The Botanical Review

, Volume 48, Issue 2, pp 121–594 | Cite as

Sesquiterpene lactones as taxonomic characters in the asteraceae

  • Frederick C. Seaman
Interpreting Botanical Progress


The Asteraceae is characterized by structurally diverse sesquiterpene lactones and furanosesquiterpenes. In this review the tribal, subtribal and generic distribution of sesquiterpene lactones is examined and the compounds’ utility as taxonomic characters discussed.

Sesquiterpene lactones fulfill the major requirements for good analytic and synthetic characters. Studies of infraspecific sesquiterpene lactone variation indicate that different elements within complex taxa are often defined by distinct chemistries, termed chemotypes. Chemotypes have been identified within many of the thoroughly investigated taxa:Ambrosia camphorata, A. chamissonis, A. confertiflora, theA. cumanensis-A. psilostachya-A. artemisiifolia complex,A. dumosa, Artemisia tridentata, Gaillardia pulchella andMelampodium leucanthum. Such an analytic usage is mostly restricted to the infraspecific level.

Synthetic usage at the interspecific level and above profits from the application of a biogenetically based methodology for sorting out the complex molecules’ carbon-skeletal and substitutional features into unit characters. Cladistics or Hennigian phylogenetic systematics provides a useful framework for such an analysis. Preliminary surveys indicate that sesquiterpene lactones are especially good characters for differentiating subtribes within several major tribes: the Vernonieae, Heliantheae and Mutisieae. As yet, too few data are available for other tribes to discern such patterns. Species surveys inVernonia, Ambrosia, Iva, Parthenium,Tetragonotheca andArtemisia demonstrate that sesquiterpene lactones are useful in discerning infrageneric groups. The biogenetic cladistic analysis of the interspecific sesquiterpene lactone variation inIva shows the efficacy of this analytical methodology.

At present, such biogenetically based approaches are impeded by limited biosynthetic evidence and the erratic distribution of sesquiterpene lactones within the family. Instances of apparent displacement of sesquiterpene lactones by other terpenoids (i.e. sesquiterpene furans, alcohols and acids, diterpenes, diterpene acids, etc.) at various taxonomic levels suggest that ultimately sesquiterpene lactones must be interpreted as taxonomic characters in the context of the family’s total terpene chemistry.

All taxa from which sesquiterpene lactones have been reported are listed together with the compound names, major structural features and the literature cited. A less-complete listing is provided for taxa producing furanosesquiterpenes. Structures for all reported compounds are included. Two appendices listing alphabetically taxa and compounds and relevant text page numbers permit cross-indexing of plants and compounds.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Abbasov, R. M., N. M. Ismailov andK. S. Rybalko. 1965. The lactone constituents ofArtemisia spicigera. The dynamics of accumulation of lactones, essential oils and “phenols” and their inter-relationships. Vopr. Eksperim. Botan. Sb. 5; Chem. Abstr.65: 12563c (1966).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abe, N., T. Harukawa, H. Ishikawa, T. Miki, M. Sumi andT. Toga. 1953. Santonin. I. The synthesis of two optically inactive stereoisomerides of santonin. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.75: 2567.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    -,R. Onoda, K. Shirahata, T. Kato, M. C. Woods and Y. Kitahara. 1968. The structure of bakkenolide A. Tetrahedron Lett. 369.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abdel-Baset, Z. H., L. Southwick, W. Padolina, H. Yoshioka, T. J. Mabry andS. B. Jones, Jr. 1971. Sesquiterpene lactones: A survey of 21 United States taxa from the genusVernonia (Compositae). Phytochemistry10: 2201.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abraham, E. P., D. M. Crowfoot, A. E. Joseph andE. M. Osborn. 1946. An antibacterial substance fromArctium minus andOnopordon tauricum. Nature158: 744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abu-Shady, H. andT. O. Soine. 1953. The chemistry ofAmbrosia maritima L. The isolation and preliminary characterization of ambrosin and damsin. J. Amer. Pharm. Assoc.42: 387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Adams, R. andW. Herz. 1949. Helenalin. I. Isolation and properties. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.71: 2546.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    ——. 1949. Helenalin, III. Reduction and dehydrogenation. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.71: 2554.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Agafonova, N. V., L. E. Kushnir, A. D. Kuzovkov, A. I. Shreter andM. G. Pimenov. 1966. Chemical study ofSaussurea pulchella Fisch. Aptechn. Delo.15: 36; Chem. Abstr.65: 3681d (1966).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Akyev, B. 1976. Artemin fromArtemisia kemrudica. Isv. Akad. Nauk. Turkmensk. SSR. Ser. Biol. Nauk.6: 85; Chem. Abstr.87: 19053n (1977).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    —,S. Z. Kasymov andG. P. Sidyakin. 1971. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia santolina. Khim. Prir. Soedin.7: 531; English ed. p. 514; Chem. Abstr.75: 148501h (1971).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    ———. 1972. Arsanin—a new sesquiterpene lactone fromArtemisia santolina. Khim. Prir. Soedin.8: 461; English ed. p. 458; Chem. Abstr. 78: 13748K (1973).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    ———. 1972. Structure and configuration of arsanin. Khim. Prir. Soedin.8: 730; English ed. p. 713; Chem. Abstr.78: 84565j (1973).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    ———. 1972. Artesin—a new sesquiterpene lactone fromArtemisia santolina. Khim. Prir. Soedin.8: 733; English ed. p. 715; Chem. Abstr. 78: 84563g (1973).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Akhmedov, I. S., S. Z. Kasymov andG. P. Sidyakin. 1970. Structure of artabin. Khim. Prir. Soedin.6: 691; English ed. p. 703; Chem. Abstr.74: 112239u (1971).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    ———. 1970. Artabin—a new lactone fromArtemisia absinthium. Khim. Prir. Soedin.6: 622; English ed. p. 634.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    ———. 1972. Arabsin—a new lactone fromArtemisia absinthium. Khim. Prir. Soedin.8: 245; English ed. p. 245; Chem. Abstr.77: 85567c (1972).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alemán, R., A. Rosado, M. Rodríguez andJ. F. Bertrán. 1977. Composition ofWedelia rugosa Greenm. Rev. Cubana Farm.11: 47; Chem. Abstr.88: 3076g (1978).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ali, E., P. P. Ghosh Dastidar, S. C. Pakrashi, L. J. Durham andA. M. Duffield. 1972. Sesquiterpene lactones ofEnhydra fluctuans Lour. Structures of enhydrin, fluctuanin and fluctuadin. Tetrahedron28: 2285.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alvarado, S., J. F. Ciccio, J. Calzada, V. Zabel andW. H. Watson. 1979. Thieleanine, a new guaianolide fromDecachaeta thieleana. Phytochemistry18: 330.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Anderson, L. A. P., W. T. de Kock, K. G. R. Pachler andC. V. D. M. Brink. 1967. The structure of vermeerin. A sesquiterpenoid dilactone fromGeigeria africana Gries. Tetrahedron23: 4153.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    ——,W. Nel, K. G. R. Pachler andG. Van Tonder. 1969. Gafrinin, a sesquiterpenoid lactone fromGeigeria africana Gries. I. Revised structure. Tetrahedron24: 1687.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Anthonson, T. andS. Chantharasakul. 1971. Isolation of ent-16-kauren-19-oic-acid and ent-16-kauren-19-01 fromAbrotanella nivigena. Acta Chem. Scand.25: 1925; Chem. Abstr.75: 137488h (1971).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Aparecida, M., H. Cagnin, C. M. R. Gómes, O. R. Gottlieb, A. I. Marx, M. F. de Rocha, G. F. da Silva andJ. A. Temperini. 1977. Biochemical systematics: Methods and principles. Plant Syst. Evol. Suppl.1: 53.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Arkhipova, L. I., S. Z. Kasymov andG. P. Sidyakin. 1970. Sesquiterpenoid lactones fromArtemisia halophila. Khim. Prir. Soedin.6: 480; Chem. Abstr.74: 10349n (1971).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Asahina, Y. andT. Momose. 1937. Über das α-oxysantonin. Ber. Dtsch. Chm. Ges.70: 812.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Asaka, Y., T. Kubota andA. B. Kulkarni. 1977. Studies on a bitter principle fromVernonia anthelmintica. Phytochemistry16: 1838; Chem. Abstr.88: 47467q (1978).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Asakawa, Y., N. Tokunaga, T. Takemoto, S. Hattori, M. Mizutani andC. Suire. 1980. Chemosystematics of bryophytes. IV. The distribution of terpenoids and aromatic compounds in Hepaticae and Anthocerotae. J. Hattori Bot. Lab.47: 153.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Asplund, R. O., M. McKee andP. Balasubramaniyan. 1972. Artevasin: A new sesquiterpene lactone fromArtemisia tridentata. Phytochemistry11: 3542.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Babakhodzhaev, A., S. Z. Kasymov andG. P. Sidyakin. 1973. Xanthatin fromXanthium spinosum. Khim. Prir. Soedin.9: 559; Chem. Abstr.80: 45621w (1974).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bacon, J. D., E. L. Urbatsch, L. H. Bragg, T. J. Mabry, P. Neuman andD. W. Jackson. 1978. The flavonoids ofTetragonotheca (Compositae). Phytochemistry17: 1939.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Baker, P. M., C. C. Fortes, E. G. Fortes, G. Cazzinelli, B. Gilbert, J. N. C. Lópes, J. Pellegrino, T. C. B. Tomassini andW. Vichnewski. 1972. Chemoprophylactic agents in schistosomiasis: Eremanthin, costunolide, α-cyclocostunolide, and bisabolol. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.24: 853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Banh-Nhu, C., E. Gacs-Baitz, L. Radics, J. Tamas, K. Ujszaszy andG. Verzar-Petri. 1979. Achillicin, the first proazulene fromAchillea millefolium. Phytochemistry18: 331.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Barton, D. H. R. and P. deMayo. 1957. The constitution of pyrethrosin. J. Chem. Soc. (London) 150.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    -,G. P. Moss and J. A. Whittle. 1968. Biosynthesis of santonin. J. Chem. Soc. C. 1813.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    -,and C. R. Navayanan. 1958. The constitution of lactucin. J. Chem. Soc. (London) 963.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    -,and J. T. Pinhey. 1960. The stereochemical correlation of artemisin and geigerin. Proc. Chem. Soc. 279.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    -,-and R. J. Wells. 1964. Synthetic studies on geigerin and its derivatives. J. Chem. Soc. (London) 2518.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Barua, N. C., R. P. Sharma, K. P. Madhysudanan, G. Thyagarayan, W. Herz andR. Murani. 1979. The sesquiterpene lactones ofTithonia diversifolia: Stereochemistry of the tagitinins and related compounds. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)44: 1831.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Barua, R. N., R. P. Sharma, G. Thyagarajan, W. Herz andS. V. Govindan. 1980. New melampolides and darutigenol fromSigesbeckia orientalis. Phytochemistry19: 323.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    ————— andJ. F. Blount. 1980. Unusual germacranolides fromInula eupatorioides. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)45: 4838.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Batterham, T. J., N. K. Hart andJ. A. Lamberton. 1966. Guaianolides from the wax ofCalocephalus brownii F. Muell. (Compositae). Austral. J. Chem.19: 143.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Beauhaire, J., J. L. Fourrey, M. Vuilhorgne and J. Y. Lallemand. 1980. Dimeric sesquiterpene lactones: Structure of absinthin. Tetrahedron Lett. 3191.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Beetle, A. A. andA. Young. 1965. A third subspecies in theArtemisia tridentata complex. Rhodora67: 405.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Begley, M. J., G. Pattenden, T. J. Mabry, M. Miyakado and H. Yoshioka. 1975. Constitution of peucephyllin, a new type of germacranolide fromPeucephyllum schottii. Tetrahedron. Lett. 1105.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Benesova, V. andV. Herout. 1961. Neutral substances fromTelekia speciosa (Schreb) Baumg. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.26: 2916.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    —— andF. Sôrm. 1961. Structure of telekin and isotelekin new sesquiterpenic lactones fromTelekia speciosa (Schreb) Baumg. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.26: 1350.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    ———. 1964. Isolation and structure of nobilin, a sesquiterpene lactone with a ten-membered ring. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.29: 3097.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    —,M. V. Nazarenko andL. V. Sleptsova. 1970. Sesquiterpenic γ-lactones fromArtemisia jacutica. Khim. Prir. Soedin.5: 186; Chem. Abstr.72: 39763n (1970).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    -,Z. Samek, V. Herout and F. Sôrm. 1970. The structure of nobilin. Tetrahedron Lett. 5017.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bentley, R. K. T., G. S. C. Buchanan, T. G. Halsall and V. Thaller. 1970. Urospermal A and urospermal B, conformers of a germacranolide aldehyde fromUrospermum dalechampii F. W. Schmidt. Chem. Commun. 435.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bermejo Barrera, J., C. Betancov, J. L. Bretón-Funes andA. G. González. 1969. Lactonas sesquiterpénicas de laAmberboa lippii D.C. Anales Real Soc. Esp. Fís. Quím.65: 285.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    -,J. L. Breton-Funes and A. G. González. 1966. Terpenoids of theSonchus. Part III. Sesquiterpene lactones ofS. Jacquini D.C,S. pinnatus Ait. andS. radicatus Ait. J. Chem. Soc. (London) 1298.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    -,-,M. Fajardo and A. G. González. 1967. Terpenoids from theSonchus. VI. Tuberiferine fromSonchus tuberifer Svent. Tetrahedron Lett. 3475.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    -,-,A. G. González and A. Villar Del Fresno. 1968. Lactonas sesquiterpénicas deSonchus hierrensis (Pit) Svent. stat. nov. var.benehoavensis Svent. var nova. Anales Real Soc. Esp. Fís. Quím. 893.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Betkouski, M., T. J. Mabry, I. F. Taylor andW. H. Watson. 1975. Glaucolide-D and -E, two new germacranolides fromVernonia uniflora Sch.-Bip. (Compositae). Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.6: 191.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    -,-,T. W. Adams, W. H. Watson and S. B. Jones, Jr. 1976. Glaucolide G, a new germacranolide sesquiterpene lactone fromVernonia leiocarpa (Compositae). Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.111; Chem. Abstr.86: 13822v (1977).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bhacca, N. S., R. A. Wiley, N. H. Fischer and F. W. Wehrli. 1973. Carbon-13 and proton magnetic resonance study of the structure and conformation of a new germacranolide sesquiterpene dilactone. Chem. Commun. 614.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bhadane, N. R., R. G. Kelsey andF. Shafizadeh. 1975. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia tridentata ssp.vaseyana. Phytochemistry14: 2084.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    — andF. Shafizadeh. 1975. Sesquiterpene lactones of sagebrush: The structure of artecanin. Phytochemistry14: 2651.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Biddulph, S. F. 1944. A revision of the genusGaillardia. Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash.12: 195.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bierner, M. W. 1973. Sesquiterpene lactones and the systematics ofHelenium quadridentatum andH. elegans. Biochem. System.1: 95; Chem. Abstr.79: 102768c (1973).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Bjeldanes, L. F. andT. A. Geissman. 1971. Constituents of an F1 hybridEncelia farinosa xEncelia californica. Phytochemistry10: 1079.Google Scholar
  64. 64a.
    Bloszyk, E., B. Drozdz, Z. Samek, J. Toman andM. Holub. 1975. Linifolin A and helenalin fromHelenium aromaticum. Phytochemistry14: 1444.Google Scholar
  65. 64b.
    Bohlmann, F. andW. R. Abraham. 1981. Aplotaxene epoxide fromCirsium hypoleucum. Phytochemistry20: 855.Google Scholar
  66. 65.
    — andR. Bohlmann. 1980. Three guaianolides fromHypochoeris radicata. Phytochemistry19: 2045.Google Scholar
  67. 66.
    —,G. Brindopke andR. C. Rastogi. 1978. A new type of germacranolide fromVernonia species. Phytochemistry17: 475.Google Scholar
  68. 67.
    — andH. Czerson. 1978. A new glaucolide derivative fromErlangea remifolia. Phytochemistry17: 1190.Google Scholar
  69. 68.
    ——. 1978. Neue Guajanolid-derivate ausErlangea inyangana (N. E. Br.) B. L. Burtt. Phytochemistry17: 568.Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    —— andS. Schöneweiß. 1977. Neue Inhaltsstoffe ausInula viscosa Ait. Chem. Ber.110: 1330.Google Scholar
  71. 70.
    —,A. K. Dhar, J. Jakupovic, R. M. King andH. Robinson. 1981. Eudesmanolides fromDimerostemma lippioides. Phytochemistry20: 838.Google Scholar
  72. 71.
    —————. 1981. Two sesquiterpene lactones with an additional propiolactone ring fromDisynaphia halimifolia. Phytochemistry20: 1077.Google Scholar
  73. 72.
    ——R. M. King andH. Robinson. 1981. A guaianolide fromGuevaria sodiroi. Phytochemistry20: 1144.Google Scholar
  74. 73.
    —,L. N. Dutta, W. Knauf, H. Robinson andR. M. King. 1980. Neue Sesquiterpenlactone ausAster umbellatus. Phytochemistry19: 433.Google Scholar
  75. 74.
    ——. 1979. Neue Germacranolide ausLiatris cylindracea. Phytochemistry18: 847.Google Scholar
  76. 75.
    ——. 1979. Ein neues Heliangolid ausHelianthus lehmannii. Phytochemistry18: 679.Google Scholar
  77. 76.
    ——,W. Dorner, R. M. King andH. Robinson. 1979. Zwei neue Guajanolide sowie Weitere Longipinenester aus Stevia-arten. Phytochemistry18: 673.Google Scholar
  78. 77.
    —— andK. Kerr. 1980. Sesquiterpenlactone ausOxylobus oaxacanus. Phytochemistry19: 691.Google Scholar
  79. 78.
    ——,H. Robinson andR. M. King. 1979. Neue Sesquiterpenlactone ausEupatorium sessilifolium. Phytochemistry18: 1401.Google Scholar
  80. 79.
    — andD. Ehlers. 1977. Ein neuescis, cis-germacranolid ausChrysanthemum poteriifolium. Phytochemistry16: 137.Google Scholar
  81. 80.
    —— andC. Zdero. 1978. Einige neue Furanoeremophilane ausSenecio- arten. Phytochemistry17: 467.Google Scholar
  82. 81.
    ——— andM. Grenz. 1977. Über Inhaltsstoffe der GattungLigularia. Chem. Ber.110: 2640.Google Scholar
  83. 82.
