Advertisement

Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 1, Issue 3, pp 276–288 | Cite as

Effects of elevated solar UV-B radiation from ozone depletion on terrestrial ecosystems

  • Liu Qing Email author
  • Terry V. Callaghan
  • Zuo Yuanyuan 
Article

Abstract

In the last three decades much research has been carried out to investigate the biological effects of a thinning stratospheric ozone layer accompanied by an enhanced level of solar ultraviolet-B radiation at the Earth’s surface. Enhanced UV-B radiation affects ecosystems in many ways directly and indirectly. The responses can be biochemical, physiological, morphological or anatomical, and the direction of the response can vary between different species, communities and ecosystems. In this paper we firstly introduce general concepts, and methods for measuring the ecological effects of UV-B radiation. Secondly, we provide an overview interpretation of the effects of enhanced UV-B on terrestrial ecosystems from recent studies. These studies include effects of UV-B on growth and reproduction, composition of communities, competitive balance, decomposition of litter, and interactions with other factors etc. Finally, we recommend future research directions to identify the effects of elevated UV-B radiation on ecosystems in China.

Keywords

Elevated UV-B effects ecosystem community composition decomposition 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barnes P W, Jordan P W, Gold W G, Flint S D, Caldwell M M. 1988. Competition, morphology and canopy structure in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and wild oat (Avena fatua L.) exposed to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation.Funct Ecol 2: 319–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnes P W, Flint S D, Caldwell M M. 1995. Early-season effects of supplemented solar UV-B radiation on seedling emergence, canopy structure, simulated stand photosynthesis and competition for light.Global Change Biol 1: 43–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bassman J H, Edwards G E, Robberecht R. 2002. Long-term exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation is not detrimental to growth and photosynthesis in Douglus-fir.New Phytol 154: 107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Björn L O, Callaghan T V, Johansen I,et al. 1997. The effects of UV-B radiation on European heathland species.Plant Ecol 128: 252–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Björn L O, Callaghan T V, Gehrke C, Johanson U, Sonesson M, Gwynn-Jones D. 1998. The problem of ozone depletion in northern Europe.Ambio 27: 275–279.Google Scholar
  6. Björn L O. 2002. Effects of Ultraviolet-B radiation on terrestrial organisms and ecosystems with special reference to the Arctic. In:UV radiation and arctic ecosystems. Berlin: Springer-Verlag,Ecol Studies 153: 93–121.Google Scholar
  7. Blumthaler M, Ambach W. 1990. Indication of increasing solar Ultraviolet-B radiation flux in Alpine regions.Science 248: 206–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Booker F L, Fiscus E L, Philbeck R B, Heagle AS, Miller J E, Heck W W. 1992. A supplemental ultraviolet-B radiation system for open-top field chambers.J Envir Quality 21: 56–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bowman K P. 1988. Global trends in total ozone.Science 239: 48–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Buck N, Callaghan T V. 1999. The direct and indirect effects of enhanced UV-B on the moth caterpillarEpirrita autumnata.Ecol Bulletins 47: 68–76.Google Scholar
  11. Buck N D. 1999. The direct and indirect effects of enhanced UV-B on larvae of the mothEpirrita autumnata. PhD thesis, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.Google Scholar
  12. Caldwell M M, Gold W G, Harris G, Ashurst C W. 1983. A modulated lamp system for UV-B (280–320 nm) supplementation studies in the field.Photochem and Photobiol 37: 479–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Caldwell M M, Teramura A H, Tevini M. 1989. The changing soalr ultraviolet climate and the ecological consequences for higher plants.Trends in Ecol and Evol 4: 363–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Caldwell M M, Teramura A H, Tevini M, Bornman J E, Bjorn L O, Kulandaivelu G. 1995. Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial plants.Ambio 24: 166–173.Google Scholar
