Folia Microbiologica

, Volume 52, Issue 6, pp 603–617 | Cite as

Survival and reproduction in some algae under stress conditions

  • S. Gupta
  • S. C. Agrawal


Pithophora oedogonia andCladophora glomerata survived lowest 60 and 58 %, respectively, in June when the pond diurnal water temperature (PDWT) increased to a maximum of 28 °C. The lowering of PDWT only by 1 °C in July improved survivability of both algae to their almost maximum level of 100 and 96 %, respectively. Further lowering of PDWT to 17–22 °C in November initiated akinete formation inP. oedogonia. The process of akinete initiation, maturation and germination continued till April when PDWT increased to 20–24 °C, but not beyond that in May when PDWT was 21–26 °C. By this time, probably all akinetes have germinatedin situ, and the alga was entirely vegetative.P. oedogonia population is not synchronous in nature, since during the 5–6 month reproductive season, some filaments were in active vegetative stage, some had akinete initiation, some had completed akinete formation, and some had akinetes germinating.C. glomerata grew dense vegetative in November and initiated (zoo)sporangial primordia formation (to some extent) in February (when PDWT was lowest,viz. 10–14 °C) till April. Meanwhile, no (zoo)-sporangial primordia either produced any zoospore or germinated into a germ tube; and all released their cytoplasmic content and died (along with some vegetative cells) with an increase in PDWT to 21–26 °C in May.Vaucheria geminata vegetative patches appeared on the soil surface, 2nd week of January by lowering of atmospheric diurnal temperature (ADT) to 9–16 °C in the 1st week. The alga started sexual reproduction by the 2nd week of March (when ADT increased to 20–23 °C) and completed the process of reproduction by the 1st week of April (when ADT increased to 24–26 °C) and died thereafter.P. oedogonia, C. glomerata andV. geminata survived better and longer in submerged conditions than air-exposed (which was true forP. oedogonia andC. glomerata aquatic habitat and also indicated that the soil algaV. geminata could survive to some extent if submerged in rain water).P. oedogonia formed akinetes andC. glomerata (zoo)sporangial primordia only in submerged condition and not when air-exposed on moist soil surface.V. geminata did not complete the life cycle both under submerged and air-exposed conditions. Vegetative survival inP. oedogonia, C. glomerata, V. geminata, Aphanothece pallida, Gloeocapsa atrata, Scytonema millei, Myxosarcina burmensis, Phormidium bohneri, Oscillatoria animalis, O. subbrevis, Lyngbya birgei, L. major, Microcoleus chthonoplastes andRhizoclonium crassipellitum, reproduction inP. oedogonia, C. glomerata andV. geminata, cell division inA. pallida andG. atrata, heterocyst and false branch formation inS. millei, all, were adversely affected at ≈28.5 °C for ≈12 h at light intensity of ≈160 µmol m−2 s−1; high intensity does not ameliorate high temperature damage to any algae. The presence of liquid water, than its absence, outside the different algae moderated the severity of heat to some extent but not when the heat was severe.


High Light Intensity Submerged Condition Cladophora Glomerata Aquatic Alga Atmospheric Relative Humidity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Aphanothece pallida

Cladophora glomerata

Gloeocapsa atrata

Lyngbya birgei

Lyngbya major


atmospheric diurnal temperature




akinete formation


antheridial papilla


cell division


false branch (formation)