    — andL. Fiedler. 1978. Notiz über ein neues Germacrolid ausChromolaena glaberrima (DC.) K. et R. Chem. Ber.111: 408.Google Scholar
  84. 83.
    —,U. Fritz andL. Dutta. 1980. Neue Acetylenverbindungen ausLeucanthe- mum-arten und Revision der Strucktur eines Germacranolids. Phytochemistry19: 841.Google Scholar
  85. 84.
    ——R. M. King andH. Robinson. 1981. Fourteen heliangolides fromCalea species. Phytochemistry20: 743.Google Scholar
  86. 85.
    -,and M. Grenz. 1969. Über ein neues Sesquiterpenlacton ausPluchea dioscorides DC. Tetrahedron Lett. 5111.Google Scholar
  87. 86.
    ——. 1979. Ein neues Furanoeremophilan-derivat ausLigularia macrophylla. Phytochemistry18: 491.Google Scholar
  88. 87.
    ——. 1979. Ein neues Germacranolid ausMunnozia maronii. Phytochemistry18: 334.Google Scholar
  89. 88.
    —— andA. Suwita. 1977. Inhaltsstoffe ausGynoxys undPseudogynoxys- arten. Phytochemistry16: 774.Google Scholar
  90. 89.
    —— andC. Zdero. 1977. Naturally-occurring terpene derivatives. Constituents of theLiabum group. Phytochemistry16: 285.Google Scholar
  91. 90.
    —,R. K. Gupta, J. Jakupovic, R. M. King andH. Robinson. 1981. Secoeremophilanolides fromSenecio macrotis. Phytochemistry20: 1155.Google Scholar
  92. 91.
    — andJ. Jakupovic. 1979. Neue Germacranolide ausCalea urticifolia. Phytochemistry18: 119.Google Scholar
  93. 92.
    ——. 1979. Zwei neue Sesquiterpenlactone und eine neue Sesquiterpensäure ausHelenium puberulum. Phytochemistry18: 131.Google Scholar
  94. 93.
    ——. 1979. Neue Labdan-derivat und Sesquiterpene ausSilphium- arten. Phytochemistry18: 1987.Google Scholar
  95. 94.
    ——,M. Ahmed, M. Grenz, H. Suding, H. Robinson and R. M. King. 1981. Germacranolides and diterpenes fromViguiera species. Phytochemistry20: 113.Google Scholar
  96. 95a.
    ——A. K. Dhar, R. M. King andH. Robinson. 1981. Heliangolides and diterpenes fromHartwrightia floridana. Phytochemistry20: 843.Google Scholar
  97. 95b.
    ——,L. Dutta andM. Goodman. 1980. Neue, Abgewandelte Pseudoguajanolide ausPsilostrophe villosa. Phytochemistry19: 1491.Google Scholar
  98. 96.
    ——,A. K. Dhar, R. M. King andH. Robinson. 1981. Two sesquiterpene and three diterpene lactones fromAcanthospermum australe. Phytochemistry20: 1081.Google Scholar
  99. 97.
    ——,R. K. Gupta, R. M. King andH. Robinson. 1981. Allenic germacranolides, bourbonene-derived lactones and other constituents fromVernonia species. Phytochemistry20: 473.Google Scholar
  100. 98.
    ——,R. M. King andH. Robinson. 1980. Neue Ent-atisirenund Ent-kaurensäure-derivat aus Helianthus-arten. Phytochemistry19: 863.Google Scholar
  101. 99.
    —— andM. Lonitz. 1977. Über Inhaltsstoffe derEupatorium Gruppe. Chem. Ber.110: 301.Google Scholar
  102. 100.
    ——,H. Robinson andR. M. King. 1981. Five germacranolides fromGochnatia discoidea. Phytochemistry20: 109.Google Scholar
  103. 101.
    —— andC. Zdero. 1978. Neue Norsesquiterpene ausRudbeckia laciniata undSenecio paludaffinis. Phytochemistry17: 2034.Google Scholar
  104. 102.
    ———R. M. King andH. Robinson. 1979. Neue Melampolide undcis, cis-germacranolide aus Vertretern der Subtribus Melampodiinae. Phytochemistry18: 625.Google Scholar
  105. 103.
    — andK. H. Knoll. 1978. Weitere Furanoeremophilane aus Othonna-arten. Phytochemistry17: 461.Google Scholar
  106. 104.
    ——. 1979. Eine neues Norsesquiterpen und Andere Inhaltsstoffe aus Ligularia-arten. Phytochemistry18: 877.Google Scholar
  107. 105.
    ——. 1979. Neuartige Sesquiterpenlactone und neue Acetylenvergingen aus Athanasia-arten. Phytochemistry18: 995.Google Scholar
  108. 106.
    —— andN. A. El-Emary. 1981. Neurartige Sesquiterpenelactone ausPulicaria crispa. Phytochemistry18: 1231.Google Scholar
  109. 107.
    ——H. Robinson andR. M. King. 1980. Neue Eudesmanolide ausSteiractinia mollis. Phytochemistry19: 971.Google Scholar
  110. 108.
    ————. 1980. Neue Kaurenderivate und Melampolide ausSmallanthus uvedalia. Phytochemistry19: 107.Google Scholar
  111. 109.
    ————. 1980. Neue Guaianolide ausCacosmia rugosa. Phytochemistry19: 599.Google Scholar
  112. 110.
    ——C. Zdero, P. K. Mahanta, M. Grenz, A. Suwita, D. Ehlers, N. LeVan, W. R. Abraham andA. A. Natu. 1977. Terpen-derivat aus Senecio-arten. Phytochemistry16: 965.Google Scholar
  113. 111.
    — andN. LeVan. 1977. Neue Guajanolide ausPodachaenium eminens. Phytochemistry16: 1304.Google Scholar
  114. 112.
    ——. 1977. Sesquiterpenlactone und Polyine aus der GattungArctotis. Phytochemistry16: 487.Google Scholar
  115. 113.
    ——. 1978. New germacranolides fromDicoma anomala. Phytochemistry17: 570.Google Scholar
  116. 114.
    ——. 1978. Neue Sesquiund Diterpene ausBedfordia salicina. Phytochemistry17: 1173.Google Scholar
  117. 115.
    ——. 1978. Neue Kaurensäure-derivat und Germacranolide ausMontanoa pteropoda. Phytochemistry17: 1957.Google Scholar
  118. 116.
    ——,T. V. Cuong Pham, J. Jakupovic, A. Schuster, V. Zable andW. H. Watson. 1979. β-Isocomen, ein neues Sesquiterpen aus Berkheya-arten. Phytochemistry18: 1831.Google Scholar
  119. 117.
    — andM. Lonitz. 1978. Neue Sandaracopimardien-derivat, Sesquiterpene und Sesquiterpenlactone aus Zexmenia-arten. Chem. Ber.111: 843.Google Scholar
  120. 118.
    ——. 1980. Naturlich vorkommende Terpenderivate, 272. Uber die Inhaltsstoffe vonZexmenia gnaphaloides und die Synthese von Valerenan-derivaten. Chem. Ber.113: 2410.Google Scholar
  121. 119.
    — andP. K. Mahanta. 1979. Zwei neue Pseudoguajanolide ausTelekia speciosa. Phytochemistry18: 887.Google Scholar
  122. 120.
    —— andL. N. Dutta. 1979. Weitere Hirsutinolide aus Vernonia-arten. Phytochemistry18: 289.Google Scholar
  123. 121.
    ——,J. Jakupovic, R. C. Rastogi andA. A. Natu. 1978. New sesquiterpene lactones fromInula species. Phytochemistry17: 1165.Google Scholar
  124. 122.
    ——,A. Suwita, A. Suwita, A. A. Natu, C. Zdero, W. Dorner, D. Ehlers andM. Grenz. 1977. Neue Sesquiterpenlactone und andere Inhaltsstoffe aus Vertretern der Eupatorium-gruppe. Phytochemistry16: 1973.Google Scholar
  125. 123.
    ——,A. A. Natu, R. M. King andH. Robinson. 1978. New germacranolides fromIsocarpha species. Phytochemistry17: 471.Google Scholar
  126. 124.
    —,L. Müller, R. M. King andH. Robinson. 1981. A guaianolide and other constituents fromLychnophora species. Phytochemistry20: 1149.Google Scholar
  127. 125.
    —,A. A. Natu andP. K. Mahanta. 1978. Naturally-occurring terpene derivatives. Part 122. New diterpenes and germacranolides fromMikania species. Phytochemistry17: 483.Google Scholar
  128. 126.
    —,E. Rosenberg, H. Robinson andR. M. King. 1980. Pseudoguaianolides fromWedelia grandiflora. Phytochemistry19: 2047.Google Scholar
  129. 127.
    — andA. Suwita. 1976. Weitere Furanoeremophilane aus Othonna-arten. Chem. Ber.109: 1230.Google Scholar
  130. 128.
    —— andP. Mahanta. 1976. Weitere Inhaltsstoffe aus Senecio-arten. Chem. Ber.109: 3570.Google Scholar
  131. 129.
    ——. 1979. Ein neues Guajanolid und ein Secoguajanolid ausHelichrysum splendidum. Phytochemistry18: 885.Google Scholar
  132. 130.
    ——,R. M. King andH. Robinson. 1980. Neue Guajanolide ausEupatorium rotundifolium. Phytochemistry19: 1233.Google Scholar
  133. 131.
    ——,H. Robinson andR. M. King. 1979. Ein neues Toxol-derivat ausAustrobrickellia patens. Phytochemistry18: 2055.Google Scholar
  134. 132.
    ——,A. A. Natu, H. Czerson andA. Suwita. 1977. Über Weitere α-Longipinen Derivat aus Compositen. Chem. Ber.110: 3572.Google Scholar
  135. 133.
    -,and C. Zdero. 1970. New benzofuran derivatives fromDoronicum austriaeum Jacq. Tetrahedron Lett. 3575.Google Scholar
  136. 134.
    ——. 1971. Prutenin, 4-angeloyloxy-pruteninon sowie 4-Acetoxy—pruteninon und Isopruteninon. Vier neue Sesquiterpenlactone ausLaserpitium prutenicum L. Chem. Ber.104: 1611.Google Scholar
  137. 135.
    -and -. 1972. Zwei neue Sesquiterpenlactone ausLidbeckia pectinata Berg undPentzia elegans DC. Tetrahedron Lett. 621.Google Scholar
  138. 136.
    ——. 1974. Naturally-occurring terpene derivatives XXXII. New sesquiterpene lactones fromOsmitopsis asteriscoides. Chem. Ber.107: 1409.Google Scholar
  139. 137.
    ——. 1974. Über neue Sesquiterpene der GattungSenecio. Chem. Ber.107: 2912.Google Scholar
  140. 138.
    ——. 1975. Ein neues Sesquiterpenlactone ausMatricaria suffructicosa var.leptoloba. Chem. Ber.108: 437.Google Scholar
  141. 139.
    ——. 1975. Über neue Inhaltsstoffe der GattungAnthemis. Chem. Ber.108: 1902.Google Scholar
  142. 140.
    ——. 1976. Ein neues Sesquiterpenlacton ausDugesia mexicana Gray. Chem. Ber.109: 2651.Google Scholar
  143. 141.
    - and -. Über ein neues Diterpen ausMelampodium perfoliatum (Cav.). A. Gray. Chem. Ber.109: 1670.Google Scholar
  144. 142.
    ——. 1976. Neue Furanoeremophilane aus MexikanischenSenecio- arten. Chem. Ber.109: 819.Google Scholar
  145. 143.
    ——. 1977. Ein neues Guajanolid ausMatricaria zuurbergensis. Phytochemistry16: 136.Google Scholar
  146. 144.
    ——. 1977. Über Inhaltsstoffe der Tribus Mutisieae. Phytochemistry16: 239.Google Scholar
  147. 145.
    ——. 1977. Ein neues Germacranolid ausSimsia dombeyana. Phytochemistry16: 776.Google Scholar
  148. 146.
    ——. 1977. Inhaltsstoffe aus Vernonia-arten. Phytochemistry16: 778.Google Scholar
  149. 147.
    ——. 1977. New germacrolides fromCalea zacatechichi. Phytochemistry16: 1065.Google Scholar
  150. 148.
    ——. 1977. Neue Sesquiterpenlactone und Thymol-derivat ausInula- arten. Phytochemistry16: 1243.Google Scholar
  151. 149.
    ——. 1977. Ein neues Clerodan-derivat sowie Weitere Inhaltsstoffe aus der GattungMacowania. Phytochemistry16: 1583.Google Scholar
  152. 150.
    ——. 1977. Neue Germacranolide ausPlatycarpha glomerata. Phytochemistry16: 1832.Google Scholar
  153. 151.
    ——. 1978. Inhaltsstoffe Sudamerikanischer Senecio-arten. Phytochemistry17: 134.Google Scholar
  154. 152.
    ——. 1978. New norsesquiterpenes fromSenecio digitalifolius. Phytochemistry17: 759.Google Scholar
  155. 153.
    ——. 1978. Neue Furanoeremophilane und andere Sesquiterpene aus Vertreten der GattungEuryops. Phytochemistry17: 1135.Google Scholar
  156. 154.
    ——. 1978. New furanoeremophilanes from South AfricanSenecio species. Phytochemistry17: 1161.Google Scholar
  157. 155.
    ——. 1978. New sesquiterpenes and acetylenes fromAthanasia andPentzia species. Phytochemistry17: 1595.Google Scholar
  158. 156.
    ——. 1978. Neue Guajanolide aus Lasthenia-arten. Phytochemistry17: 2032.Google Scholar
  159. 157.
    ——. 1979. Neue Germacranolide und andere Inhaltsstoffe aus Vertretern der Subtribus Gochnatiinae. Phytochemistry18: 95.Google Scholar
  160. 158a.
    ——. 1979. Neue Sesquiterpene mit anomalen Kohlenstoffgerüst aus der Tribus Mutisieae. Chem. Ber.112: 427.Google Scholar
  161. 158b.
    ——. 1979. Über eine neue Gruppe von Sesquiterpenlactonen aus der GattungTrixis. Chem. Ber.112: 435.Google Scholar
  162. 158c.
    ——. 1979. Neue C10-säureamide, Furanoeremophilane und andere Inhaltsstoffe aus Bolivianischen Senecio-arten. Phytochemistry18: 125.Google Scholar
  163. 159.
    ——. 1979. Ein neues Germacren-derivat ausIva xanthifolia. Phytochemistry18: 1892.Google Scholar
  164. 160.
    ——. 1979. Neue Eudesmanolide ausGazania krebsiana. Phytochemistry18: 332.Google Scholar
  165. 161.
    ——. 1979. Ein neues Furanoeremophilan-derivat ausGynoxys psilophylla. Phytochemistry18: 339.Google Scholar
  166. 162a.
    ——. 1979. 3β-isovaleryloxycostunolid, ein neues Germacranolid ausCotula hispida. Phytochemistry18: 336.Google Scholar
  167. 162b.
    ——. 1979. Zwei neue Eudesman-derivat ausIva annua. Phytochemistry18: 2034.Google Scholar
  168. 163.
    ——. 1980. Neue Sesquiterpenlactone und Nerolidol-derivat ausUr- sinia-arten. Phytochemistry19: 587.Google Scholar
  169. 164.
    ——,D. Berger, A. Suwita, P. Mahanta andC. Jeffrey. 1979. Neue Furanoeremophilane und Weitere Inhaltsstoffe aus Südafrikanischen Senecio-arten. Phytochemistry18: 79.Google Scholar
  170. 165.
    —— andM. Grenz. 1974. Neue Sesquiterpene der GattungOthonna. Chem. Ber.107: 3928.Google Scholar
  171. 166.
    ———. 1974. Über die Inhaltsstoffe der GattungEuryops. Chem. Ber.107: 2730.Google Scholar
  172. 167.
    ———. 1977. Weitere Inhaltsstoffe aus SudafrikanischenSene- cio-arten. Chem. Ber.110: 474.Google Scholar
  173. 168.
    ——R. M. King andH. Robinson. 1979. Neue Elemanolide und Guajanolide ausZinnia-arten. Phytochemistry18: 1343.Google Scholar
  174. 169.
    ————. 1979. Weitere Isocedren-derivat ausTrixis paradoxa. Phytochemistry18: 855.Google Scholar
  175. 170.
    ————. 1979. Neue Sesquiterpenlactone ausStokesia laevis. Phytochemistry18: 987.Google Scholar
  176. 171.
    ————. 1980. Ein neues Germacran-8, 12-olid und neue Diterpene ausPolymnia canadensis. Phytochemistry19: 115.Google Scholar
  177. 172.
    ————. 1980. New heliangolides fromConocliniopsis prasiifolia. Phytochemistry19: 1547.Google Scholar
  178. 173.
    ————. 1980. New sesquiterpene lactones and other constituents fromFitchia speciosa. Phytochemistry19: 1141.Google Scholar
  179. 174.
    ————. 1980. Seven guaianolides from the tribe Vernonieae. Phytochemistry19: 2669.Google Scholar
  180. 175.
    ————. 1980. Sesquiterpene lactones fromEremanthus species. Phytochemistry19: 2663.Google Scholar
  181. 176.
    ————. 1981. Two hirsutinolides and a germacranolide fromChresta sphaerocephala. Phytochemistry20: 518.Google Scholar
  182. 177.
    ————. 1981. Germacranolides, a guaianolide with a β-Mactone ring and further constituents fromGrazielia species. Phytochemistry20: 1069.Google Scholar
  183. 178.
    —— andM. Lonitz. 1977. Neue Guajen-derivat ausParthenium hysterophorus und ein Weiteres Pseudoguajanolid ausAmbrosia cumanensis. Phytochemistry16: 575.Google Scholar
  184. 179.
    —— andP. K. Mahanta. 1977. Neue Eremophilan-derivat ausLopho- laena-arten. Phytochemistry16: 1769.Google Scholar
  185. 180.
    ——J. Pickard, H. Robinson andR. M. King. 1981. New types of sesquiterpene lactones and other constituents fromTrichogonia species. Phytochemistry20: 1323.Google Scholar
  186. 181.
    ——,H. Robinson andR. M. King. 1980. Caryophyllene derivatives and a heliangolide fromLychnophora species. Phytochemistry19: 2381.Google Scholar
  187. 182.
    ———— 1980. Guaianolides fromAgrianthus pungens. Phytochemistry19: 1873.Google Scholar
  188. 183.
    ————. 1980. A germacranolide fromMattfeldanthus nobilis. Phytochemistry19: 2473.Google Scholar
  189. 184.
    ————. 1981. Germacranolides fromPiptolepis ericoides andVanillosmopsis species. Phytochemistry20: 731.Google Scholar
  190. 185.