  15. Caldwell M M. 1997. Alterations in competitive balance. Lumsden, P J. Plants and UV-B responses to environmental change. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press 307–315.Google Scholar
  16. Caldwell MM, Björn LO, Bornman JF, Kulandaivelu G, Teramura A H, Tevini M. 1998. Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on terrestrial ecosystem. UNEP.Environmental effects of ozone depletion 1998 assessment. Nairobi: UNEP. 63–85Google Scholar
  17. Callaghan T V, Korner C, Heal O W, Lee S E, Cornelissen J H C. 1998. Scenarios for ecosystem responses to global change. Heal O W, Callaghan T V, Cornelissen J H Cet al. Global change in Europe’s cold regions. Roma: European Commission, Italy, 41–46.Google Scholar
  18. Crutzen P J. 1972. SSTs— a threat to the earth’s ozone shield.Ambio 1: 41–51.Google Scholar
  19. de la Rosa T M, Julkunen-Tiitto R, Lehto T, Aphalo P J. 2001. Secondary metabolites and nutrient concentrations in silver birch seedlings under five levels of daily UV-B exposure and two relative nutrient addition rates.New Phytol 50: 121–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Farman J C, Gardiner B G, Shanklin J D. 1985. Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/NOx interaction.Nature 315: 207–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gehrke C, Johanson U, Callaghan T V, Chadwick D, Robinson CH. 1995. The impact of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on litter quality and decomposition processes inVaccinium leaves from the Subarctic.Oikos 72: 213–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gehrke C. 1999. Impacts of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on moss in a subarctic heath ecosystem.Ecol 80: 1844–1851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cleason J, Barthia P K, Herman J R,et al. 1993. Planet W. Record low global ozone in 1992.Science 260: 523–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gwynn-Jones D, Lee J A, Callaghan T V. 1997. Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on a sub-arctic forest heath ecosystem.Plant Ecol 128: 242–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Harley P, Deem G, Flint S, Caldwell M M. 1996. Effects of growth under elevated UV-B on photosynthesis and isoprene emission in Quercus gambelii and Mucuna pruriens.Global Change Biol 2: 149–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. He Y-H, Zheng Y-F, He D-L. 2002. A summary of the research on the effects of enhanced ultraviolet radiation on the field ecosystems.Chin Agri Climate 23: 47–52. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  27. Herman J R, Bhartia P K, Kiemke J, Ahmad Z, Larko D. 1996. UV-B increases (1979–1992) from decreases in total ozone.Geophys Rese Letters 23: 2117–2120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Johanson U, Gehrke C, Björn L O, 1995a. The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on the growth of dwarf shrubs in a subarctic heathland.Funct Ecol 9: 713–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johanson U, Gehrke C, Björn L O, Callaghan T V, Sonesson M. 1995b. The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on a subarctic heath ecosystem.Ambio 24: 106–111.Google Scholar
  30. Johnson D, Campbell C D, Lee J A, Callaghan TV. 2002. Arctic microorganisms respond more to elevated UV-B radiation than CO2.Nature 416: 82–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Longstreth J, Gruijl F R, Kripke M L,et al. 1998. Health risks. UNEP.Environmental effects of ozone depletion: 1998 assessment. Nairobi: UNEP: 28–62.Google Scholar
  32. Lumsden P J. 1997. Plants and UV-B: responses to environmental change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, UKGoogle Scholar
  33. Li Y, Yang J, Wang X, Hu Z. 1999. The effect of UV-B radiation on the population quantity of spring wheat microorganisms.Chin Environ Sci 19: 157–160. (in Chinese with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  34. Li Y, Yue M, Wang X. 1998. Effects of enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation on crop structure, growth and yield components of spring wheat under field conditions.Field Crops Rese 57: 253–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Madronich S, McKenzie R L, Björn L O, Caldwell M.M. 1998. Changes in biologically active ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth’s surface. UNEP.Environmental effects of ozone depletion: 1998 assessment. Nairobi: UNEP: 1–27.Google Scholar