germinated akinetes

Lyngbya mesotricha


Myxosarcina burmensis

Microcoleus chthonoplastes

Oscillatoria animalis

Oscillatoria subbrevis




immature akinetes


mature akinetes


oogonial papilla




pond diurnal water temperature


survived cells

Phormidium bohneri


Pithophora oedogonia

Rhizoclonium crassipellitum


Scytonema millei

Vaucheria geminata


soil moisture content


vegetative cells


vegetative filaments


vegetative survival


(zoo)sporangial primordia


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agrawal S.C.: Palynological studies on the green algaStigeoclonium pascheri (Vischer)Cox etBold.PhD Thesis. Banaras Hindu University (India) 1980.Google Scholar
  2. Agrawal S.C.: Effects of nutrients present in Bold’s basal medium on sporulation of the green algaPithophora oedogonia (Mont.)Wittrock.Microbios Lett.24, 27–29 (1983).Google Scholar
  3. Agrawal S.C.: Effects of different factors on the akinete germination ofPithophora oedogonia (Mont.)Wittrock.J.Basic Microbiol.26, 195–199 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agrawal S.C., Pal U.: Viability of dried vegetative cells or filaments, survivability and/or reproduction under water and light stress, and following heat and UV exposure in some blue-green and green algae.Folia Microbiol.48, 501–509 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Agrawal S.C., Sarma Y.S.R.K.: Effects of different factors on the sporulation ofPithophora oedogonia (Mont.)Wittrock.Z.Allg. Mikrobiol.23, 347–350 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Agrawal S.C., Singh V.: Viability of dried vegetative cells and the formation and germination of reproductive structures inPithophora oedogonia, Cladophora glomerata andRhizoclonium hieroglyphicum under water stress.Folia Microbiol.44, 63–70 (1999a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Agrawal S.C., Singh V.: Viability of dried vegetative trichomes, formation of akinetes and heterocysts and akinete germination in some blue-green algae under water stress.Folia Microbiol.44, 411–418 (1999b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Agrawal S.C., Singh V.: Vegetative survival, akinete formation and germination in three blue-green algae and one green alga in relation to light intensity, temperature, heat shock and UV exposure.Folia Microbiol.45, 439–446 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Agrawal S.C., Singh V.: Viability of dried cells, and survivability and reproduction under water stress, low light, heat and UV exposure inChlorella vulgaris.Israel J.Plant Sci.49, 27–32 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Agrawal S.C., Singh V.: Viability of dried filaments, survivability and reproduction under water stress, and survivability following heat and UV exposure inLyngbya martensiana, Oscillatoria agardhii, Nostoc calcicola, Hormidium fluitans, Spirogyra sp. andVaucheria geminata.Folia Microbiol.47, 61–67 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bellis V.J., McLarty D.A.: Ecology ofCladophora glomerata (L.)Kütz. in Southern Ontario.J.Phycol.3, 57–63 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Berry H.A., Lembi C.A.: Effects of temperature and irradiance on the seasonal variation of aSpirogyra (Chlorophyta) population in a midwestern lake (USA).J.Phycol.36, 841–851 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blinn D.W.: Growth responses to variations in temperature and specific conductance byChaetoceros muelleri (Bacillariophyceae).Brit.Phycol.J.19, 31–35 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buzer J.S., Dohmeier R.A., Dutoil D.R.: The survival of algae in dry soils exposed to high temperatures for extended time periods.Phycologia24, 249–251 (1985).Google Scholar
  15. Cepák V., Přibyl P., Vítová M.: The effect of light color on the nucleocytoplasmic and chloroplast cycle of the green chlorococcal algaScenedesmus obliquus.Folia Microbiol.51, 342–348 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cook W.R., Price I.R.: The effect of aeration and light on the development of the zoosporangia in the genusCladophora.J.Roy.Microscop.Soc.48, 274–282 (1928).Google Scholar
  17. Czurda V.: Experimentelle Analyse der Kopulation sauslosenden Bedingungan,etc. I.Beitr.Bot.Zbl.51, 711–762 (1933).Google Scholar
  18. Dodds W.K., Gudder D.A., Mollenhauer D.: The ecology ofNostoc.J.Phycol.31, 2–18 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Drebes G.: On the life history of the marine plankton diatomStephanopyxis palmeriana.Helgol.Wiss.Meeresunters.13, 101–114 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fay P.: Metabolic activities of isolated spores ofAnabaena cylindrica.J.Exp.Bot.20, 100–109 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Glade R.: Zur Kenntnis der GattungCylindrospermumCohns.Beitr.Biol.Pflanz.12, 295–343 (1914).Google Scholar