    ——R. Bohlmann, R. M. King andH. Robinson. 1980. Neue Sesquiterpene aus Liabum-arten. Phytochemistry19: 579.Google Scholar
  191. 186.
    — andJ. Ziesche. 1980. Neue Guajanolide und Acetylenverbindungen ausPti- lostemon-arten. Phytochemistry19: 692.Google Scholar
  192. 187.
    ——. 1980. New sesquiterpenes fromSenecio species. Phytochemistry19: 1851.Google Scholar
  193. 188.
    ——. 1980. Eremophilane derivatives fromSenecio species. Phytochemistry19: 2681.Google Scholar
  194. 189.
    ——,R. M. King andH. Robinson. 1980. Neue Melampolide ausSmallanthus fructicosus. Phytochemistry19: 973.Google Scholar
  195. 190.
    ————. 1981. Melampolides and other germacranolides fromBlainvillea dichotoma. Phytochemistry20: 263.Google Scholar
  196. 191.
    ————. 1981. Eudesmanolides and diterpenes fromWedelia trilobata and an ent-kaurenic acid derivative fromAspilia parvifolia. Phytochemistry20: 751.Google Scholar
  197. 192.
    ————. 1981. Eudesmanolides and other constituents fromDimerostemma asperatum. Phytochemistry20: 1335.Google Scholar
  198. 193.
    ——H. Robinson andR. M. King. 1981. Seven germacranolides and four eudesmanolides fromTithonia rotundifolia. Phytochemistry20: 267.Google Scholar
  199. 194.
    ————. 1981. A pseudoguaianolide and a hydroxygeranylnerol fromKingianthus paradoxus. Phytochemistry20: 1146.Google Scholar
  200. 195.
    —,P. Zitzkowski, A. Suwita andL. Fiedler. 1978. Cis-kolaveninsäure und Weitere Inhaltsstoffe aus Vertretern der Tribus Eupatorieae. Phytochemistry17: 2101.Google Scholar
  201. 196.
    Borges, J. M., T. Manresa, J. L. Martin, C. Pascual andP. Vázquez. 1978. Altamisin. A new sesquiterpene lactone fromAmbrosia cumanensis HBK. Tetrahedron Lett.17: 1513.Google Scholar
  202. 197.
    Borges del Castillo, J., M. T. M. Ferrero, J. L. M. Ramón, C. P. Rigau andP. Vásquez Bueno. 1979. Paulitin and isopaulitin, two new sesquiterpene lactones fromAmbrosia cumanensis HBK. Bol. Soc. Quím. Perú45: 53.Google Scholar
  203. 198.
    ——,F. Rodriquez Luis andP. Vásquez Bueno. 1981. Salvadorean Compositae. II. Juanislamin and 2,3-epoxy-juanislamin, two new sesquiterpenic lactones fromCalea urticifolia. J. Nat. Prod.44: 348.Google Scholar
  204. 199.
    Bohm, B. A. 1978. Helenieae (sensu Bentham)—chemical review. Page 739in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  205. 200.
    Borsutzki, L. H. 1955. Chemistry ofArtemisia maritima. Arch. Pharm.288: 336; Chem. Abstr.51: 6941h (1957).Google Scholar
  206. 201.
    Breinlich, J. 1970. Active ene-yne substances in some pharmaceutically useful Compositae drugs, with special consideration toAchillea millefolium [Yarrow]. Pharm. Ztg.115: 1699, 1713; Chem. Abstr.74: 115833u (1971).Google Scholar
  207. 202.
    Büichi, G. andD. Rosenthal. 1956. The structures of helenalin and isohelenalin. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.78: 3860.Google Scholar
  208. 203.
    Burnett, W. C., S. B. Jones, T. J. Mabry andW. G. Padolina. 1974. Sesquiterpene lactones—insect feeding deterrents inVernonia. Biochem. System. Ecol.2: 25.Google Scholar
  209. 204.
    Cabrera, A. L. 1970. Mustisieae—Systematic review. Page 1039in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  210. 205.
    Calzada, J. G. andJ. F. Ciccio. 1978. Aislamiento de tirotundina a partir deTithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) Gray. Rev. Latinoamer. Quim.9: 202.Google Scholar
  211. 206.
    Castille, A. 1966. Pyrethol. An. Real Acad. Farm.32: 121; Chem. Abstr.66: 65658c (1967).Google Scholar
  212. 207.
    Cekan, Z., V. Herout andF. Sôrm. 1957. Die Struktur von Matricin, ein Guajanolid aus der Kamille (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun.22: 1921.Google Scholar
  213. 208.
    ———. 1954. Isolation and properties of the prochamazulene fromMatricaria chamomilla L., a further compound of the guaianolide group. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.19: 798.Google Scholar
  214. 209.
    —,V. Prochazka, V. Herout andF. Sôrm. 1959. Isolation and constitution of matricarin, another guaianolide from camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.). Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.24: 1554.Google Scholar
  215. 210.
    ————. 1960. Isolation of globicin, a guaianolide fromMatricaria globifera (Thunb.) Druce. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.25: 2553.Google Scholar
  216. 211.
    Chien, M. K., C. H. Chen andK. F. Tseng. 1963. The constituents of Yejuhua, the flower ofChrysanthemum indicum. Yao Hsueh Pao10: 129; Chem. Abstr.59: 15326b (1963).Google Scholar
  217. 212.
    Chikamatsu, H. andW. Herz. 1973. Ivalbatin, a new xanthanolide fromIva dealbata. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)38: 585.Google Scholar
  218. 213.
    Chugunov, P. V., D. A. Pakaln andA. M. Shreter. 1970. Lactone fromInula germanica. Khim. Prir. Soedin.6: 478; English ed. p. 495; Chem. Abstr.74: 1052h (1971).Google Scholar
  219. 214.
    —,K. S. Rybalko andA. I. Shreter. 1971. The structure of the sesquiterpene lactone saupirin. Khim. Prir. Soedin.7: 727; English ed. p. 706; Chem. Abstr. 76: 127168k (1972).Google Scholar
  220. 215.
    —,V. I. Sheichenko, A. I. Ban’kovskii andK. S. Rybalko. 1971. The structure of britannin. A sesquiterpene lactone fromInula britannica. Khim. Prir. Soedin.7: 276; Chem. Abstr.75: 110438e (1971).Google Scholar
  221. 216.
    Ciccio, J. F. and J. G. Calzada. 1978. Glabberin, a new heliangolide fromEupatorium glaberrimum. Abstract, Book V. International symposium for the chemistry of natural products. Monterrey, Mexico, April 26–29.Google Scholar
  222. 217.
    ——. 1981. Haagenolide, the major sesquiterpene lactone ofBaltimora recta. Phytochemistry20: 517.Google Scholar
  223. 218.
    Clemo, G. R. and W. Cocker. 1946. The constitution of ψ-santonin. J. Chem. Soc. (London) 30.Google Scholar
  224. 219.
    Corbella, A., P. Gariboldi, G. Jommi, Z. Samek, M. Holub and B. Drozdz. 1972. Absolute stereochemistry of cynaropicrin and related guaianolides. Chem. Commun. 386.Google Scholar
  225. 220.
    ———, andG. Ferrari. 1974. Structure and absolute stereochemistry of vanillosmin, a guaianolide fromVanillosmopsis erythropappa. Phytochemistry13: 459.Google Scholar
  226. 221.
    Correa, J. andJ. Romo. 1966. The constituents ofCacalia decomposita A. Gray. Tetrahedron22: 685.Google Scholar
  227. 222.
    Cowall, P. L., J. M. Cassady, C. Chang andJ. F. Kozlowski. 1981. Isolation and structure determination of piptocarphins A-F, cytotoxic germacranolide lactones fromPiptocarpha chontalensis. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)46: 1108.Google Scholar
  228. 223.
    Cronquist, A. 1955. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the Compositae. Amer. Midl. Naturalist53: 478.Google Scholar
  229. 224a.
    —. 1977. The Compositae revisited. Brittonia29: 137.Google Scholar
  230. 224b.
    —. 1980. Chemistry in plant taxonomy: an assessment of where we stand. Page 1in F. A. Bisby, J. G. Vaughn and C. A. Wright (eds.). Chemosystematics: Principles and practice. Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  231. 225.
    Dauben, W. G., W. K. Hayes, J. S. P. Schwarz andJ. W. McFarland. 1960. The stereochemistry of ψ-santonin. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.82: 2232.Google Scholar
  232. 226.
    —,J. S. P. Schwarz, W. K. Hayes andP. D. Hance. 1960. The structures of two new sesquiterpene lactones fromArtemisia. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.82: 2239.Google Scholar
  233. 227.
    Davis, P. H. andV. H. Heywood. 1963. Principles of angiosperm taxonomy. D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton and New York.Google Scholar
  234. 228.
    De Kock, W. T., K. G. R. Pachler, W. F. Ross, P. L. Wessels andI. C. duPreez. 1968. Griesenin and dihydrogriesenin, two new sesquiterpenoid lactones fromGeigeria africana Gries. I. Structures. Tetrahedron24: 6037.Google Scholar
  235. 229.
    ——. 1968. Gafrinin, a sesquiterpenoid lactone fromGeigeria africana Gries. II. Conformation. Tetrahedron24: 1701.Google Scholar
  236. 230.
    —— andP. L. Wessels. 1968. Griesenin and dihydrogriesenin, two new sesquiterpenoid lactones fromGeigeria africana Gries. III. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies and conformation. Tetrahedron24: 6045.Chem. Abstr.69: 96888u (1968).Google Scholar
  237. 231.
    DeSilva, L. B. andT. A. Geissman. 1969. Sesquiterpene lactone, psilotropin fromPsilostrophe cooperi. Phytochemistry9: 59.Google Scholar
  238. 232.
    Deuel, P. G. andT. A. Geissman. 1959. Xanthinin. II. The structures of xanthinin and xanthatin. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.79: 3778.Google Scholar
  239. 233.
    De Villiers, J. 1961. The isolation and structure of gafrinin, a sesquiterpenoid lactone fromGeigeria africana. J. Chem. Soc. (London)2049.Google Scholar
  240. 234.
    Dittrich, M. 1978. Cynareae—systematic review. Page 999in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  241. 235.
    Dolejs, L. andV. Herout. 1962. Constitution of eupatoriopicrin, a germacranolide fromEupatorium cannabinum L. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm27: 2654.Google Scholar
  242. 236.
    —,M. Soucek, M. Horak, V. Herout andF. Sôrm. 1958. The structure of lactucin. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.23: 2195.Google Scholar
  243. 237.
    Domínguez, X. A. 1978. Eupatorieae—Chemical review. Page 487in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 1. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  244. 238.
    —,D. Butruille etAquilino andY. Aubad. 1970. La neoleonine: un nouveau pseudoguaianolide. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.1: 136.Google Scholar
  245. 239.
    — andE. Cárdenas. 1975. Achillin and deacetylmatricarin from twoArtemisia species. Phytochemistry14: 2511.Google Scholar
  246. 240.
    —,R. Franco, F. Bohlmann andR. Bohlmann. 1980. A pseudoguaianolide fromHymenoxys linearifolia. Phytochemistry19: 2204.Google Scholar
  247. 241.
    -,M. Gutiérrez and R. Aragón. 1976. Isolation of baileyolin, a tumor-inhibitory and antibiotic sesquiterpene lactone fromBaileya multiradiata. Pl. Med. 356; Chem. Abstr.86: 86150j (1977).Google Scholar
  248. 242.
    —,F. M. Pérez andL. Leyter. 1971. Xanthinin and β-sitosterol fromXanthium orientale. Phytochemistry10: 2828.Google Scholar
  249. 243.
    —,R. Villarreal, R. Franco andF. Bohlmann. 1981. A melampolide fromMelampodium heterophyllum. Phytochemistry20: 1431.Google Scholar
  250. 244.
    Domínguez, E. andJ. Romo. 1963. Mexicanin I. A new sesquiterpene lactone related to tenulin. Tetrahedron19: 1415.Google Scholar
  251. 245.
    Doskotch, R. W. andF. S. El-Feraly. 1970. The structure of tulipinolide and epitulipinolide, cytotoxic sesquiterpenes fromLiriodendron tulipifera L. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)35: 1928.Google Scholar
  252. 246.
    ——. 1969. Isolation and characterization of (+)-sesamin and β-cyclopyrethrosin from pyrethrum flowers. Canad. J. Chem.47: 1139.Google Scholar
  253. 247.
    —— andC. D. Hufford. 1971. Sesquiterpene lactones from pyrethrum flowers. Canad. J. Chem.49: 2103.Google Scholar
  254. 248.
    Drozdz, B. 1966. Isolation of cnicin from the herbs ofCentaurea diffusa Lam. Dissertation Pharm. et Pharmacol. (Poland)18: 281.Google Scholar
  255. 249.
    ——. 1967. The occurrence of cnicin in the herbs ofCentaurea calcitrapa L.,C. iberica Trev., andC. ovina Pal. Dissertation Pharm. et Pharmacol. (Poland)19: 223.Google Scholar
  256. 250.
    ——. 1968. Bitter sesquiterpene lactones in species of the tribe Cynareae. Dissertation Pharm. et Pharmacol. (Poland)20: 93.Google Scholar
  257. 251.
    —,H. Grabarczyk, Z. Samek, M. Holub, V. Herout andF. Sôrm. 1972. Sesquiterpenic lactones fromEupatorium cannabinum L. Revision of the structure of eupatoriopicrin. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.37: 1546.Google Scholar
  258. 252.
    ——,M. Holub, Z. Samek, V. Herout andF. Sôrm. 1968. The constitution and absolute configuration of onopordopicrine, a sesquiterpenic lactone fromOnopordon acanthium L. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.33: 1730.Google Scholar
  259. 253.
    —,Z. Samek, M. Holub andV. Herout. 1973. The structure of alatolide, a sesquiterpenic lactone fromJurinea alata Cass. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.38: 727.Google Scholar
  260. 254.
    See Reference No. 232, Literature Cited.Google Scholar
  261. 255.
    Dullforce, T. A., G. A. Sim, D. N. J. White, J. E. Kelsey and S. M. Kupchan. 1969. The stereochemistry of gaillardin. Tetrahedron Lett. 973.Google Scholar
  262. 256a.
    Ehrendorfer, F. 1964. Notizen zur Cytotaxonomie und Evolution der GattungArtemisia. Oesterr. Bot. Z.3: 84.Google Scholar
  263. 256b.
    El-Emary, N. A. andF. Bohlmann. 1980. Zwei neue Germacranolide ausArtemisia argentea. Phytochemistry19: 845.Google Scholar
  264. 257.
    Ellison, W. L. 1964. A systematic study of the genusBahia (Compositae). Rhodora66: 177; 281.Google Scholar
  265. 258.
    Elsohly, M. A., J. C. Craig, C. E. Turner andA. S. Sharma. 1977. Constituents ofHelenium amarum. II. Isolation and characterization of heleniamarin and other constituents. Lloydia40: 609.Google Scholar
  266. 259.
    Erdtman, H. 1968. The assessment of biochemical techniques in plant taxonomy,in J. G. Hawkes (ed.). Chemotaxonomy and serotaxonomy. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  267. 260.
    —. 1973. Molecular taxonomy. Page 327in L. P. Miller (ed.). Phytochemistry. Vol. 3. Van Nostrand, Reinhold Co., New York.Google Scholar
  268. 261.
    Evstratova, R. I., E. Y. Kiseleva, V. I. Sheichenko andK. S. Rybalko. 1971. The structure of acroptilin—a sesquiterpene lactone fromAcroptilon repens. Khim. Prir. Soedin.7: 272; English ed. p. 262; Chem. Abstr.75: 110451d (1971).Google Scholar
  269. 262.
    —,K. S. Rybalko andR. Y. Rzazade. 1967. Acroptilin—a new sesquiterpene lactone fromAcroptilon repens. Khim. Prir. Soedin.3: 284; English ed. p. 239; Chem. Abstr.68: 3005v (1968).Google Scholar
  270. 263.
    —,V. I. Sheichenko andK. S. Rybalko. 1974. Sesquiterpene lactones fromInula japonica. Khim. Prir. Soedin.10: 730; English ed. p. 752.Google Scholar
  271. 264.
    ——— andA. I. Ban’kovskii. 1969. Structure of arnifoline, a sesquiterpene lactone fromArnica foliosa andArnica montana. Khim. Farm. Zh.3: 39; Chem. Abstr.72: 32047y. (1970).Google Scholar
  272. 265.
    ——,A. I. Ban’kovskii andK. S. Rybalko. 1969. Structure of erivanin. Khim. Prir. Soedin.5: 239; Chem. Abstr.72: 32051v (1970).Google Scholar
  273. 266.
    —— andK. S. Rybalko. 1973. The structure of acroptilin, a sesquiterpene lactone fromAcroptilon repens. Khim. Prir. Soedin.9: 161; English ed. p. 156; Chem. Abstr.79: 5466x (1973).Google Scholar
  274. 267.
    —, andA. M. Sinyukhin. 1971. Ketopelenolide B fromArtemisia anethifolia. Khim. Prir. Soedin.7: 839; English ed. p. 819.Google Scholar
  275. 268.
    Farkas, L., M. Nogradi, V. Sudarsanam andW. Herz. 1967. Isolation, structure proof and synthesis of acerosin fromIva acerosa (Nutt.) Jackson. Tetrahedron23: 3557.Google Scholar
  276. 269.
    ————. 1966. Constituents ofIva species. V. Isolation, structure and synthesis of nevadensin, a new flavone fromIva nevadensis M. E. Jones andIva acerosa (Nutt.) Jackson. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)31: 3228.Google Scholar
  277. 270.
    Ferreira, Z. S., N. F. Rogue, O. R. Gottlieb, F. Oliveira andH. E. Gottlieb. 1980. Structural clarification of germacranolides fromCalea species. Phytochemistry19: 1481.Google Scholar
  278. 271.
    Fischer, N. H. 1978. On the biogenesis of pseudoguaianolides. Rev. Latinoamer. Quim.9: 41.Google Scholar
  279. 272.
    -,and T. J. Mabry. 1967. The structure of tamaulipin-B, a new germacranolide and the thermal conversion of a trans-1,2-divinylcyclohexane derivative into a cyclodeca-l,5-diene system. Chem. Commun. 1235.Google Scholar
  280. 273.
    ——. 1967. New pseudoguaianolides fromAmbrosia confertiflora DC. (Compositae). Tetrahedron23: 2529.Google Scholar
  281. 274.
