Virchows Archiv B

, 40:121 | Cite as

The relationship between senile plaques and cerebral blood vessels in Alzheimer’s disease and senile dementia

Morphological mechanism of senile plaque production
  • Taihei Miyakawa
  • Akitomo Shimoji
  • Ryoko Kuramoto
  • Yasushi Higuchi
Article

Summary

Several kinds of senile plaque found in 6 brains (4 from patients with Alzheimer’s disease and 2 from patients with senile dementia) were examined in serial sections by light electron microscopy. The results obtained were as follows.

All the senile plaques contained at least some amyloid fibrils, and these seemed to be produced at the basement membranes of capillary endothelial cells and projected into the surrounding parenchyma.

Even when the senile plaques themselves appeared to lack amyloid fibrils by light microscopy, at least one degenerable capillary containing amyloid fibrils was demonstrabled when serial sections were examined ultrastructurally.

The findings described above suggest that the amyloid fibrils which form the cores of the several kinds of senile plaque, seem to be produced at the basement membrane of the endothelial cell. It is speculated that the capillary degeneration with the formation of amyloid fibrils may be primary change in the genesis of senile plaques.

Key words

Senile plaque Amyloid fibril Capillary degeneration with amyloid angiopathy 

References

  1. Alzheimer A (1907) Über eigenartige Erkrankung der Hirnrinde. All Z Psychiatr 64:146–148Google Scholar
  2. Blocq P, Marinesco MG (1892) Sur les l’esions et la pathologie de l’epilepsie citée essentielle. Sem Med 12:445–446Google Scholar
  3. Braunmühl AV (1957) Handbuch der speziellen pathologischen Anatomie und Histologie. Im: Lubarsch VO, Henke F, Rossle R (Hrsg) Bd XIII, Nervensystem. Erster Teil, Bandteil A, 337. Springer, Berlin Göttingen HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  4. Corsellis JAN, Brierlery JB (1954) An unusual type of presenile dementia. Brain 77:571–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Glenner GG (1979) Congophilic microangiopathy in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s syndrome (presenile dementia). Med Hypotheses 5:1231–1236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gonatas NK, Anderson W, Evangelista I (1967) The contribution of an altered synapses in the plaques. An electron microscopic study in Alzheimer’s dementia. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 26:25–39PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ishii T (1958) Histochemistry of the senile changes of the brain of the senile dementia. Psychiat Neurol Jpn 60:768–781Google Scholar
  8. Ishii T (1969) Enzyme histochemical studies of senile plaques and the plaque-like degeneration of arteries and capillaries (Scholz) Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 14:250–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ishii T, Haga S, Shimizu F (1975) Identification of Immunoglobulins in Senile Plaques by means of Fluorescent Amyloid Technique. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 32:157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Katenkamp D, Stiller D, Thoss K (1970) Untersuchungen zum immunhistochemischen Verhalten der Senilen Plaques des menschlichen Gehirns. Virchows Arch [Pathol Anat] 351:333–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kidd M (1964) Alzheimer’s disease. An electron Microscopic study. Brain 87:307–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Luse SA, Smith KR (1964) The ultrastructure of senile plaque. Am J Pathol 44:553–563PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Mandybur TI (1967) The incidence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 25:120–125Google Scholar
  14. Morel F, Wildi E (1952) General and cellular pathochemistry of senile and presenile alterations of the brain. Proc Ist Int Congress Neuropathol Rome, pp 347–374Google Scholar
  15. Miyakawa T, Uehara Y (1979) Observation of amyloid angiopathy and senile plaque under a scanning electron microscope. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 48:153–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Miyakawa T, Sumiyoshi S, Murayama E, Deshimaru M (1974) Ultrastructure of Capillary Plaque-like Degeneration in Senile Dementia. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 29:229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pantelakis S (1954) Un type particula d; angiopathie senile du systeme nerveaux central. Un angiopathie congophile. Topographie et frequences. Monatschr Psychiatr Neurol 198:219–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Powers JM, Spicer SS (1977) Histochemical similarity of senile plaque amyloid to apudamyloid. Virchows Arch [Pathol Anat] 376:107–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Schlote W (1965) Polarisationen, optische und elektromikroscopische Beobachtungen bei “drusiger” Degeneration der Hirngefässe in Senium. Proc. 5th Int. Congress Neuropathol. (Zürich) 490–494Google Scholar
  20. Scholz W (1938) Studien zur Pathologie der Hirngefässe. II. Die drüsige Entartung der Hirnarterien und Capillaren. Z Neurol 162:694–715Google Scholar
  21. Simchowicz T (1911) Histologische Studien über die Senilen Demenz. Histol U Histopathol Arb und Grosshirnrinde. Nissl Alzheimersche Arbeiten IV: 267–444Google Scholar
  22. Surbeck KB (1961) L’angiopathie dyshorique (Morel) d l’ecorce cerebrale Etude anatomoclinique et statistique: Aspect genetique. Thesis, GeneveGoogle Scholar
  23. Teilum G (1964) Pathogenesis of amyloidosis. The two-phase cellular theory of local secretion. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 61:21–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Terry RD, Gonatas NK, Weiss M (1964) Ultrastructural studies in Alzheimer’s presenile dementia. Am J Pathol 44:269–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Wiśniewski H, Terry RD (1973) Reexamination of the pathogenesis of the senile plaque. Progr Neuropathol II: 1–26Google Scholar
  26. Wiśniewski H, Johnson AB, Raine CS, Kay WJ, Terry RD (1970) Senile plaques and cerebral amyloidosis in aged dogs. A histochemical and ultrastructural study. Lab Invest 23:281–296Google Scholar
  27. Wiśniewski H, Moretz R, Lossinsky A (1981) Evidence for Induction of Localized Amyloid Deposits and Neurite Plaques by an Infectious Agent. Ann Neurol 10:517–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Yokoi S, Ishii T (1958) Histochemistry of plaque-like degeneration in the brain of senile dementia. Psychiatr Neurol (Jpn) 60:641–649Google Scholar
  29. Zucker-Franklin GLD, Franklin EC (1978) Degradation of serum amyloid, A protein by surface-associated enzymes of human blood monocytes. J Exp Med 148:1012–1031CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taihei Miyakawa
    • 1
  • Akitomo Shimoji
    • 1
  • Ryoko Kuramoto
    • 1
  • Yasushi Higuchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeuropsychiatryKumamoto University Medical SchoolKumamotoJapan

Personalised recommendations