  22. Greenwood J.R., Steenbergen J.F.: A unique thermal aquatic environment: a microbial characterization.Hydrobiologia51, 265–273 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gupta S., Agrawal S.C.: Vegetative survival and reproduction under submerged and air-exposed conditions and vegetative survival as affected by salts, pesticides, and metals in aerial green algaTrentepohlia aurea.Folia Microbiol.49, 37–40 (2004a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gupta S., Agrawal S.C.: Zoosporangia survival, dehiscence and zoospore formation, and motility in the green algaRhizoclonium hieroglyphicum as affected by different factors.Folia Microbiol.49, 549–559 (2004b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gupta S., Agrawal S.C.: Motility inOscillatoria salina as affected by different factors.Folia Microbiol.51, 565–571 (2006a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gupta S., Agrawal S.C.: Survival of blue-green and green algae under stress conditions.Folia Microbiol.51, 121–128 (2006b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hall D.J., Walmsley R.D.: Effect of temperature on germination ofRhizoclonium riparium (Siphonocladales, Chlorophyta) akinetes and zoospores.J.Phycol.27, 537–539 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hoffmann J.P., Graham L.E.: Effects of selected physicochemical factors on growth and zoosporogenesis ofCladophora glomerata (Chlorophyta).J.Phycol.20, 1–7 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ihle T., Jähnichen S., Benndorf J.: Wax and wane ofMicrocystis (Cyanophyceae) and microcystins in lake sediments: a case study in Quitzdorf reservoir (Germany).J.Phycol.41, 479–488 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Karlsson-Elfgren I., Karin R., Susanne G.: Factors regulating recruitment from the sediment to the water column in the bloom forming cyanobacteriumGloeotrichia echinulata. 1.Freshwater Biol.49, 265–273 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kataoka H.: Phototropism inVaucheria geminata. I. The action spectrum.Plant Cell Physiol.16, 427–437 (1975).Google Scholar
  32. Laamanen M., Kuosa H.: Annual variability of biomass and heterocysts of the N2-fixing cyanobacteriumAphanizomenon flos-aquae in the Baltic sea with reference toAnabaena spp. andNodularia spumigena.Borel Environ.Res.10, 19–30 (2005).Google Scholar
  33. League E.A., Greulach V.A.: Effects of day length and temperature on the reproduction ofVaucheria sessilis.Bot.Gaz.117, 45–51 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lippert B.E.: Sexual reproduction inClosterium moniliferum andClosterium ehrenbergii.J.Phycol.3, 182–198 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mainx F.: Physiologische und genetische Untersuchungen andOedogonium. I.Z.Bot.24, 481–527 (1931).Google Scholar
  36. Mason C.P.: Ecology ofCladophora in farm ponds.Ecology46, 421–429 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Novak J.T., Brune D.E.: Inorganic carbon limited growth kinetics of some fresh water algae.Water Res.19, 215–226 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. O’Neal S.W., Lembi C.A., Spencer D.F.: Productivity of the filamentous algaPithophora oedogonia (Chlorophyceae) in Surrey lake, Indiana.J.Phycol.21, 562–569 (1985).Google Scholar
  39. O’Neal S.W., Lembi C.A.: Temperature and irradiance effects on growth ofPithophora oedogonia (Chlorophyceae) andSpirogyra (Charophyceae).J.Phycol.31, 720–726 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Petersen J.B.: Studies on the biology and taxonomy of soil algae, pp. 1–180 inDansk Botanisk Arkiv, Vol. 8 (no. 9). Dansk Botanisk Forening, Copenhagen (Denmark) 1935.Google Scholar
  41. Raoof B., Kaushik B.D.: Influence of light and temperature on mass multiplication ofSpirulina strains.Ind.J.Plant Physiol.7, 52–55 (2002).Google Scholar
  42. Reynolds C.S.: Growth, gas-vacuolation and buoyancy in a natural population of a blue-green alga.Freshwater Biol.2, 87–106 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roelofs T.D., Oglesby R.T.: Ecological observations on the planktonic cyanophyteGloeotrichia echinulata.Limnol.Oceanogr.15, 224–229 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shigeo T., Kumagai M., Urabe J., Sekino T., Hayami Y., Maruo M.: Effect of temperature and light on growth of planktonic green algae isolated from lake Hovsgol, Mongolia.Arch.Hydrobiol.149 (Suppl.), 81–89 (2003).Google Scholar
  45. Sommer U.: Growth and survival strategies of planktonic diatoms, pp. 227–260 inGrowth and Reproductive Strategies of Freshwater Phytoplankton (C.D. Sandgren, Ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK) 1988.Google Scholar
  46. Stanier R.Y., Kunisawa R., Mandel M., Cohen B.: Purification and properties of a unicellular blue-green alga (orderChroococcales).Bacteriol.Rev.35, 171–205 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Starr R.C.: A method of effecting zygospore germination in certainChlorophyceae.Proc.Nat.Acad.Sci.USA35, 453–456 (1949).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Trainor F.R.: Survival of algae in soil after high temperature treatment.Phycologia22, 201–202 (1983).Google Scholar
  49. Transeau E.N.: The periodicity of freshwater algae.Am.J.Bot.3, 121–133 (1916).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Werner D.: The life cycle with sexual phase in the marine diatomCoscinodiscus asteromphalus. III. Differentiation and spermatogenesis.Arch.Mikrobiol.80, 134–146 (1971).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Gupta
    • 1
  • S. C. Agrawal
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyUniversity of AllahabadAllahabadIndia

Personalised recommendations