    —— andH. B. Kagan. 1968. The structure of tamaulipin A. A new germacranolide fromAmbrosia confertiflora DC. (Compositae). Tetrahedron24: 4091.Google Scholar
  282. 275.
    —,E. J. Olivier andH. D. Fischer. 1979. The biogenesis and chemistry of sesquiterpene lactones. Page 48in W. Herz, H. Grisebach and G. W. Kirby (eds.). Progress in the chemistry of organic natural products. Springer-Verlag, New York.Google Scholar
  283. 276.
    —,F. C. Seaman, R. A. Wiley andK. D. Haegele. 1978. Melcanthin A, B and C, three newcis- 1(10),cis- 4,5-germacranolides fromMelampodium leucanthum (Heliantheae, Compositae). J. Organ. Chem. (USA)43: 4984.Google Scholar
  284. 277.
    —,R. A. Wiley, D. L. Perry andK. D. Haegele. 1976. Melampodinin, leucanthinin and melampolidin, three new melampolides fromMelampodium (Compositae). J. Organ. Chem. (USA)41: 3956.Google Scholar
  285. 278.
    ——,H. N. Lin, K. Karimian andS. M. Politz. 1975. New melampolide sesquiterpene lactones fromMelampodium leucanthum. Phytochemistry14: 2241.Google Scholar
  286. 279.
    -, -and J. D. Wander. 1972. Melampodin, a new germacranolide fromMelampodium leucanthum Torr. and Gray var.leucanthum (Compositae). Chem. Commun.137. Google Scholar
  287. 280.
    Funk, V. A. 1981. The systematics ofMontanoa Cerv. (Asteraceae, Heliantheae). Doctoral Thesis. Ohio State Univ.Google Scholar
  288. 281.
    Furukawa, H., K. H. Lee, T. Shingu, R. Meck andC. Piantadosi. 1973. Carolenin and carolenalin, two new guaianolides inHelenium autumnale L. from North Carolina. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)38: 1722.Google Scholar
  289. 282.
    Gabe, E. J., S. Neidle, D. Rogers and C. E. Nordman. 1971. X-ray determination of the molecular structure of a 3-O-chloro-phenylisoxazoline derivative of pyrethrosin. Chem. Commun. 559.Google Scholar
  290. 283.
    Geissman, T. A. 1970. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia—A. verlotorum andA. vulgaris. Phytochemistry9: 2377.Google Scholar
  291. 284.
    —. 1966. Sesquiterpenoid lactones ofArtemisia species. I.Artemisia princeps Pamp. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)31: 2523.Google Scholar
  292. 285.
    —. 1973. The biogenesis of sesquiterpene lactones of the Compositae. Page 65in V. C. Runeckles and T. J. Mabry (eds.). Terpenoids: Structure, biogenesis and distribution. Recent advances in phytochemistry. Vol. 6. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  293. 286.
    — andS. Atala. 1971. Distribution of eupatoriopicrin in Compositae. Phytochemistry10: 1075.Google Scholar
  294. 287.
    — andD. H. G. Crout. 1969. Organic chemistry of secondary plant metabolism. Freeman, Cooper & Co., San Francisco.Google Scholar
  295. 288.
    — andG. A. Ellestad. 1962. Vulgarin, a sesquiterpene lactone fromArtemisia vulgaris L. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)27: 1855.Google Scholar
  296. 289.
    — andT. S. Griffin. 1972. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia carruthii. Phytochemistry11: 833.Google Scholar
  297. 290.
    ——. 1971. Sesquiterpene lactones. Tomentosin fromMontanoa tomentosa Cerv. Rev. Latinoamer. Quim.2: 81.Google Scholar
  298. 291.
    —— andM. A. Irwin. 1969. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia. Artecalin fromA. californica andA. tripartita ssp.rupicola. Phytochemistry8: 1297.Google Scholar
  299. 292.
    ——,T. G. Waddell andH. H. Chen. 1969. Some new constituents ofAmbrosia species.A. psilostachya andA. acanthicarpa. Phytochemistry8: 145.Google Scholar
  300. 293.
    — andM. A. Irwin. 1970. Chemical contributions to taxonomy and phylogeny in the genusArtemisia. Pure Appl. Chem.21: 167.Google Scholar
  301. 294.
    ——. 1973. Chemical constitution and botanical affinity inArtemisia. Page 135in G. Bendz and J. Santesson (eds.). Chemistry in botanical classification. Nobel Symp. 25. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  302. 295.
    — andK. H. Lee. 1971. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia: Artemorin and dehydroartemorin (anhydroverlotorin). Phytochemistry10: 419.Google Scholar
  303. 296.
    ——. 1971. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia verlotorum. Phytochemistry10: 663.Google Scholar
  304. 297.
    — andJ. Levy. 1967. Chamissonin fromAmbrosia acanthicarpa Hook. Phytochemistry6: 899.Google Scholar
  305. 298.
    —,A. J. Lucas, T. Saitoh andW. W. Payne. 1973. Sesquiterpene lactones ofAmbrosia chamissonis. Biochem. Syst.1: 13; Chem. Abstr.78: 145204q (1973).Google Scholar
  306. 299.
    — andS. Matsueda. 1968. Constituents of diploid and polyploidAmbrosia dumosa Gray. Phytochemistry7: 1613.Google Scholar
  307. 300.
    — andR. Murkherjee. 1968. Sesquiterpene lactones ofEncelia farinosa Gray. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)33: 656.Google Scholar
  308. 301.
    — andT. Saitoh. 1972. Ludalbin, a new lactone fromArtemisia ludoviciana. Phytochemistry11: 1157.Google Scholar
  309. 302.
    —,T. Stewart andM. A. Irwin. 1967. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia species II.Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp.tridentata. Phytochemistry6: 901.Google Scholar
  310. 303.
    — andF. P. Toribio. 1967. Constituents ofHymenoclea salsola T. and G. Phytochemistry6: 1563.Google Scholar
  311. 304.
    —,R. J. Turley andS. Murayama. 1966. Chamissonin, a germacranolide from anAmbrosia species. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)31: 2269.Google Scholar
  312. 305.
    -,and T. E. Winters. 1968. The structure of artabsin. Tetrahedron Lett. 3145.Google Scholar
  313. 306.
    Giannasi, D. E. 1979. Systematic aspects of flavonoid biosynthesis and evolution. Bot. Rev.44: 399.Google Scholar
  314. 307.
    Gill, S., W. Dembinska-Migas, E. Sliwinska, W. M. Daniewski andF. Bohlmann. 1980. Pseudoguaianolides fromGaillardia grandiflora. Phytochemistry19: 2049.Google Scholar
  315. 308.
    Giordano, O. S., E. Guerreiro, J. Romo andM. Jiménez. 1975. Tessaric acid, a component ofTessaria absinthioides. Rev. Latinoam. Quím.6: 131.Google Scholar
  316. 309.
    Gnecco, S., J. P. Poyser, M. Silva, P. G. Sammes andT. W. Tyler. 1973. Sesquiterpene lactones fromPodanthus ovatifolius. Phytochemistry12: 2469.Google Scholar
  317. 310.
    Gomes, C. M. R. andO. R. Gottlieb. 1980. Alkaloid evolution and angiosperm systematics. Biochem. System. Ecol.8: 81.Google Scholar
  318. 311.
    González, M. P., P. J. Nathan andJ. Romo. 1971. Chemistry and spectrometry of cacalone. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.2: 5; Chem. Abstr.76: 43984k (1972).Google Scholar
  319. 312.
    González González, A. 1978. Lactuceae—chemical review. Page 1081in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  320. 313.
    —,J. M. Arteaga, J. Bermejo Barrera andJ. L. Bretón Funes. 1971. Melitensin, a new sesquiterpene lactone fromCentaurea melitensis. An. Quim.67: 1243; Chem. Abstr.77: 34722s (1972).Google Scholar
  321. 314.
    —— andJ. L. Bretón Funes. 1973. Germacranolides fromCentaurea seridis. Phytochemistry12: 2997.Google Scholar
  322. 315.
    ———. 1974. Structure and partial synthesis of melitensin. An. Quim.70: 158; Chem. Abstr.81: 78104d (1974).Google Scholar
  323. 316.
    ———. 1975. Constituents of the Compositae. 27. Elemanolides fromCentaurea melitensis. Phytochemistry14: 2039.Google Scholar
  324. 317.
    —,J. Bermejo, J. M. Amaro, G. M. Massanet, A. Galindo andI. Cabrera. 1978. Sesquiterpene lactones fromCentaurea linifolia Vahl. Canad. J. Chem.56: 491.Google Scholar
  325. 318.
    ——,J. L. Bretón Funes andM. Fajardo. 1973. Compounds from plants of the Canary Islands. Sesquiterpene lactonesof Artemisia canariensis. An. Quím.69: 667; Chem. Abstr.79: 92415w (1973).Google Scholar
  326. 319.
    ———,M. Massanet, B. Domínguez andJ. M. Amaro. 1976. Absolute configuration of the sesquiterpene lactones centaurepensin (chlorohyssopifolin A), acroptilin (chlorohyssopifolin C) and repin. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans.I: 1663.Google Scholar
  327. 320.
    ———,G. M. Massanet andJ. Triana. 1974. Chlorohyssopifolin C, D, E and vahlenin, four new sesquiterpene lactones fromCentaurea hyssopifolia. Phytochemistry13: 1193.Google Scholar
  328. 321.
    -,-,-, andJ. Triana. 1972. Chlorohyssopifolin A and B, two new sesquiterpene lactones isolated fromCentaurea hyssopifolia Vahl. Tetrahedron Lett. 2017.Google Scholar
  329. 322.
    ——,I. Cabrera, A. Galindo andG. M. Massanet. 1977. Principios activos de laCentaurea janeri Graells. An. Quím.73: 86.Google Scholar
  330. 323.
    —— andG. M. Massanet. 1974. 11,13-Dehydromelitensin and chlorohyssopifolin A, sesquiterpene lactones isolated fromCentaurea pullata andnigra. An. Quím.70: 74; Chem Abstr.80: 130489d (1974).Google Scholar
  331. 324.
    ————H. Mansilla andA. Galindo. 1978. Two sesquiterpene lactones fromCentaurea canariensis. Phytochemistry17: 955.Google Scholar
  332. 325.
    -, -, -,A. D. Dela Rosa and G. M. Massanet. 1976. Sesquiterpene lactones fromArtemisia lanata Willd. An. Quím. 695; Chem. Abstr.86: 72910v (1977).Google Scholar
  333. 326.
    ——,H. Mansilla, A. Galindo, J. M. Amaro andG. M. Massanet. 1978. Structure and absolute configuration of gallicin, a new germacranolide fromArtemisia. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans.1: 1243.Google Scholar
  334. 327.
    ——,G. M. Massanet, J. M. Amaro, B. Domínguez andA. Morales. 1976. Hypochaerin: A new sesquiterpene lactone fromHypochaeris setosus. Phytochemistry15: 991.Google Scholar
  335. 328.
    ——— andJ. Pérez. 1973. Muricatin, a new sesquiterpene lactone isolated fromAmberboa muricata. An. Quim.69: 1333; Chem. Abstr.81: 4086c (1974).Google Scholar
  336. 329.
    ——— andJ. Triana. 1974. Picridin and dihydropicridin, revised structures. Phytochemistry13: 611.Google Scholar
  337. 330.
    ——, andR. M. Rodríquez. 1972. Dihydroestafietone isolated fromCentaurea webbiana. An. Quím.68: 333; Chem. Abstr.77: 123813q (1972).Google Scholar
  338. 331.
    -,J. L. Bretón Funes and B. García Marrero. 1973. Lipidiol. Page 341 in ref. 947.Google Scholar
  339. 332.
    ——, andJ. Stockel. 1974. Sesquiterpenic lactones fromArtemisia granatensis. An. Quím.70: 231; Chem. Abstr.81: 117045h (1974).Google Scholar
  340. 333.
    —,R. Estévez Reyes andJ. Herrera Velázquez. 1975. Sesquiterpene lactones and coumarins ofArtemisia ramosa. An. Quím.71: 437; Chem. Abstr.83: 128692h (1975).Google Scholar
  341. 334.
    —,B. García Marrero andJ. L. Bretón Funes. 1970. Structure of grosshemin, lipidiol and isolipidiol. Lactones ofAmberboa lipii and their stereochemistry. An. Quím.66: 799; Chem. Abstr.74: 64315s (1971).Google Scholar
  342. 335.
    See Reference No. 55, Literature Cited.Google Scholar
  343. 336.
    Govindachari, T. R., B. S. Joshi andV. N. Kamat. 1965. Structure of parthenolide. Tetrahedron21: 1509.Google Scholar
  344. 337.
    —,A. R. Sidhaye andN. Viswanathan. 1970. Deoxyelephantopin, a new sesquiterpene fromElephantopus scaber. Indian J. Chem.8: 762.Google Scholar
  345. 338.
    ——— andH. Fuehrer. 1972. Isodeoxyelephantopin, a new germacranediolide fromElephantopus scaber. Indian J. Chem.10: 272.Google Scholar
  346. 339.
    Grabarczyk, H. 1973. The search for sesquiterpene lactones in the species of generaUrsinia, Venidium andArctotis. Pol. J. Pharmacol. Pharm.25: 469; Chem. Abstr.80: 45661j (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 340.
    —,B. Drozdz andA. Mozdzanowska. 1973. Lactones in aerial parts ofTanacetum vulgare L. Pol. J. Pharmacol. Pharm.25: 95; Chem. Abstr.78: 156612 × (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. 341.
    — andB. Makowska. 1975. New sesquiterpene lactones from the herb ofVenidium hirsutum. Pol. J. Pharmacol. Pharm.27: 107; Chem. Abstr.83: 4995q (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. 342.
    — andM. Makowska. 1973. Isolation of grosheimin from the herb ofVenidium decurrens Less. Pol. J. Pharmacol. Pharm.25: 477; Chem. Abstr.80: 45662k (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 343.
    Grant, V. 1957. The plant species in theory and practice.In E. Mayr (ed.). The species problem. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  351. 344.
    —. 1971. Plant speciation. Columbia University Press, New York and London.Google Scholar
  352. 345.
    Greger, H. 1978. Anthemideae—chemical review. Page 899in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  353. 346.
    Grieco, P. A., T. Oguri, S. Burke, E. Rodríquez, G. T. DeTitta andS. Fortier. 1978. Structure, absolute configuration and synthesis of stramonin-B, a new cytotoxic pseudoguaianolide. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)43: 4552.Google Scholar
  354. 347.
    Guerrero, C., E. Díaz, M. Martínez, J. Taboada, S. Miranda Plata, M. González Diddi andJ. Téllez. 1977. Determination of the structure of euparhombin and its cytotoxic activity in two cellular lines. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.8: 123.Google Scholar
  355. 348.
    —,A. Iriarte, E. Diaz, J. Taboada, M. González Diddi andJ. Téllez. 1975. Determinación de la estructura y estereoquímica de la elemenolida verafinina C, aislamiento de la verafinina B, dos substancias citotóxicas aisladas deVerbesina aff.coahuilensis. Rev. Latinoamer. Quim.6: 119.Google Scholar
  356. 349.
    —,M. Martínez, E. Díaz andA. Romo de Vivar. 1975. Estructura y esteroquímica de la verafinina, una nueva elemenolida aislada deVerbesina aff.coahuilensis Gray. Rev. Latinoamer. Quim.6: 53.Google Scholar
  357. 350.
    —,A. Ortega, E. Díaz andA. Romo de Vivar. 1973. Estructura de la viguiestenina y de la desacetil viguiestenina. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.4: 118.Google Scholar
  358. 351.
    —,M. Santana andJ. Romo. 1976. Estudio quimico de laViguiera augustifolia (HBK.) Blake. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.7: 41.Google Scholar
  359. 352.
    Güren, K. C., A. Ulubelen andS. Öksüz. 1972. Compositae. Santonin fromArtemisia fragrans. Phytochemistry11: 3542.Google Scholar
  360. 353.
    Habib, A. A. M. andA. M. Metwally. 1973. New sesquiterpene keto lactones fromSenecio. Pl. Med.23: 88; Chem. Abstr.78: 156620y 1973.Google Scholar
  361. 354.
    Haddad, D. Y. andS. M. Khafagy. 1962. A study ofAchillea santolina. Isolation of two crystalline principles: Santolin and santolinol. Bull. Chem. Farm.101: 606.Google Scholar
  362. 355.
    —— andL. El-Fatatry. 1960.Achillea santolina. Isolation of two crystalline principles, santolin and santolinol. J. Pharm. Sci. U.A.R.1: 1, 75; Chem. Abstr.56: 10277g (1962).Google Scholar
  363. 356.
    Halim, A. F., A. M. Zaghloul andF. Bohlmann. 1980. A further guaianolide fromArctotis grandis. Phytochemistry19: 2767.Google Scholar
  364. 357.
    Hall, H. M. and F. E. Clements. 1923. The phylogenetic method in taxonomy. The North American speciesof Artemisia, Chrysothamnus andAtriplex. Publ. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 326.Google Scholar
  365. 358.
    Hall, I. H., K. H. Lee, E. C. Mar, C. O. Starnes andT. G. Waddell. 1977. A proposed mechanism for inhibition of cancer growth by tenulin and helenalin and related cyclopentenones. J. Medicin. Chem.20: 333.Google Scholar
  366. 359.
    Hansel, R., M. Kartarahardja, J-T. Huang andF. Bohlmann. 1980. Sesquiterpenlacton-β-D-glucopyranoside sowie ein neues Eudesmanolid ausTaraxacum officinale. Phytochemistry19: 857.Google Scholar
  367. 360.
    Harborne, J. B. 1978. Inuleae—chemical review. Page 603in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 1. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  368. 361.
    —. 1979. Flavonoid pigments. Page 619in G. A. Rosenthal and D. H. Janzen (eds.). Herbivores: Their interaction with secondary plant metabolites. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  369. 362.
    — andC. A. Williams. 1978. Vernonieae—chemical review. Page 523in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 1. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  370. 363.
    Harley-Mason, J., A. T. Hewson, O. Kennard and R. C. Pettersen. 1972. Isolation of centaurepensin, a guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone ester containing two chlorine atoms; determination of structure and absolute configuration by X-ray crystallography. Chem. Commun. 460.Google Scholar
  371. 364.
    Harmatha, J., Z. Samek, L. Novotny, V. Herout andF. Sôrm. 1969. Terpenes CXC. The structure of adenostylone, isoadenostylone, and neoadenostylone, components ofAdenostyles alliariae rhizomes. Coll. Czech. Chem. Comm.34: 1739; Chem. Abstr.71: 39210j (1969).Google Scholar
  372. 365.
