use of a biparticle fluidized-bed bioreactor for the continuous and simultaneous fermentation and purification of lactic acid

  • Eric Neil Kaufman
  • Stanley P. Cooper
  • Sandi L. Clement
  • Mark H. Little
Session 4 Process Economics and Commercialization


A continuous biparticle fluidized-bed reactor is developed for the simultaneous fermentation and purification of lactic acid. In this processing scheme, bacteria are immobilized in gelatin beads and are fluidized in a columnar reactor. Solid particles with sorbent capacity for the product are introduced at the top of the reactor, and fall counter currently to the biocatalyst, effectingin situ removal of the inhibitory product, while also controlling reactor pH at optimal levels. Initial long-term fermentation trials using immobilizedLactobacillus delbreuckii have demonstrated a 12-fold increase in volumetric productivity during absorbent addition as opposed to control fermentations in the same reactor. Unoptimized regeneration of the loaded sorbent has effected at least an eightfold concentration of lactic acid and a 68-fold enhancement in separation from glucose compared to original levels in the fermentation broth. The benefits of this reactor system as opposed to conventional batch fermentation are discussed in terms of productivity and process economics.

Index Entries

Lactic acid fermentation resin adsorbent biparticle fluidized bed continuous 


  1. 1.
    Atkinson, B. and Mavituna, F. (1991),Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology Handbook. 2 ed. Stockton, New York.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lipinsky, E. S. and Sinclair, R. G. (1986),Chem. Eng. Prog. 82, 26–32.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chemical Marketing Reporter. March 14, 1994, pp. 28–36.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Millis, J. (1993)Amer. Chem. Soc. 38, 297–299.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ohleyer, E., Blanch, H. W., and Wilke, C. R. (1985)Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 11, 317–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Evangelista, R. L., Mangold, A. J., and Nikolov, Z. L. (1994)Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 45, 131–144.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mercier, P., Yerushalmi, L., Rouleau, D., and Dochain, D. (1992)J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 55, 111–121.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Buchta, K. (1983),Lactic Acid, inBiotechnology: A Comprehensive Treatise Biomass, Microorganisms for Special Applications Microbial Products I, Energy from Renewable Resources, Dellweg, H., ed., Verlag Chemie, Weinheim.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kirk-Othmer, X. (1981),Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3 ed., vol. 13, Grayson, M., ed., John Wiley: New York.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    King, C. J. (1992),Chem Tech 22(5), 285–291.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yeh, P. L. H., Bajpai, R. K., and Iannotti, E. L. (1991),J. Fermentation Bioeng. 71(1), 75–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kuhn, R., Peretti, S., and Ollis, D. (1993)Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 39/40, 401–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Melzoch, K. and Konopaskova, L. (1993)Biotechnol. Lett. 15(5), 517–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Andrews, G. F. and Fonta, J. P. (1989),Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 20, 375–390.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stenroos, S. L., Linko, Y. Y., and Linko, P. (1982),Biotechnol. Lett. 4(3), 159–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Guoquiang, D., Kaul, R., and Mattiasson, B. (1991),Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 36, 309–314.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hang, Y. D., Hamamci, H., and Woodams, E. E. (1989),Biotechnol. Lett. 11(2), 119–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yabannavar, V. M. and Wang, D. I. C. (1991),Biotechnol. Bioeng. 37, 1095–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vick Roy, T. B., Blanch, H. W., and Wilke, C. R. (1982),Biotechnol. Lett. 4 (8), 483–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shi, Z., Shimizu, K., Iijima, S., Morisue, T., and Kobayashi, T. (1990),J. Fementation Bioeng. 70(6), 415–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kulozik, U., Hammelehle, B., Pfeifer, J., and Kessler, H. G. (1992),J. Biotechnol. 22, 107–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Venkatesh, K. V., Okos, M. R., and Wankat, P. C. (1993),Process Biochem. 28, 231–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Seevaratnam, S., Holst, J. O., Hjorleifsdottir, S., and Mattiasson, B. (1991),Bioprocess Eng. 6, 35–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Martin, M. S., Pazos, C., and Coca, J. (1992),J. Chem. Tech. Biotechnol. 54, 1–6.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Garcia, A. A. (1991),Biotechnol. Prog. 7, 33–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Galliot, F. P., Gleason, C., Wilson, J. J., and Zwarick, J. (1990)Biotechnol. Prog. 6, 370–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Srivastava, A., Roychoudhury, P. K., and Sahai, V. (1992),Biotechnol. Bioeng. 39, 607–613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Davison, B. H. and Scott, C. D. (1992),Biotechnol. Bioeng. 39, 365–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Davison, B. H. and Thompson, J. E. (1992),Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 34, 431–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Godia, F., Casas, C., and Sola, C. (1987),Process Biochem. 22, 43–48.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Davison, B. H. and Scott, C. D. (1988),Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 18, 19–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Scott, C. D. (1987),Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 501, 487–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kaufman, E. N., Cooper, S. P., and Davison, B. H. (1994),Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 45, 545–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nakagawa, M., Nakamura, I., and Kobayashi, T. (1975),J. Ferment. Technol. 53(3), 127–134.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fluor Daniel Inc. (1994),Economic Assessment of Ethanol Production Comparing Traditional and Fluidized Bed Bioreactors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE P.O. No. 32X-SM954V.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rohm and Haas Company (1975),Amberlite IRA-35.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chem Systems Inc. (1984),Technical and Economic Assessment of Processes for the Production of Butanol and Acetone. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chem Systems Inc. (1986),Implications of ORNL Immobilization Technology on Citric Acid Production. Jet Propulsion Laboratory.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hanson, T. P. and Tsao, G. T. (1972)Biotechnol. Bioeng. 14, 233–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Guoqiang, D., Kaul, R., and Mattiasson, B. (1992),Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 37, 305–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric Neil Kaufman
    • 1
  • Stanley P. Cooper
    • 1
  • Sandi L. Clement
    • 1
  • Mark H. Little
    • 1
  1. 1.Bioprocessing Research and Development CenterOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak Ridge

Personalised recommendations