Advances in Atmospheric Sciences

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 335–354

Implementing a new snow scheme in Simplified Simple Biosphere Model

  • Sun Shufen
  • Xue Yongkang


This paper describes a modified version of SSIB through implementing a new snow model (SAST) in Simplified Simple Biosphere Model SSIB for climate study and presents the evaluation results by testing the scheme based on the field data from Russia and France. The relevant equations in the scheme are given, which describe complicated interactive processes among air-vegetation-snow-soil continuum through mass and heat exchange. An efficient numerical scheme is developed to solve the nonlinear equations successfully. By using the field data from Russia and France, the function of the new scheme is evaluated. The numerical results from the scheme show good agreement with field data. It indicates that the scheme developed here is workable and can be extended for climate study.

Key words

Snow cover model (SAST) SSIB Implementing Evaluation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, E.A., 1976: A point energy and mass balance model of a snow cover.NOAA Technical Report NWS,19, Office of Hydrology, National Weather Service, Silver Spring, MD, 150pp.Google Scholar
  2. Barnett, T.P., L. Dumenil, U. Schlese, E. Roeckner, and M. Latif, 1989. The effect of Eurasian snow cover on regional and global climate variations.Journal of Atmospheric Science,46, 661–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cohen, J., and D. Rind, 1991: The effect of snow cover on the climate.Journal of Climate,4, 689–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Jordan, R., 1991: A one-dimensional Temperature Model for a Snow Cover.CRREL, Special Report, 91-1b, 49pp.Google Scholar
  5. Kukla, G., 1981: Climate role of snow cover, in Allison, A (ed.).Sea Level, Ice and Climatic Change, International Association of Hydrological Sciences Publication, Washington DC,131, 79–107.Google Scholar
  6. Loth, B., and H.F. Graf, 1992: Snow cover model for global climate simulation.Journal of Geophysical Research 98(D6), 10451–10464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lynch-Stieglitz, M., 1994: The development and validation of a simple snow model for the GISS GCM.Journal of Climate,7, 1842–1855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Robock, A., K. V. Vinnikov, C.A. Schlosser, N.A. Speranskaya, and Y. Xue, 1995: Use of Russian soil moisture and meteorological observations to validate soil moisture simulations with biosphere and bucket models.Journal of Climate,8, 15–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Sellers, P.J., Y. Mintz, Y.C. Sud, and A. Dalcher, 1986: A Simple Biosphere Model(SIB) for Use within General Circulation Model.Journal of Atmospheric Science,43, 505–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Slater, A.G., A.J. Pitman, and C.E. Desborough, 1998: The validation of a snow parameterization designed for use in general circulation models.International Journal of Climatology,18, 595–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Sun, S.F., J. Jin, and Y. K. Xue, 1999: A simple snow-atmosphere-soil transfer model.Journal of Geophysical Research,104(D16), 19587–19597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Vernekar, A.D., J. Zhou, and J. Shukla, 1995: The effect of Eurasian snow cover on the Indian monsoon.Journal of Climate,8, 248–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Walsh, J. E., W.H. Jasperson, and B. Ross, 1985: Influence of snow cover and soil moisture on monthly air temperature.Monthly Weather Review,113, 756–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wiliams, J., 1975: The influences of snow cover on the atmospheric circulation and its role in climate change: an analysis based on results from the NCAR global circulation model.Journal of Applied Meteorology,14, 137–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Xue, Y., P. J. Sellers, J.L. Kinter III, and J. Shukla, 1991: A Simplified Biosphere Model for Global Climate Studies.Journal of Climate,4, 345–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Xue, Y., F. J. Zeng, and C.A. Schlosser, 1996: SSIB and its sensitivity to soil properties a case study using HAPEX-Mobilhy data.Global & Planetary Change,13, 183–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sun Shufen
    • 1
  • Xue Yongkang
    • 2
  1. 1.LASG, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijing
  2. 2.Department of GeographyUniversity of MarylandUSA

Personalised recommendations