    ——,M. Synackova, L. Novotny, V. Herout andF. Sôrm. 1976. Neutral components of the extract fromHomogyne alpina (L.) Cass. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.41: 2047.Google Scholar
  373. 366.
    Hausen, B. M., K. H. Schulz, O. Jarchow, K. H. Klaska andH. Schmalle. 1975. First allergenic sesquiterpene lactone fromChrysanthemum indicum. Arteglasin-A. Naturwissenschaften62: 585; Chem. Abstr.84: 57278k (1976).Google Scholar
  374. 367.
    Hayashi, K., H. Nakamura andH. Mitsuhashi. 1973. Sesquiterpenes fromCacalia hastata. Phytochemistry12: 2931.Google Scholar
  375. 368.
    Hegnauer, R. 1963. The taxonomic significance of alkaloids. Page 389in J. B. Harborne (ed.). Chemical plant taxonomy. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  376. 369.
    —. 1969. Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. Band 1–5. Birkhaüser Verlag, Basel.Google Scholar
  377. 370.
    Hernández, R., A. Sandoval, A. Setzer andJ. Romo. 1968. Chemical study ofHelenium quadridentata. Bol. Inst. Quím. Univ. Nac. Autón. México20: 81.Google Scholar
  378. 371.
    Herout, V. 1970. Chemotaxonomy of the family Compositae (Asteraceae).In H. Wagner and L. Hörhammer (eds.). Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry. Wien. Springer. 1971. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. Int. Congr. 1st., 93 (Publ. 1971).Google Scholar
  379. 372.
    — andF. Sôrm. 1953. On the components of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) and the isolation of a crystalline pro-chamazulenogen. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.18: 854.Google Scholar
  380. 373.
    ——. 1954. Contribution to the constitution of pro-chamazulenogen, the natural precursor of chamazulene inArtemisia absinthium L. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.19: 792.Google Scholar
  381. 374.
    —,M. Suchy andF. Sôrm. 1961. Isolation and structure of costunolide, balchanolide, isobalchanolide and hydroxybalchanolide, sesquiterpenic lactones of germacrane type fromArtemisia balchanorum H. Krasch. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.26: 2612.Google Scholar
  382. 375.
    Herz, W. 1968. Pseudoguaianolides in Compositae. Page 229in T. J. Mabry, R. E. Alston and V. C. Runeckles (eds.). Recent advances in phytochemistry, Vol. 1. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.Google Scholar
  383. 376.
    —. 1973. Pseudoguaianolides in Compositae. Page 153 in Chemistry in botanical classification (Nobel Foundation, Stockholm). Nobel Symposium 25, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  384. 377.
    —. 1962. Constituents ofHelenium species XII. Sesquiterpene lactones of some southwestern species. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)27: 4043.Google Scholar
  385. 378.
    —. 1977. Biogenetic aspects of sesquiterpene lactone chemistry. Israel J. Chem.16: 32.Google Scholar
  386. 379.
    —. 1978. Astereae—chemical review. Page 567in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 1. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  387. 380.
    —. 1978. Sesquiterpene lactones in the Compositae. Page 337in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 1. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  388. 381.
    —,G. Anderson, S. Gibaja andD. Raulais. 1969. Sesquiterpene lactones of someAmbrosia species. Phytochemistry8: 877.Google Scholar
  389. 382.
    —,K. Aota andA. Hall. 1970. New pseudoguaianolides fromHymenoxys species. A new type of lactone closure. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)35: 4117.Google Scholar
  390. 383.
    ——A. L. Hall andA. Srinivasan. 1974. Antileukemic pseudoguaianolides fromHymenoxys grandiflora (T. & G.) Parker. Application of lanthanide-induced shifts to structure determination. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)39: 2013.Google Scholar
  391. 384.
    ——,M. Holub andZ. Samek. 1970. Sesquiterpene lactones and lactone glycosides fromHymenoxys species. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)35: 2611.Google Scholar
  392. 385.
    — andS. V. Bhat. 1972. Woodhousin, a new germacranolide fromBahia woodhousei (Gray) Gray. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)37: 906.Google Scholar
  393. 386.
    —. 1970. Isolation and structure of two new germacranolides fromPolymnia uvedalia (L.) L. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)35: 2605.Google Scholar
  394. 387.
    ——. 1973. Maculatin: An isomer of uvedalin epoxide fromPolymnia maculata. Phytochemistry12: 1737.Google Scholar
  395. 388.
    ——,H. Crawford, H. Wagner, G. Maurer andL. Farkas. 1972. Bahifolin, a new sesquiterpene lactone, and 5,7-dihydroxy-3,3’,4’,6-tetramethoxyflavone, a new flavone fromBahia oppositifolia. Phytochemistry11: 371.Google Scholar
  396. 389.
    —— andA. L. Hall. 1970. Parthemollin, a new xanthanolide fromParthenice mollis Gray. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)35: 1110.Google Scholar
  397. 390.
    —— andS. Poondi Santhanam. 1970. Coumarins ofArtemisia dracunculoides and 3’,6-dimethoxy-4’,5,7-trihydroxyflavone in A.arctica. Phytochemistry9: 891.Google Scholar
  398. 391.
    —— andA. Srinivasan. 1972. Berlandin and subacaulin, two new guaianolides fromBerlandiera subacaulis. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)37: 2532.Google Scholar
  399. 392.
    —— andV. Sudarsanam. 1972. Sesquiterpene lactones and flavones ofIva frutescens. Phytochemistry11: 1829.Google Scholar
  400. 393.
    —,H. Chikamatsu, N. Viswanthan andV. Sudarsanam. 1967. Structure of ivalbin, a modified guaianolide fromIva dealbata Gray. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)32: 682.Google Scholar
  401. 394.
    — andR. DeGroote. 1977. Desacetyleupaserrin and nevadensin fromHelianthus pumilus. Phytochemistry16: 1307.Google Scholar
  402. 395.
    ——,R. Murari, N. Kumar andJ. F. Blount. 1979. Sesquiterpene lactones ofEupatorium serotinum. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)44: 2784.Google Scholar
  403. 396.
    ——— andJ. F. Blount. 1978. Sesquiterpene lactones ofEupatorium recurvans. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)43: 3559.Google Scholar
  404. 397.
    —,C. M. Gast andP. S. Subramaniam. 1968. Sesquiterpene lactones ofHelenium alternifolium (Spreng.) Cabrera. Structures of brevilin A, linifolin A, and alternilin. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)33: 2780.Google Scholar
  405. 398.
    — andS. V. Govindan. 1980. Eucannabinolide and other constituents ofSchkuhria virgata. Phytochemistry19: 1234.Google Scholar
  406. 399.
    ——,M. W. Bierner andJ. F. Blount. 1980. Sesquiterpene lactones ofHymenoxys insignis. X-ray analyses of hymenograndin and hymenosignin. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)45: 493.Google Scholar
  407. 400.
    —— andJ. F. Blount. 1980.trans, trans-Germacra-l(10),4-dien-cis-6,12olides fromMontanoa hibiscifolia. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)45: 1113.Google Scholar
  408. 401.
    ———. 1980. Glycosidic disecoeudesmanolides and other secosesquiterpene lactones fromPicradeniopsis species. X-ray analysis of bahia I. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)45: 3163.Google Scholar
  409. 402.
    ———. 1981. Structures of the rolandrolides and isorolandrolides, unusual germacradienolides fromRolandra fruticosa. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)46: 761.Google Scholar
  410. 403.
    ——, andN. Kumar. 1981. Sesquiterpene lactones and other constituents ofEupatorium lancifolium andE. semiserratum. Phytochemistry20: 1343.Google Scholar
  411. 404.
    — andG. Högnauer. 1962. Ivalin, a new sesquiterpene lactone. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)27: 905.Google Scholar
  412. 405.
    ——. 1961. Isolation and structure of coronopilin, a new sesquiterpene lactone. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)26: 5011.Google Scholar
  413. 406.
    —— andA. Romo de Vivar. 1964. Constituents ofIva species. III. Structure of microcephalin, a new sesquiterpene lactone. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)29: 1700.Google Scholar
  414. 407.
    — andS. Inayama. 1964. Constituents ofGaillardia species. II. Structures of pulchellin B and pulchellin C. Tetrahedron20: 341.Google Scholar
  415. 408.
    — andP. S. Kalyanaraman. 1975. Mikanokryptin inMelampodium divaricatum. Phytochemistry14: 1664.Google Scholar
  416. 409.
    ——. 1975. Acanthospermal A and acanthospermal B, two new melampolides fromAcanthospermum species. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)40: 3486.Google Scholar
  417. 410.
    ——,G. Ramakrishnan andJ. F. Blount. 1977. Sesquiterpene lactones ofEupatorium perfoliatum. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)42: 2264.Google Scholar
  418. 411.
    —,Y. Kishida andM. V. Lakshmikantham. 1964. Constituents ofHelenium species. XVI. Structures of flexuosin A and flexuosin B. Tetrahedron20: 979.Google Scholar
  419. 412.
    — andN. Kumar. 1979. Sesquiterpene lactones ofBaltimora recta. Phytochemistry18: 1743.Google Scholar
  420. 413.
    ——. 1980. Guaianolides fromLiatris squarrosa. Phytochemistry19: 2387.Google Scholar
  421. 414.
    ——. 1980. Sesquiterpene lactones ofCalea zacatechichi andC. urticifolia. Phytochemistry19: 593.Google Scholar
  422. 415.
    ——. 1981. Heliangolides fromHelianthus maximiliani. Phytochemistry20: 93.Google Scholar
  423. 416.
    ——. 1981. Sesquiterpene lactones fromHelianthus grosseserratus. Phytochemistry20: 99.Google Scholar
  424. 417.
    ——. 1981. Minor sesquiterpene lactones ofHelianthus pumilus. Phytochemistry20: 1339.Google Scholar
  425. 418.
    —— andJ. F. Blount. 1980. A thiol-containing ester sidechain in a sesquiterpene lactone fromEupatorium mikanioides. Absolute configuration of desacetyleupasserin and its congeners. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)45: 489.Google Scholar
  426. 419.
    ———. 1981. Antileukemic C-15 functionalized ambrosanolides fromRudbeckia mollis. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)46: 1356.Google Scholar
  427. 420.
    ——,W. Vichnewski andJ. F. Blount. 1980. Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones ofEremanthus incanus andHeterocoma albida. Crystal structure and stereochemistry of eregoyazin. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)45: 2503.Google Scholar
  428. 421.
    — andM. V. Lakshmikantham. 1965. Constituents ofHelenium species XVII. Sesquiterpene lactones ofHelenium thurberi Gray and the stereochemistry of bigelovin. Tetrahedron21: 1711.Google Scholar
  429. 422.
    —,R.B. Mitra, K. Rabindran andW. A. Ronde. 1959. Constituents ofHelenium species VII. Bitter principles ofH. pinnatifidum (Nutt.) Rydb.,H. vernale Walt.,H. brevifolium (Nutt.) A. Wood andH. flexuosum Raf. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.81: 1481.Google Scholar
  430. 423.
    ——— andN. Viswanathan. 1962. Constituents ofHelenium species. XI. The structure of pinnatifidin. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)27: 4041.Google Scholar
  431. 424.
    -,M. Miyazaki and Y. Kishida. 1961. Structures of parthenin and ambrosin. Tetrahedron Lett. 82.Google Scholar
  432. 425.
    —,R. Murari andS. V. Govindan. 1979. Sesquiterpene lactonesof Eupatorium anomalum andEupatorium mohrii. Phytochemistry18: 1337.Google Scholar
  433. 426.
    —,J. Poplawski andR. P. Sharma. 1975. New guaianolides fromLiatris species. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)40: 199.Google Scholar
  434. 427.
    —,S. Rajappa, M. V. Lakshmikantham andJ. J. Schmid. 1966. Constituents ofGaillardia species III. The structure of gaillardilin, a new pseudoguaianolide. Tetrahedron22: 693.Google Scholar
  435. 428.
    ——,S. K. Roy, J. J. Schmid andR. N. Mirrington. 1966. Constituents ofGaillardia species. IV. The sesquiterpene lactones ofGaillardia fastigiata Greene. Tetrahedron22: 1907.Google Scholar
  436. 429.
    ——,M. V. Lakshmikantham, D. Raulais andJ. J. Schmid. 1967. Constituents ofGaillardia species. V. Isolation and structure of spathulin. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)32: 1042.Google Scholar
  437. 430.
    —,D. Raulais andG. D. Anderson. 1973. Sesquiterpene lactones ofAmbrosia cordifolia. Phytochemistry12: 1415.Google Scholar
  438. 431.
    —,W. A. Rohde, K. Rabindran, P. Jayaraman andN. Viswanathan. 1962. Revised structure of tenulin. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.84: 3857.Google Scholar
  439. 432.
    —,A. Romo de Vivar andM. V. Lakshmikantham. 1965. Structure of pseudoivalin, a new guaianolide. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)30: 118.Google Scholar
  440. 433.
    —,J. Romo andN. Viswanathan. 1963. Constituents ofHelenium species. XV. The structure of mexicanin C, relative stereochemistry of its congeners. Tetrahedron19: 1359.Google Scholar
  441. 434.
    ————. 1963. Constituents ofHelenium species XIII. The structure of helenalin and mexicanin A. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.85: 19.Google Scholar
  442. 435.
    — andS. K. Roy. 1969. New pseudoguaianolides fromGaillardia pulchella. Phytochemistry8: 661.Google Scholar
  443. 436.
    — andP. S. Santhanam. 1967. Virginolide, a new guaianolide fromHelenium virginicum Blake. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)32: 507.Google Scholar
  444. 437.
    ——. 1965. Arbiglovin. A new guaianolide fromArtemisia bigelovii Gray. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)30: 4340.Google Scholar
  445. 438.
    -, -,H. Wagner, R. Höer, L. Hörhammer and L. Farkas. 1969. Isolation, structure and synthesis of 4’,5,6,7-tetrahydroxy-3’-methoxyflavone (batatifolin), a new flavone fromMikania batatifolia DC. Tetrahedron Lett. 3419.Google Scholar
  446. 439.
    —, andR. P. Sharma. 1975. A trans-l,2-cis-4,5-germacradienolide and other new germacranolides fromTithonia species. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)40: 3118.Google Scholar
  447. 440.
    ——. 1975. Complete stereochemistry of tenulin. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of tenulin derivatives. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)40: 2557.Google Scholar
  448. 441.
    ——. 1975. New germacranolides fromLiatris species. Phytochemistry14: 1561.Google Scholar
  449. 442.
    ——. 1975. Seco-germacradienolide fromLiatris pycnostachya. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)40: 392.Google Scholar
  450. 443.
    ——. 1976. Pycnolide, a seco-germacradienolide fromLiatris pycnostachya and other antitumor constituents ofLiatris species. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)41: 1248.Google Scholar
  451. 444.
    ——. 1976. Sesquiterpene lactones ofEupatorium hyssopifolium. A germacranolide with an unusual lipid ester side chain. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)41: 1015.Google Scholar
  452. 445.
    — andS. Srinivasan. 1974. Reexamination ofGaillardia amblyodon. Isolation of new pseudoguaianolides. Phytochemistry13: 1187.Google Scholar
  453. 446.
    ——. 1972. Pseudoguaianolides ofGaillardia amblyodon. Phytochemistry11: 2093.Google Scholar
  454. 447.
    — andA. Srinivasan. 1974. Stereochemistry of spathulin. Phytochemistry13: 1171.Google Scholar
  455. 448.
    —— andP. S. Kalyanaraman. 1975. Mikanokryptin, a new guaianolide fromMikania. Phytochemistry14: 233.Google Scholar
  456. 449.
    — andP. S. Subramaniam. 1972. Pseudoguaianolides inHelenium autumnale from Pennsylvania. Phytochemistry11: 1101.Google Scholar
  457. 450.
    —— andN. Dennis. 1969. Solvent shift studies on pseudoguaianolides of the helenalin series. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)34: 3691.Google Scholar
  458. 451.
    —— andT. A. Geissman. 1968. 3-epiisotelekin fromGaillardia aristata Pursh. and the structure of farinosin. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)33: 3743.Google Scholar
  459. 452.
    —— andN. Dennis. 1969. Stereochemistry of flexuosin A and related compounds. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)34: 2915.Google Scholar
  460. 453.
    ——,R. Murari, N. Dennis andJ. F. Blount. 1977. Microdilin, a complex elemenolide fromMikania cordifolia. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)42: 1720.Google Scholar
  461. 454.
    ——,P. S. Santhanam, K. Aota andA. L. Hall. 1970. Structure elucidation of sesquiterpene dilactones fromMikania scandens (L.) Willd. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)35: 1453. Errata: J. Organ. Chem. (USA)38: 4217 (1973).Google Scholar
  462. 455.
    — andV. Sudarsanam. 1970. Flavones ofIva hayesiana. Phytochemistry9: 895.Google Scholar
  463. 456.
    —— andJ. J. Schmid. 1966. New guaianolides fromIva axillaris Pursh. ssp.robustior. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)31: 3232.Google Scholar
  464. 457.
    — andY. Sumi. 1964. Constituentsof Ambrosia hispida Pursh. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)29: 3438.Google Scholar
  465. 458.
    —,V. Sudarsanam andD. Raulais. 1967. Constituents ofIva species. X. Ivangulin, a novel seco-eudesmanolide fromIva angustifolia Nutt. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)32: 3658.Google Scholar
  466. 459.
    — andK. Ueda. 1961. The sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia tilesii Ledeb. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.83: 1139.Google Scholar
  467. 460.
    —— andS. Inayama. 1963. Constituents ofGaillardia species I. The structure of pulchellin. Tetrahedron19: 483.Google Scholar
  468. 461.
    — andN. Viswanathan. 1964. Constituents ofIva species. II. The structures of asperilin and ivasperin, two new sesquiterpene lactones. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)29: 1022.Google Scholar
  469. 462.
    — andI. Wahlberg. 1973. Provincialin, a cytotoxic germacradienolide fromLiatris provincialis Godfrey with an unusual ester side chain. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)38: 2485.Google Scholar
  470. 463.
    ——. 1973. Punctatin: A new germacradienolide fromLiatris punctata. Phytochemistry12: 1421.Google Scholar
  471. 464.
    ——C. S. Stevens andP. S. Kalyanaraman. 1975. Three new 5,10-epoxygermacranolides fromLiatris chapmanii andLiatris gracilis. Phytochemistry14: 1803.Google Scholar
  472. 465.
    —,H. Watanabe, M. Miyazaki andY. Kishida. 1962. The structures of parthenin and ambrosin. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.84: 2601.Google Scholar
  473. 466.