  36. Moorhead D L, Callaghan T V. 1994. Effects of increasing ultraviolet B radiation on decomposition and soil organic matter dynamics: a synthesis and modelling study.Biol Fertil Soils 18: 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Phoenix G K, Gwynn-Jones D, Lee J A, Callaghan T V. 2000. The impacts of UV-B radiation on the regeneration of a sub-arctic heath community.Plant Ecol 146: 67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Phoenix G K 2000, Effects of ultraviolet radiation on sub-arctic healthland vegetation. PhD thesis. The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.Google Scholar
  39. Phoenix G K, Gwynn-Jones D, Callaghan T V, Sleep D, Lee J A. 2001. Effects of global change on a sub-Arctic heath: effects of enhanced UV-B radiation and increase summer precipitation.J Ecol,89: 256–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Phoenix G K, Gwynn-Jones D, Lee J A, Callaghan T V. 2002. Ecological importance of ambient solar ultraviolet radiation to a sub-arctic heath community.Plant Ecol (in press)Google Scholar
  41. Pyle J A. 1997. Global ozone depletion: observations and theory.Lumsden P J. Plants and UV-B responses to environmental change. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press:3–12.Google Scholar
  42. Rozema J, Tosserams M, Nelissen H J M, Heerwarrden L V, Broekma R A, Flierman N. 1997a. Stratospheric ozone reduction and ecosystem processes: enhanced UV-B radiation affects chemical quality and decomposition of leaves of the dune grassland speciesCalamagrsotis epigeios.Plant Ecol 128: 284–294.Google Scholar
  43. Rozema J, van de Staaij J W M, Tosserams M. 1997b. Effects of UV-B radiation on plants from agro- and natural ecosystems. Lumsden P J.Plants and UV-B responses to environmental change. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press: 213–232.Google Scholar
  44. Rozema J. 1999. Stratospheric ozone depletion. The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on terrestrial ecosystems. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  45. Searles P S, Flint S D, Caldwell M M. 2001. A meta-analysis of plant field studies simulating stratospheric ozone depletion.Oecol 127: 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sullivan J H, Teramura A H. 1990. Field study of the interaction between solar ultraviolet-B radiation and drought on photosynthesis and growth in soybean.Plant Physiol 92: 141–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. The department of the Environment on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationary Office. 1996 The potential effects of ozone depletion in the United Kingdom. London:The department of the Environment 1–15Google Scholar
  48. Webb A R. 1997. Monitoring changes in UV-B radiation. Lumsden P J. Plants and UV-B responses to environmental change. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press: 13–30.Google Scholar
  49. Yue M, Wang X-L. 1999. Effects of enhanced ultraviolet radiation on competitive balance of wheat and oat the structure of biomass and conpy.Acta Sci Cricumstan 19: 526–531. (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  50. Zepp R G, Callaghan T V, Erickson D J. 1995. Effects of increased solar ultraviolet radiation on biogeochemical cycles.Ambio 24: 181–187.Google Scholar
  51. Zepp R G, Callaghan T V, Erickson D J. 1998. Effects of enhanced solar ultraviolet radiation on biogeochemical cycles. UNEP.Environmental effects of ozone depletion: 1998 assessment. Nairobi: UNEP: 113–136.Google Scholar
  52. Zepp R G, Callaghan T V, Erickson D J. 2003. Interactive effects of ozone depletion and climate change on biogeochemical cycles. Photochemical Photobiological Sciences2(1): 51–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Moutain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Science Press 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Liu Qing 
    • 1
    Email author
  • Terry V. Callaghan
    • 2
    • 3
  • Zuo Yuanyuan 
    • 1
  1. 1.Chengdu Institute of BiologyChinese Academy of SciencesChengduChina
  2. 2.Sheffield Centre for Arctic Ecology, Department of Animal and Plant SciencesUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  3. 3.Abisko Scientific Research StationThe Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesAbiskoSweden

Personalised recommendations