    Heywood, V. H. 1973. Role of chemistry in plant systematics. Pure Appl. Chem.34: 355; Chem. Abstr.79: 102687c (1973).Google Scholar
  474. 467.
    — andC. J. Humphries. 1978. Anthemideae—systematic review. Page 851in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  475. 468.
    Higo, A., Z. Hammam, B. N. Timmermann, H. Yoshioka, J. Lee, T. J. Mabry andW. W. Payne. 1971. Sesquiterpene lactones from the genusAmbrosia. Phytochemistry10: 2241.Google Scholar
  476. 469.
    Hikino, H., D. Kuwano andT. Takemoto. 1968. Structure ofHelenium lactone. Chem. Pharm. Bull. Japan16(8): 1601; Chem. Abstr.70: 20233b (1969).Google Scholar
  477. 470.
    Ho, C. M. andR. Toubiana. 1970. Lactones sesquiterpeniques. Determination de la position du cycle lactonique dans le vernolide et l’hydroxyvernolide. Tetrahedron26: 941.Google Scholar
  478. 471.
    Hochmannova, J., V. Herout andF. Sôrm. 1961. Isolation and structure of sesquiterpenic lactones from common yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.). Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.26: 1826.Google Scholar
  479. 472.
    —,L. Novotny andV. Herout. 1962. Sesquiterpenic hydrocarbons from coltsfoot rhizomes (Petasites officinalis Moench.). Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.27: 1870.Google Scholar
  480. 473.
    Hoeneisen, M., M. Sicva andF. Bohlmann. 1980. Sesquiterpene lactones ofPodanthus mitiqui. Phytochemistry19: 2765.Google Scholar
  481. 474.
    Hoffman, J. J., S. D. Jolad, S. J. Torrance, D. J. Luzbetak, R. M. Wiedhopf andJ. R. Cole. 1978. Odoratin and paucin: Cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones fromBaileya pauciradiata (Compositae). J. Pharm. Sci.67: 1633.Google Scholar
  482. 475.
    Holub, M. andV. Herout. 1962. Isolation of desacetoxymatricarin fromArtemisia leucodes Schrenk. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.27: 2980.Google Scholar
  483. 476.
    —,M. J. Poplawski, P. Sedmera andV. Herout. 1977. N-ethoxycarbonyl-Lprolinamide, a new alkaloid from the leaves ofArnica montana L. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.42: 151.Google Scholar
  484. 477.
    — andZ. Samek. 1977. Isolation and structure of 3-epinobilin, 1,10-epoxynobilin and 3-dehydronobilin—other sesquiterpenic lactones from the flowers ofAnthemis nobilis L. Revision of the structure of nobilin and eucannabinolide. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.42: 1053.Google Scholar
  485. 478.
    —— andJ. Toman. 1972. Carabrone fromArnica foliosa. Phytochemistry11: 2627.Google Scholar
  486. 479.
    Holzer, K. andA. Zinke. 1953. Über die Bitterstoffe der Zichorie (Cichorium intybus L.). Monatssch. Chem.84: 901.Google Scholar
  487. 480.
    Hörhammer, L., H. Wagner andB. Lay. 1963. New methods in pharmocognosy. VI. Chromatography ofTussilago farfara andPetasites leaves. Deutsch. Apotheker-Zeitung103: 429.Google Scholar
  488. 481.
    Huber, C. P. and K. J. Watson. 1968. The crystal and molecular structure of 2-bromolumisantonin. J. Chem. Soc. (London) 2441.Google Scholar
  489. 482.
    Imakura, Y., K. H. Lee, D. Sims, R.-Y. Wu, I. H. Hall, H. Furukawa, M. Hoigawa andK. Yonaha. 1980. Antitumor agents. XXXVI: Structural elucidation of sesquiterpene lactones, microhelenins A, B, and C, microlenin acetate, and plenolin fromHelenium microcephalum. J. Pharm. Sci.69: 1044.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  490. 483.
    Inayama, S., T. Kawamata andM. Yanagita. 1973. Sesquiterpene lactones ofGaillardia pulchella. Phytochemistry12: 1741.Google Scholar
  491. 484.
    —,T. Okhura, T. Kawamata andM. Yanagita. 1974. Ambrosic acid. New irritant principle fromAmbrosia artemisiifolia. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Japan)22: 1435; Chem. Abstr.81: 132853n (1974).Google Scholar
  492. 485.
    Irie, G. W., D. A. Witzel, W. Herz, R. Kannan, J. O. Norman, D. D. Rushing, J. H. Johnson, L. D. Rowe andJ. A. Veech. 1975. Hymenovin. Major toxic constituents of western bitterweed (Hymenoxys odorata DC). J. Agric. Food Chem.23: 841.Google Scholar
  493. 486.
    Irwin, M. A.. 1971. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia. Ph.D. Dissertation, Univ. of California, Los Angeles; Chem. Abstr.75: 137459z (1971).Google Scholar
  494. 487.
    — andT. A. Geissman. 1969. Sesquiterpene lactones. Constituents ofArtemisia nova Nels. and A.tripartita A. Gray ssp.rupicola. Phytochemistry8: 305.Google Scholar
  495. 488.
    ——. 1969. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia species. New lactones fromA. arbuscula ssp.arbuscula andA. tripartita ssp.rupicola. Phytochemistry8: 2411.Google Scholar
  496. 489.
    ——. 1971. Sesquiterpene lactones fromArtemisia: Arbusculin-C, rothin-A and rothin-B. Phytochemistry10: 637.Google Scholar
  497. 490.
    ——. 1973. Arbusculin-D fromArtemisia arbuscula ssp.arbuscula. Phytochemistry12: 853.Google Scholar
  498. 491.
    ——. 1973. Ridentin-B: An eudesmanolide fromArtemisia tripartita spp.rupicola. Phytochemistry12: 871.Google Scholar
  499. 492.
    ——. 1973. Rupicolin-A, and -B, rupin-A and -B, cumambrin B oxide fromArtemisia tripartita ssp.rupicola. Phytochemistry12: 863.Google Scholar
  500. 493.
    ——. 1973. Novanin: A germacranolide fromArtemisia nova. Phyxochemistry12: 875.Google Scholar
  501. 494.
    —,K. H. Lee, R. F. Simpson andT. A. Geissman. 1969. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia. Ridentin. Phytochemistry8: 2009.Google Scholar
  502. 495.
    Ishii, H., T. Tozyo andH. Minato. 1966. Components of the root ofLigularia fischeri Turcz. J. Chem. Soc. C (London)17: 1545.Google Scholar
  503. 496.
    Ishizaki, Y., Y. Tanahashi, Y. Moriyama, T. Takahashi, andH. Koyama. 1974. Sesquiterpenes from the roots ofLigularia hodgsonii. Phytochemistry13: 674.Google Scholar
  504. 497.
    -, -and T. Takahashi. 1969. Furanoeremophilan-14β,6α-olide, a new furanosesquiterpene lactone fromLigularia hodgsonii Hook. f. The structure and nuclear overhauser effects. Chem. Commun. 551.Google Scholar
  505. 498.
    ——— andK. Tori. 1970. The structure of ligularenolide. A new sesquiterpene lactone of eremophilane type. Tetrahedron26: 5387.Google Scholar
  506. 499.
    Isobe, M., H. Ito, T. Kawai andT. Goto. 1978. Synthesis of sesquiterpene antitumor lactones. A new stereocontrolled total synthesis of (±) vernolepin. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.100: 1940.Google Scholar
  507. 500a.
    Ito, K. andT. Lida. 1981. Seven sesquiterpene lactones fromInula britannica var.chinensis. Phytochemistry20: 271.Google Scholar
  508. 500b.
    Jackson, R. C. 1960. A revision of the genusIva L. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull.41: 793.Google Scholar
  509. 501.
    Jain, T. C. and J. E. McCloskey. 1971. Bromotrifluoride catalyzed cyclization of costunolide. Synthesis of 4α-hydroxycyclocostulinolide. Tetrahedron Lett. 1415.Google Scholar
  510. 502.
    Jamieson, G. R., E. H. Reid, B. P. Turner andA. T. Jamieson. 1976. BakkenolideA. Its distribution inPetasites species and cytotoxic properties. Phytochemistry15: 1713.Google Scholar
  511. 503.
    Jeffrey, C. 1979. Generic and sectional limits inSenecio (Compositae). II. Evaluation of some recent studies. Kew Bulletin34: 49.Google Scholar
  512. 504.
    —,P. Halliday, M. Wilmot-Dear andS. W. Jones. 1977. Generic and sectional limits inSenecio (Compositae): I. Progress Report. Kew Bull.32: 47.Google Scholar
  513. 505.
    Jennings, P., S. Reeder, J. Hurley, C. Caughlan, G. D. Smith. 1974. Isolation and structure determination of one of the toxic constituents fromTetrahymena glabrata. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)39: 3392.Google Scholar
  514. 506.
    Jeremic, D., A. Jokic, A. Behbud and M. Stefanovic. 1973. A new type of sesquiterpene lactone isolated fromArtemisia annua L. Tetrahedron Lett. 3039.Google Scholar
  515. 507a.
    Jizba, J., Z. Samek, L. Novotny, E. Najdenova andA. Boeva. 1978. Components ofSenecio nemorensis var.bulgaricus (Vel. Pro. Sp.). Collect. Czech. Chem. Commun.43: 1113.Google Scholar
  516. 507b.
    Jones, D. A. 1972. Cyanogenic glycosides and their function. Page 103in J. B. Harborne (ed.). Phytochemical ecology. Academic Press, London and New York.Google Scholar
  517. 508.
    Jones, S. B. 1978. Vernonieae—systematic review. Page 503in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 1. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  518. 509.
    Joseph-Nathan, P. andJ. Romo. 1966. Isolation and structure of peruvin. Tetrahedron22: 1723.Google Scholar
  519. 510.
    Joshi, B. S., A. S. Bawdekar, G. H. Kulkarni, A. S. Rao, G. R. Kelkar andS. C. Bhattacharyya. 1961. Examination ofCostus root oil. Perfumery Essent. Oil Record52: 773; Chem. Abstr.56: 11727d (1962).Google Scholar
  520. 511.
    — andV. N. Kamat. 1972. Structure of enhydrin, a germacranolide fromEnhydra fluctuons Lour. Ind. J. Chem.10: 771.Google Scholar
  521. 512.
    —,G. H. Kulkarni, G. R. Kelkar andS. C. Bhattacharyya. 1966. Transformation products of costunolide. Stereochemistry of (-) santonin and solid dihydrocostunolide at C-11. Tetrahedron22: 2331.Google Scholar
  522. 513.
    Kagan, H. B., H. E. Miller, W. Renold, M. V. Lakshmikantham, L. R. Tether, W. Herz andT. J. Mabry. 1966. The structure of psilostachyin C, a new sesquiterpene dilactone fromAmbrosia psilostachya DC. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)31: 1629.Google Scholar
  523. 514.
    Kallen, J. 1873. Über Helenin und Alantkampher. Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges.6: 1506.Google Scholar
  524. 515.
    Kaneko, H., S. Naruto andS. Takahashi. 1971. Sesquiterpenes ofAchillea sibirica. Phytochemistry10: 3305.Google Scholar
  525. 516a.
    Karawya, M. S., S. H. Hilal, M. S. Hifnawy andS. E. El-Hawary. 1977. Isolation and preliminary pharmacological and microbiological screening of cnicin fromCentaurea calitrapa L. growing in Egypt. Egypt. J. Pharm. Sci.16: 445; Chem. Abstr.89: 160096b (1978).Google Scholar
  526. 516b.
    Kariyone, T., T. Fukui, M. Ishikawa andT. Imawaki. 1949. Constituents ofArtemisia monogyna. Structure of mibulactone. J. Pharmac. Soc. Japan69: 310.Google Scholar
  527. 517.
    — andS. Naito. 1955. Components ofCarpesium abrotanoides. Chemical structure ofCarpesia lactone. J. Pharm. Soc. Japan75: 39; Chem. Abstr.50: 890g (1956).Google Scholar
  528. 518.
    —— andJ. Chatani. 1954. Studies on the components ofCarpesium abrotanoides. Chemical constitution ofcarpesia lactone. Pharm. Bull. (Japan)2: 339; Chem. Abstr.50: 7089g (1956).Google Scholar
  529. 519.
    Karrer, W. 1958. Konstitution und Vorkommen der Organischen Pflanzenstoffe. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel.Google Scholar
  530. 520.
    Kashman, Y., D. Lavie andE. Glotter. 1967. Sesquiterpene lactones fromInula helenium. Israel J. Chem.5: 23.Google Scholar
  531. 521.
    Kasymov, Sh. Z. andG. P. Sidyakin. 1972. Lactones ofAchillea millefolium. Khim. Prir. Soedin.8: 246; English ed. p. 246.Google Scholar
  532. 522.
    ——. 1969. Lactones fromArtemisia tenuisecta. Khim. Prir. Soedin.5: 445; Chem. Abstr.72: 75666s (1970).Google Scholar
  533. 523.
    -,M. I. Yusupov, S. Kh. Zakirov, G. P. Sidyakin and D. Tezisy. 1978. Structure of novel guaianolides of jurmolide and ayanin. Sov. Indiiskii Simp., Khim. Prir. Soedin. 5th 37 (Russ.) Izv. Biol. Nauki. SSR: Yerevan, USSR; Chem. Abstr. 93: 186586u (1980).Google Scholar
  534. 524.
    Kato, T., K. Shirahata and Y. Kitahara. 1969. Mass spectra of bakkenolides and their derivatives. Recent Develop. Mass. Spectrosc. Proc. Int. Conf. Mass. Spectrosc. 1259; Chem. Abstr.75: 110446f (1971).Google Scholar
  535. 525.
    Kawatani, T. andT. Takeuchi. 1954. Two crystalline compounds fromArtemisia finita; further discovery of anArtemisia containing 1-β-santonin. J. Pharm. Soc. Japan74: 793; Chem. Abstr.49: 11607f (1955).Google Scholar
  536. 526.
    Kechatova, N. A., K. S. Rybalko, P. N. Smirnov andM. I. Kamnev. 1969. Tauremisin contentof Artemisia taurica. Tauremisin distribution in the organs. Rast. Resur.5: 444; Chem. Abstr.72: 39786x (1970).Google Scholar
  537. 527.
    — andM. I. Vlasov. 1966. Sesquiterpene lactone fromArtemisia juncea. Khim. Prir. Soedin., Akad. Nauk, CK. SSR2: 216; Chem. Abstr.65: 17360e (1966).Google Scholar
  538. 528.
    Keck, D. D. 1946. A revision of theArtemisia vulgaris complex in North America. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. IV Series25(17): 421.Google Scholar
  539. 529.
    Kelsey, R. G. 1974. The systematic usefulness of the sesquiterpene lactones in the genusArtemisia, sectionTridentatae (sagebrush) of Montana. Doctoral thesis. Univ. of Montana.Google Scholar
  540. 530.
    —,M. S. Morris, N. R. Bhadane andF. Shafizadeh. 1973. Sesquiterpene lactonesof Artemisia: TLC analysis and taxonomic significance. Phytochemistry12: 1345.Google Scholar
  541. 531.
    — andF. Shafizadeh. 1979. Sesquiterpene lactones and systematics of the genusArtemisia. Phytochemistry18: 1591.Google Scholar
  542. 532.
    —,J. W. Thomas, T. J. Watson andF. Shafizadeh. 1975. Population studies inArtemisia tridentata ssp.vaseyana: Chromosome numbers and sesquiterpene lactone races. Biochem. System. Ecol.3: 209.Google Scholar
  543. 533.
    Kerimov, S. S. andO. S. Chizhov. 1974. Sesquiterpene lactones ofInula helenium. Khim. Prir. Soedin.10: 254; Chem. Abstr.81: 60894b (1974).Google Scholar
  544. 534.
    Khafagy, S. M., S. A. Gharbo andT. M. Sarg. 1971. Phytochemical investigations ofArtemisia herba-alba. Pl. Med.20: 90.Google Scholar
  545. 535.
    — andA. Metwally. 1970. Isolation of a crystalline sesquiterpenic ketolactone fromXanthium occidentale. Pl. Med.18: 318; Chem. Abstr.73: 95439u (1970).Google Scholar
  546. 536.
    Khvorost, P. P. andN. F. Komissarenko. 1976. Lactones ofInula helenium. Khim. Prir. Soedin.12: 820; Chem. Abstr.86: 136307p (1978).Google Scholar
  547. 537.
    Kiang, A. K., K. Y. Sim andS. W. Young. 1968. Constituents ofMikania cordata (Burm. F.) B. L. Robinson (Compositae) II. Phytochemistry7: 1035.Google Scholar
  548. 538.
    Kim, H. L., L. D. Rowe andB. J. Camp. 1975. Hymenoxon, a poisonous sesquiterpene lactone fromHymenoxys odorata (bitterweed). Res. Comm. Chem. Pathol. Pharmacol.11: 647; Chem. Abstr.83: 160803f (1975).Google Scholar
  549. 539.
    Kingston, D., M. Rao, T. Spittler, R. Pettersen andD. Cullen. 1975. Sesquiterpenes fromFluorensia cernua. Phytochemistry14: 2033.Google Scholar
  550. 540.
    Kiseleva, E. Y., V. I. Sheichenko, K. S. Rybalko, G. A. Kalabin andA. I. Ban’kovskii. 1971. The structure of inulicin—a new sesquiterpene lactone fromInula japonica. Khim. Prir. Soedin.7: 263; English ed. p. 254; Chem. Abstr.75: 110445e (1971).Google Scholar
  551. 541.
    ———,A. I. Shretev andD. Pakaln. 1969. Separation of gaillardin fromInula oculus Christi. Khim. Prir. Soedin.5: 444; Chem. Abstr.72: 82893s (1970).Google Scholar
  552. 542.
    Kisiel, W. 1975. Phytochemical investigation ofVernonia flexuosa. Vernoflexuoside and vernoflexin, new sesquiterpene lactones. Pol. J. Pharmacol. Pharm.27: 461; Chem. Abstr.84: 14634f (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  553. 543.
    —. 1978. New germacranolide fromZinnia haageana. Phytochemistry17: 1059.Google Scholar
  554. 544.
    Klimash, J. W. andN. H. Fischer. 1981. Four new cis,cis-germacranolides from cytotoxic fractions ofMelampodium cinereum. Phytochemistry20: 840.Google Scholar
  555. 545.
    Kondo, Y., F. Hamada and F. Yoshizaki. 1976. 2-methoxydihydrohelenalin from the rhizome of SendaiHelenium autumnale L. Heterocycles 373; Chem. Abstr. 86: 90060x (1977).Google Scholar
  556. 546.
    -,T. Tomimori, N. Hiraga and T. Takemoto. 1977. Picrohelenin, a new cytotoxic and bitter pseudoguaianolide from SendaiHelenium autumnale L. Heterocycles 19; Chem. Abstr.86: 68371c (1977).Google Scholar
  557. 547.
    -,F. Yoshizaki, F. Hamada, J. Imai and G. Kusano. 1977. Sulferalin, a novel sulfonyl pseudoguaianolide sesquiterpene lactone from SendaiHelenium autumnale L. Tetrahedron Lett. 2155.Google Scholar
  558. 548.
    Konovalova, O. A., K. S. Rybalko andV. S. Kabanov. 1972. Sesquiterpene lactones fromCarpesium eximium. Khim. Prir. Soedin.8: 721;English ed. p. 705; Chem. Abstr.78: 94805b (1973).Google Scholar
  559. 549.
    --and M. G. Pimenov. 1979. Sesquiterpene lactone fromSaussurea amara. Khim. Prir. Soedin. 865; Chem. Abstr.93: 22593t (1980).Google Scholar
  560. 550.
    —— andV. I. Sheichenko. 1974. Structure of new sesquiterpene lactones fromInula germanica. Khim. Prir. Soedin.10: 578;English ed. p. 591; Chem. Abstr.82: 73219f (1975).Google Scholar
  561. 551.
    ——— andD. A. Pakaln. 1971. Sesquiterpene lactones fromArtemisia caucasica. Khim. Prir. Soedin.7: 741; English ed. p. 719; Chem. Abstr. 76: 141061b (1972).Google Scholar
  562. 552.
    Kovacs, Ö., V. Herout, M. Horak andF. Sôrm. 1956. On terpenes. LXVII. Hydrogenation products of santonin and alantolactone. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.21: 225.Google Scholar
  563. 553.
    Kozuka, M., K. H. Lee, A. T. McPhail andK. D. Onan. 1975. Structure and absolute stereochemistry of dihydroflorilenalin, a new sesquiterpene lactone from FloridaHelenium autumnale. Chem. Pharm. Bull.23: 1895.Google Scholar
  564. 554.
    Kupchan, S. M. 1975. Advances in the chemistry of tumor-inhibitory natural products. Page 167in V. C. Runeckles (ed.). Recent advances in phytochemistry. Vol. 9. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  565. 555.
    —,J. W. Ashmore andA. T. Sneden. 1977. Eriofertopin and 2-O-acetyleriofertopin, a new tumor inhibitory germacradienolide fromEriophyllum confertiflorum. Phytochemistry16: 1834.Google Scholar
  566. 556.
    —,Y. Aynechi, J. M. Cassady, H. K. Schnoes andA. L. Burlingame. 1969. Tumor inhibitors XL. The isolation and structural elucidation of elephantin and elephantopin, two novel sesquiterpenoid tumor inhibitors fromElephantopus elatus. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)34: 3867.Google Scholar
  567. 557.
    -,R. L. Baxter, C-K. Chiang, C. J. Gilmore and R. F. Bryan. 1973. Eriolangin and eriolanin, novel antileukemic secoeudesmanolides fromEriophyllum lanatum. Chem. Commun. 842.Google Scholar
  568. 558.
    —,J. M. Cassady, J. E. Kelsey, H. K. Schones, D. H. Smith andA. L. Burlingame. 1966. Structural elucidation and high resolution mass spectrometry of gaillardin, a new cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactone. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.88: 5292.Google Scholar
  569. 559.
    —,V. H. Davies, T. Fujita, M. R. Cox andR. F. Bryan. 1971. Liatrin, a novel antileukemic sesquiterpene lactone fromLiatris chapmanii. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.93: 4916.Google Scholar
  570. 560.
    ————,R. J. Restivo andR. F. Bryan. 1973. The isolation and structural elucidation of liatrin, a novel antileukemic sesquiterpene lactone fromLiatris chapmanii. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)38: 1853.Google Scholar
  571. 561.
    —,T. Fujita, M. Maruyama andR. W. Britton. 1973. The isolation and structure elucidation of eupaserrin and desacetyleupaserrin, new antileukemic sesquiterpene lactones fromEupatorium semiserratum. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)38: 1260.Google Scholar
  572. 562.
    —,R. J. Hemingway, A. Karim andD. Werner. 1969. Vernodalin and vernomygdin, two new cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones fromVernonia amygdalina Del. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)34: 3908.Google Scholar
  573. 563.
    ——D. Werner andA. Karim. 1969. Vernolepin, a novel sesquiterpene dilactone tumor inhibitor fromVernonia hymenolepis A. Rich. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)34: 3903.Google Scholar
  574. 564.
    ————,A. T. McPhail andG. A. Sim. 1968. Vernolepin, a novel elemanolide dilactone tumor inhibitor fromVernonia hymenolepis. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.90: 3596.Google Scholar
  575. 565.
    —,J. E. Kelsey, M. Maruyama, J. M. Cassady, J. C. Hemingway andJ. R. Knox. 1969. Tumor inhibitors XLI. Structural elucidation of tumor-inhibitory sesquiterpene lactones fromEupatorium rotundifolium. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)34: 3876.Google Scholar
  576. 566.
    —,M. Maruyama, R. J. Hemingway, J. C. Hemingway, S. Shibuya andT. Fujita. 1973. Structural elucidation of novel tumor-inhibitory sesquiterpene lactones fromEupatorium cuneifolium. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)38: 2189.Google Scholar
  577. 567.
    ——————,P. D. Cradwick, A. D. Hardy andG. A. Sim. 1971. Eupacunin, a novel antileukemic sesquiterpene lactone fromEupatorium cuneifolium. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.93: 4914.Google Scholar
  578. 568.
    Kurokawa, T., K. Nakanishi, W. Wu, H. Y. Hsu, M. Maruyama and S. M. Kupchan. 1970. Deoxyelephantopin and its interrelation with elephantopin. Tetrahedron Lett. 2863.Google Scholar
  579. 569.
    Lee, K. H., D. C. Anuforo, E. S. Huang andC. Piantadosi. 1972. Angustibalin, a new cytotoxic sesquiterpene fromBalduina angustifolia. J. Pharm. Sci.61: 626; Chem. Abstr.77: 28809j (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  580. 570.
    -,H. Furukawa, M. Kozuka, H. C. Huang, P. A. Luhan and A. T. McPhail. 1973. Molephantin, a novel cytotoxic germacranolide fromElephantopus mollis. Xray crystal structure. Chem. Commun. 476.Google Scholar
  581. 571.
    — andT. A. Geissman. 1970. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia. Constituents of A.ludoviciana ssp.mexicana. Phytochemistry9: 403.Google Scholar
  582. 572.
    ——. 1971. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia species. Artefransin fromA. franserioides. Phytochemistry10: 205.Google Scholar
  583. 573.
    —,M. Haruna, H. C. Huang, B. S. Wu andI. H. Hall. 1977. Helenalin, an antitumor principle fromAnaphalis morrisonicola Hay. J. Pharm. Sci.66: 1194; Chem. Abstr.87: 145893s.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  584. 574.
    —,H. C. Huang, E. S. Huang andH. Furukawa. 1972. Eupatolide, a new cytotoxic principle fromEupatorium formosanum. J. Pharm. Sci.61: 629; Chem. Abstr.77: 28810c (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  585. 575.
    —,T. Ibuka, H. Furukawa, M. Kozuka, R-Y. Wu, I. H. Hall andH-C. Huang. 1980. Antitumor agents. XXXVIII. Isolation and structural elucidation of novel germacranolides and triterpenes fromElephantopus mollis. J. Pharm. Sci.69: 1050.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  586. 576.
    ——H-C. Huang andD. L. Harris. 1975. Molephantinin, a new potent antitumor sesquiterpene lactone fromElephantopus mollis. J. Pharm. Sci.64: 1077; Chem. Abstr.83: 172545 (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  587. 577.
    -, -,M. Kozuka, A. T. McPhail and K. D. Onan. 1974. The structure and absolute configuration of florilenalin, a new cytotoxic guaianolide from FloridaHelenium autumnale L. Tetrahedron Lett. 2287.Google Scholar
  588. 578.
    -, -,A. T. McPhail, K. D. Onan, T. A. Geissman and T. G. Waddell. 1974. The structure and absolute configuration of plenolin, a cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactone. Tetrahedron Lett. 1149.Google Scholar
  589. 579.
    —,Y. Imakura andD. Sims. 1976. Structure and stereochemistry of microhelenin-A, a new antitumor sesquiterpene lactone fromHelenium microcephalum. J. Pharm. Sci.65: 1410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  590. 580.
    -,-,-,A. T. McPhail and K. D. Onan. 1976. Structure and stereochemistry of microlenin, a novel antitumor dimeric sesquiterpene lactone fromHelenium microcephalum; X-ray crystal structure. Chem. Commun. 341.Google Scholar
  591. 581.
    —————. 1977. Antitumor sesquiterpene lactones fromHelenium microcephalum: Isolation of mexicanin-E and structural characterization of microhelenin-B and -C. Phytochemistry16: 393.Google Scholar
  592. 582.
    —,T. Kimura, M. Haruna, A. T. McPhail, K. D. Onan andH-C. Huang. 1977. Structure and stereochemistry of eupaformosanin, a new antileukemic and antisarcoma germacranolide fromEupatorium formosanum. Phytochemistry16: 1068.Google Scholar
  593. 583.
    -, -,M. Okamoto, C. M. Cowherd, A. T. McPhail and K. D. Onan. 1976. The structure and stereochemistry of eupahyssopin, a new antitumor germacranolide fromEupatorium hyssopifolium. Tetrahedron Lett. 1051.Google Scholar
  594. 584.
    —,S. Matsueda andT. A. Geissman. 1971. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia. New guaianolides from fall growth of A.douglasiana. Phytochemistry10: 405.Google Scholar
  595. 585.
    —,R. F. Simpson andT. A. Geissman. 1969. Sesquiterpenoid lactones ofArtemisia. Constituentsof Artemisia cana ssp.cana. The structure of canin. Phytochemistry8: 1515.Google Scholar
  596. 586.
    Lessing, C. F. 1832. “Synopsis generum Compositarum.” Berolini (1832).Google Scholar
  597. 587.
    LeVan, N. andN. H. Fischer. 1979. Three new melampolide sesquiterpenes. Polymatin A, B and C, fromPolymnia maculata Cav. var.maculata. Phytochemistry18: 851.Google Scholar
  598. 588a.
    Levin, D. C. 1979. The nature of plant species. Science204: 381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  599. 588b.
    Levy, M. 1977. Minimum biosynthetic step indices as measures of comparative flavonoid affinity. Sys. Bot.2: 89.Google Scholar
  600. 589a.
    L’Homme, M. F., T. A. Geissman, H. Yoshioka, T. H. Porter, W. Renold and T. J. Mabry. 1969. The structure of chamissonin. Tetrahedron Lett. 3161.Google Scholar
  601. 589b.
    Lincoln, D. E. andJ. H. Langenheim. 1979. Variation ofSatureja douglasii monoterpenoids in relation to light intensity and herbivory. Biochem. System. Ecol.7: 289.Google Scholar
  602. 590.
    Lucas, R. A., S. Rovinski, R. J. Kiesel, L. Dorfman andH. B. MacPhillamy. 1964. A new sesquiterpene lactone with analgesic activity fromHelenium amarum. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)29: 1549.Google Scholar
  603. 591.
    —,R. G. Smith andL. Dorfman. 1964. The isolation of dihydromexicanin-E fromHelenium autumnale L. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)29: 2101.Google Scholar
  604. 592.
    Lugovskaya, S. A., N. V. Plekhanova, and K. Y. Orovbaev. 1976. Alantolactone fromInula grandis. Khim. Prir. Soedin 110.Google Scholar
  605. 593.
    -,-,-. 1976. Alantolactone and isoalantolactone fromInula grandis Schrenk. Izv. Akad. Nauk, Kirg. SSR. 54; Chem. Abstr.86: 167866z (1977).Google Scholar
  606. 594.
    Mabry, T. J. 1972. Infraspecific variation of sesquiterpene lactones inAmbrosia (Compositae): Applications to evolutionary problems at the populational level. Phytochemical phytogeny. Proc. Phytochem. Soc. Symp.1969: 269.Google Scholar
  607. 595.
    — andF. Bohlmann. 1978. Summary of the chemistry of the Compositae. Page 1097in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  608. 596.
    —,Z. Abdel-Baset, W. G. Padolina andS. B. Jones. 1975. Systematic implications of flavonoids and sesquiterpene lactones in species ofVernonia. Biochem. System. Ecol.2: 185.Google Scholar
  609. 597.
    See Reference No. 596, Literature Cited.Google Scholar
  610. 598.
    — andJ. E. Gill. 1979. Sesquiterpene lactones and other terpenoids. Pages 601in G. A. Rosenthal and D. H. Janzen (eds.). Herbivores: Their interaction with secondary plant metabolites. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  611. 599.
    —,H. B. Kagan andH. E. Miller. 1966. Psilostachyin B, a new sesquiterpene dilactone fromAmbrosia psilostachya DC. Tetrahedron22: 1943.Google Scholar
  612. 600.
    —,H. E. Miller, H. B. Kagan andW. Renold. 1966. The structure of psilostachyin, a new sesquiterpene dilactone fromAmbrosia psilostachya. Tetrahedron22: 1139.Google Scholar
  613. 601.
    —,W. Renold, H. E. Miller andH. B. Kagan. 1966. The structure of ambrosiol. A new sesquiterpene lactone fromAmbrosia psilostachya. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)31: 681.Google Scholar
  614. 602.
    Mahmoud, Z., N. A. Abdel Salam, T. M. Sarg andF. Bohlmann. 1981. A carotane derivative and a eudesmanolide fromInula crithmoides. Phytochemistry20: 735.Google Scholar
  615. 603.
    Manchand, P. S. andJ. F. Blount. 1978. Stereostructures of neurolensins A and B, novel germacranolide sesquiterpenes fromNeurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)43: 4352.Google Scholar
  616. 604.
    Maruyama, M. andS. Omura. 1977. Carpesiolin fromCarpesium abrotanoides. Phytochemistry16: 782.Google Scholar
  617. 605.
    — andF. Shibata. 1975. Stereochemistry of granilin isolated fromCarpesium abrotanoides. Phytochemistry14: 2247.Google Scholar
  618. 606.
    Mathur, S. B. 1972. Composition of PunjabCostus root oil. Phytochemistry11: 449.Google Scholar
  619. 607.
    — andC. M. Fermín. 1973. Terpenes ofMikania mongenansis. Phytochemistry12: 226.Google Scholar
  620. 608.
    —,P. García Tello, C. Marcano Fermín andV. Mora-Arellano. 1975. Terpenoidsof Mikania monagasensis and their biological activities. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.6: 201.Google Scholar
  621. 609.
    —,S. V. Hiremath, G. H. Kulkarni, G. R. Kelkar andS. C. Bhattacharyya. 1965. Terpenoids—LXX. Structure of dehydrocostus lactone. Tetrahedron21: 3575.Google Scholar
  622. 610.
    Matsueda, S. and T. A. Geissman. 1967. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia species. HI. Arglanine fromArtemisia douglasiana Bess. Tetrahedron Lett. 2013.Google Scholar
  623. 611.
    -, and -. 1967. Sesquiterpene lactonesof Artemisia species. IV. Douglanine fromArtemisia douglasiana Bess. Tetrahedron Lett. 2159.Google Scholar
  624. 612.
    -,M. Nagaki, J. Ichita, Y. Masuchi and M. Koreeda. 1979. Structure of meridianone. Abstract Book, ACS-CSJ Chemical Congress, Honolulu. Organic Chemistry Paper 571.Google Scholar
  625. 613.
    —,S. Sato andY. Satomi. 1973. Sesquiterpene lactones IX. Seasonal variation of chemical constitution ofArtemisia feddei collected in Kochi Prefecture. J. Pharm. Soc. Japan93: 922; Chem. Abstr.79: 75928y (1973).Google Scholar
  626. 614.
    Mazur, Y. and A. Meisels. 1956. The structure of arborescine, a new sesquiterpene fromArtemisia arborescens L. Chem. Ind. 492.Google Scholar
  627. 615.
    McMillan, C, P. I. Chávez andT. J. Mabry. 1975. Sesquiterpene lactones ofXanthium strumarium in a Texas population and in experimental hybrids. Biochem. Syst. Ecol.3: 137; Chem. Abstr.84: 56625j (1976).Google Scholar
  628. 616.
    ——,S. G. Plettman andT. J. Mabry. 1975. Systematic implications of the sesquiterpene lactones in the “strumarium” morphological complex (Xanthium strumarium, Asteraceae) of Europe, Asia and Africa. Biochem. System. Ecol.2: 181.Google Scholar
  629. 617.
    McPhail, A. T., P. A. Luhan, K. H. Lee, H. Furukawa, R. Meck, C. Piantadosi and T. Shingu. 1973. Crystal structure of carolenalin monoacetate: Revision of the stereochemistry of carolenalin and carolenin. Tetrahedron Lett. 4087.Google Scholar
  630. 618.
    -,R. W. Miller, B. Mompon and R. Toubiana. 1975. Structure and stereochemistry of vernodesmine, a novel phenyl bearing sesquiterpene lactone fromVernonia pectoralis Baker. Tetrahedron Lett. 3675.Google Scholar
  631. 619.
    — andK. D. Onan. 1976. Crystal and molecular structure of carolenalone, a cycloheptenone sesquiterpene lactone from North CarolinaHelenium autumnale L. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans.II: 332.Google Scholar
  632. 620.
    -, -,H. Furukawa and K. H. Lee. 1975. Structure and stereochemistry of carolenalone, a new sesquiterpene lactone from North CarolinaHelenium autumnale L. Tetrahedron Lett. 1229.Google Scholar
  633. 621.
    -, -,K. H. Lee, T. Ibuka, and H. Ch. Huang. 1974. Structure and stereochemistry of eupaformonin, a novel cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactone fromEupatorium formosanum Hay. Tetrahedron Lett. 3203.Google Scholar
  634. 622.
    -, -, -, -,M. Kozuka, T. Shingu and H. C. Huang. 1974. Structure and stereochemistry of the epoxide of phantomolin, a novel cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactone fromElephantopus mollis. Tetrahedron Lett. 2739.Google Scholar
  635. 623.
    — andG. Sim. 1972. Constitution and absolute stereochemistry of elephantol: X-ray analysis of elephantol p-bromobenzoate. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans.2: 1313.Google Scholar
  636. 624.
    Mears, J. A. 1980. Chemistry of polyploids. A summary with comments onParthenium (Asteraceae-Ambrosiinae). Page 77in W. H. Lewis (ed.). Polyploidy—biological relevance. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  637. 625.
    Mehra, M. M., K. G. Deshpande, B. B. Ghatge andS. C. Bhattacharyya. 1967. Transformation products of alantolactones. Tetrahedron23: 2469.Google Scholar
  638. 626.
    Miller, H. E. andT. J. Mabry. 1967. 3-hydroxydamsin, a new pseudoguaianolide fromAmbrosia psilostachya (Compositae). J. Organ. Chem.32: 2929.Google Scholar
  639. 627.
    ——,B. L. Turner andW. W. Payne. 1968. Infraspecific variation of sesquiterpene lactones inAmbrosia psilostachya (Compositae). Amer. J. Bot.55: 316.Google Scholar
  640. 628.
    Minato, H. and I. Horibe. 1965. Structure and stereochemistry of xanthumin, a stereoisomer of xanthinin. J. Chem. Soc. (London), 7009.Google Scholar
  641. 629.
    -,S. Nosaka and I. Horibe. 1964. The structure of carabrone, a new component ofCarpeslum abrotanoides. Linn. J. Chem. Soc. (London), 5503.Google Scholar
  642. 630.
    Mitchell, D. R. andR. O. Asplund. 1973. Pulchellins C and E inGaillardia aristata. Phytochemistry12: 2541.Google Scholar
  643. 631.
    Mnatsakanyan, V. A. and L. V. Revazova. 1974. Tamarine fromTanacetum chiliophyllum. Khim. Prir. Soedin. 396: Chem. Abstr.82: 13988w (1975).Google Scholar
  644. 632.
    ——. 1974. Phytochemical analysis ofTanacetum myriocophyllum. II. Structure of tanamyrin. Arm. Khim. Zh.27: 208; Chem. Abstr.81: 91747k (1974).Google Scholar
  645. 633.
    ——. 1973. Phytochemical analysis of the plantTanacetum myriophyllum. I. Sesquiterpenic lactones. Arm. Khim. Zh.26: 914; Chem. Abstr. 80: 121134g (1974).Google Scholar
  646. 634.
    Moiseeva, G. P., B. Akyev, S. Z. Kasymov andG. P. Sidyakin. 1973. The structure of the lactones arsanin and arsantin. Khim. Prir. Soedin.9: 167; English ed. p. 162; Chem. Abstr.79: 5470u (1973).Google Scholar
  647. 635.
    Mompon, B., C. M. Ho andR. Toubiana. 1973. Sur la structure du pectorolide, nouvelle lactone sesquiterpenique isolée duVernonia pectoralis Baker. Compt. Rend. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. Series C.276: 1799; Chem. Abstr.79: 105430z (1973).Google Scholar
  648. 636.
    —,G. Massiot andR. Toubiana. 1974. Structure of subluteolide, a new guaianolide isolated fromVernonia sublutea (Compositae). Compt. Rend. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. Ser. C.279: 907; Chem. Abstr.82: 171223x (1975).Google Scholar
  649. 637.
    — andR. Toubiana. 1976. Lactones sesquiterpeniques duVernonia pectoralis Baker (Comp.). Stereochimie du pectorolide, et structure des vernopectolides-A et B. Tetrahedron32: 2545.Google Scholar
  650. 638.
    Morimoto, H., Y. Sanno andH. Oshio. 1966. Chemical studies on heliangine. A new sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the leaves ofHelianthus tuberosus L. Tetrahedron22: 3173.Google Scholar
  651. 639.
    Morishita, H., S. Nakano, I. Satoda and T. Fukui. 1959. Extraction of santonin from a new plant [pentaploid hybrid:Artemisia maritima ssp.monogyna xA. lercheana var.dahurica]. Japan 2296; Chem. Abstr.53: 20707g.Google Scholar
  652. 640.
    -, -, -,and -. 1959. Extraction of santonin with bicarbonate. Japan 2646; Chem. Abstr.53: 18981d (1959).Google Scholar
  653. 641.
    Moriyama, Y. and T. Takahashi. 1976. New sesquiterpene lactones of the eremophilane type fromLigularia fauriei (Fr.) Koidz. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan, 3196; Chem. Abstr.86: 140267t (1977).Google Scholar
  654. 642.
    ——. 1976. New eremophilane-type lactones fromLigularia fauriei (Fr.) Koidz. Chem. Pharm. Bull.24: 360; Chem. Abstr.84: 147721d (1976).Google Scholar
  655. 643.
    Mukhametzhanov, M. N., A. I. Shreter andD. Pakalns. 1969. Stizolycin fromCentaurea solstitialis. Khim. Prir. Soedin.5: 590; Chem. Abstr.73: 73825q (1970).Google Scholar
  656. 644.
    Nagano, H., Y. Moriyama, Y. Tanahashi andT. Takahashi. 1974. New benzofuranosesquiterpenes fromFarfugiumjaponicum. Farfugin A and farfugin B. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan47: 1994.Google Scholar
  657. 645.
    —,Y. Tanahashi, Y. Moriyama andT. Takahashi. 1973. New furanoeremophilane derivatives fromFarfugium japonicum Kitamura. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan46: 2840.Google Scholar
  658. 646.
    Nagumo, S., K. Izawa, K. Higashiyama andM. Nagai. 1980. A bitter principle ofPertya robusta (Maxim.) Beav. Yakugaku Zasshi100: 427.Google Scholar
  659. 647.
    Naidenova, E. andE. Bloshik. 1978. Study of Bulgarian plants for sesquiterpene lactone content. I. Parthenolides inInula aschersonianaIka. var.aschersoniana Staj., Stef. and Kitan. Farmatsiya (Sofia)28: 26; Chem. Abstr.89: 193899u (1978).Google Scholar
  660. 648.
    Nakatani, N., C. Bohnstedt andT. J. Mabry. 1973. The origin ofAmbrosia chamissonis in Chile. Biochem. System.1: 129.Google Scholar
  661. 649a.
    Nano, G. M., A. Martelli andP. Sancin. 1966. Chemical investigations ofArtemisia grown in Piedmont. Riv. Ital. Essenze-Profumi, Piante Offic., Aromi-Saponi, Cosm. Aerosol98: 409; Chem. Abstr.66: 31930v (1967).Google Scholar
  662. 649b.
    Narain, N. K. 1978. Spectroscopic studies of fasciculide B, a new sesquiterpene lactone from the leaves ofVernonia fasciculata Misch. Spectrosc. Letters11: 267.Google Scholar
  663. 650.
    Naya, K., M. Hayashi, I. Takagi, S. Nakamura andM. Kobayashi. 1972. The structural elucidation of sesquiterpene lactones fromPetasites japonicus Maxim. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan45: 3673; Chem. Abstr.78: 124744a (1973).Google Scholar
  664. 651.
    —,R. Kanazawa andM. Sawada. 1975. The photosensitized oxygenation of furanoeremophilanes. I. The isomeric hydroperoxides from petasalbin and their transformations to lactones. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan48: 3220; Chem. Abstr. 84: 90329a (1976).Google Scholar
  665. 652.
    -,M. Kawai, M. Naito and T. Kasai. 1972. Structures of eremofukinone, 9acetoxyfukinanolide and S-japonin fromPetasites japonicus. Chem. Letters, 241.Google Scholar
  666. 653.
    -,Y. Miyoshi, H. Mori, K. Takai and M. Nakanishi. 1976. The sesquiterpenes ofCacalia species. Chem. Lett. 73.Google Scholar
  667. 654.
    -,I. Takagi, M. Hayashi, S. Nakamura, M. Kobayashi and S. Katsumura. 1968. Structures of new skeletal sesquiterpenoids fromPetasites japonicus Maxim. Chem. Ind. 318.Google Scholar
  668. 655.
    Nazarenko, M. V. 1965. Guaianolides of sievers wormwood,Artemisia sieversiana. Zh. Prikl. Khim.38: 2372; Chem. Abstr.64: 3608g (1966).Google Scholar
  669. 656.
    — andL. I. Leont’eva. 1966. Sieversinin, a new sesquiterpenicγ-lactone. Khim. Prir. Soedin.2: 399; Chem. Abstr.67: 32803p (1967).Google Scholar
  670. 657.
    Neshta, I. D. andN. A. Kaloshina. 1972. Leucomisin fromAchillea cartilaginae. Khim. Prir. Soedin.8: 652; English ed. p. 625.Google Scholar
  671. 658.
    -,K. S. Rybalko, O. A. Konovalova and O. F. Ivanenko. 1976. Lactones ofAchillea micrantha andA. vermicularis. Khim. Prir. Soedin. 395; Chem. Abstr. 85: 106653k (1976).Google Scholar
  672. 659.
    Nikonova, L. P. 1973. Lactones ofInula magnifica. Khim. Prir. Soedin.9: 558; English ed. p. 528; Chem. Abstr.80: 45620v (1974).Google Scholar
  673. 660.
    — andG. K. Nikonov. 1972. Granilin—a new lactone fromInula grandis. Khim. Prir. Soedin.8: 289; English ed. p. 286; Chem. Abstr.78: 2009u (1973).Google Scholar
  674. 661.
    ——. 1970. Grandulin and grandicin. New sesquiterpene lactones fromInula grandis. Khim. Prir. Soedin.6: 133; Chem. Abstr.73: 117175j (1970).Google Scholar
  675. 662.
    ——. 1970. Igalan, a new sesquiterpene lactone fromInula grandis. Khim. Prir. Soedin.6: 508.Google Scholar
  676. 663.
    ——. 1976. Sesquiterpene lactones fromLigularia macrophylla andL. thomsonii. Khim. Prir. Soedin.6: 742; Chem. Abstr.86: 1030556 (1977).Google Scholar
  677. 664.
    ——. 1971. Sesquiterpenes of the roots ofInula grandis. Khim. Prir. Soedin.7: 17; English ed. p. 14.Google Scholar
  678. 665.
    Nisikawa, Y., Y. Watanabe, I. Seto andI. Yasuda. 1976. Studies on the components ofAtractylodes. I. New sesquiterpenoids in the rhizomes ofAtractylodes lancea DC. J. Pharm. Soc. Japan96: 1089; Chem. Abstr.85: 192927g (1976).Google Scholar
  679. 666.
    Nordenstam, B. 1978. Senecioneae and Liabeae—systematic review. Page 799in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  680. 667.
    Novikov, V. I., F. N. Forostyan andD. P. Popa. 1970. A sesquiterpene lactone ofCyclachaena xanthifolia, anhydrocoronopilin. Khim. Prir. Soedin.6: 29; Chem. Abstr.73: 45615c (1970).Google Scholar
  681. 668.
    ———. 1969. Structure of the sesquiterpene lactone fromCyclachaena xanthifolia. Khim. Prir. Soedin5: 487; Chem. Abstr.73: 15019u (1970).Google Scholar
  682. 669.
    Novotny, L. andV. Herout. 1962. The composition ofArtemisia sieversiana Willd. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.27: 1508.Google Scholar
  683. 670.
    —— andF. Sôrm. 1964. Constitution of petasalbine, albopetasine and hydroxyeremophilenolide, the components ofPetasites albus L. rhizomes. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.29: 2189.Google Scholar
  684. 671.
    -, -, and -. 1961. Substances fromPetasites officinalis Moench. andPetasites albus (L.). Gaertn. Tetrahedron Lett. 697.Google Scholar
  685. 672.
    ———. 1960. A contribution to the structure of absinthin and anabsinthin. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.25: 1492.Google Scholar
  686. 673.
    ———. 1960. A contribution to stereochemistry of absinthin and artabsin. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.25: 1500.Google Scholar
  687. 674.
    ———. 1964. Constitution of petasitolides and S-petasitolides. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.29: 2182.Google Scholar
  688. 675.
    —,J. Jizba, V. Herout andF. Sôrm. 1962. The constituents of coltsfoot rhizomes (Petasites officinalis Moench.). Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.27: 1393.Google Scholar
  689. 676.
    ————. 1963. Constitution and absolute configuration of eremophilenolide. Tetrahedron19: 1101.Google Scholar
  690. 677.
    —,K. Kotva, J. Toman andV. Herout. 1972. Sesquiterpenes fromPetasites. Phytochemistry11: 2795.Google Scholar
  691. 678.
    —,J. Toman, F. Stary, A Márquez, V. Herout andF. Sôrm. 1966. Contribution to the chemotaxonomy of some EuropeanPetasites species. Phytochemistry5: 1281.Google Scholar
  692. 679.
    —,T. Toman andV. Herout. 1968. Terpenoids of thePetasites paradoxus andPetasites kablikianus in relation to their phylogeny. Phytochemistry7: 1349.Google Scholar
  693. 680.
    Ohno, N., J. Gershenzon, C. Roane andT. J. Mabry. 1980. 11,13-dehydrodesacetylmatricarin and other sesquiterpene lactones fromArtemisia ludoviciana var.ludoviciana and the identity of artecanin and chrysartemin B. Phytochemistry19: 103.Google Scholar
  694. 681.
    —,H. Hirai, H. Yoshioka, X. A. Domínguez andT. J. Mabry. 1973. Cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone fromCentaurea americana. Phytochemistry12: 221.Google Scholar
  695. 682.
    — andT. J. Mabry. 1979. Germacranolides fromHelianthus mollis Lam. Phytochemistry18: 1003.Google Scholar
  696. 683.
    ——. 1980. Sesquiterpene lactones and diterpene carboxylic acids inHelianthus niveus subspeciescanescens. Phytochemistry19: 609.Google Scholar
  697. 684.
    —,S. McCormick andT. J. Mabry. 1979. Centratherin, a new germacranolide fromCentratherum punctatum. Phytochemistry18: 681.Google Scholar
  698. 685.
    Olivier, E. J., D. L. Perry andN. H. Fischer. 1980. Two new germacranolides fromMelampodium leucanthum and their reductive and oxidative rearrangements. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)45: 4028.Google Scholar
  699. 686.
    Ortega, A., C. Guerrero andJ. Romo. 1973. Structure of zexbrevin D. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.4: 91; Chem. Abstr.81: 142429g (1974).Google Scholar
  700. 687.
    ——,A. Romo de Vivar, J. Romo andA. Palafox. 1971. La orizabina y la zexbrevina B, nuevos germacranólidos furánicos. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.2: 38.Google Scholar
  701. 688.
    —,R. Lara, R. Martínez andE. Díaz. 1980. Sphaerocephalin, a germacranolide isolated fromViguiera sphaerocephala. Phytochemistry19: 1545.Google Scholar
  702. 689.
    —,A. Romo de Vivar andJ. Romo. 1968. Odoratin: A new pseudoguaianolide isolated fromHymenoxys odorata DC. Canad. J. Chem.46: 1539.Google Scholar
  703. 690.
    ——,E. Diaz andJ. Romo. 1970. Determinación de las estructuras de la calaxina y de la ciliarina, nuevos germacranólidos furanónicos. Rev. Latinoamer. Quim.1: 81.Google Scholar
  704. 691.
    —,C. Vargas, C. Guerrero andA. Romo de Vivar. 1973. Los componentes deZexmenia brevifolia. III. Estructura de zexbrevina C. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.4: 1.Google Scholar
  705. 692.
    Osawa, T., A. Suzuki, S. Tamura, Y. Ohashi and Y. Sasada. 1973. Structure of chlorochrymorin, a novel sesquiterpene lactone fromChrysanthemum morifolium. Tetrahedron Lett. 5135.Google Scholar
  706. 693.
    -,D. Taylor, A. Suzuki and S. Tamura. 1977. Revised structure and stereochemistry of chrysartemin B. Tetrahedron Lett. 1169.Google Scholar
  707. 694.
    Padolina, W. G., N. Nakatani, H. Yoshioka, T. J. Mabry andS. A. Monti. 1974. Marginatin, a new germacranolide fromVernonia species. Phytochemistry13: 2225.Google Scholar
  708. 695.
    —,H. Yoshioka, N. Nakatani, T. J. Mabry, S. A. Monti, R. E. Davis, P. J. Cox, G. A. Sim, W. H. Watson andI. Beth Wu. 1974. Glaucolide-A and -B, new germacranolide-type sesquiterpene lactones fromVernonia (Compositae). Tetrahedron30: 1161.Google Scholar
  709. 696.
    Pal, R., D. K. Kulshreshtha and R. P. Rastogi. 1976. Chemical constituents ofTithonia tagitiflora Desf. 1976. Constitution of tagitinin A. Indian J. Chem. Sect. B14B: 259.Google Scholar
  710. 697.
    ———. 1976. Chemical constituents ofTithonia tagitiflora Desf. Structure of tagitinin-B by application of homonuclear indor spectroscopy. Indian J. Chem. Sect. B14B: 77.Google Scholar
  711. 698.
    ———. 1976. Antileukemic and other constituents ofTithonia tagitiflora Desf. J. Pharm. Sci.65: 918; Chem. Abstr.85: 72205y (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  712. 699.
    ———. 1977. Chemical constituents ofTithonia tagitiflora Desf. Part IV. Tagitinins C, D and F. Indian J. Chem. Sect. B15B: 208.Google Scholar
  713. 700.
    Papano, G. Y., P. Y. Malakov andF. Bohlmann. 1980. 8-β-hydroxydihydroperemanthin—ein neues Guajanolide ausInula aschersoniana. Phytochemistry19: 152.Google Scholar
  714. 701.
    Parker, B. A. andT. A. Geissman. 1962. The sesquiterpenoid lactones ofHelenium bigelovii Gray. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)27: 4127.Google Scholar
  715. 702.
    Payne, W. W. 1962. Biosystematic studies of four wide-spread weedy species of ragweeds (Ambrosia: Compositae). Ph.D. Thesis. University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  716. 703.
    —. 1964. A re-evaluation of the genusAmbrosia (Compositae). J. Arnold Arbor.45: 401.Google Scholar
  717. 704.
    —. 1976. Biochemistry and species problems inAmbrosia (Asteraceae-Ambrosieae). Plant Syst. Evol.125: 169.Google Scholar
  718. 705.
    —,T. A. Geissman, A. J. Lucas andT. Saitoh. 1973. Chemosystematics and taxonomyof Ambrosia chamissonis. Biochem. System.1: 21.Google Scholar
  719. 706.
    Pennuri, E. andC. Steelink. 1962. Chamazulene fromArtemisia carruthii. J. Pharm. Sci.51: 598; Chem. Abstr.57: 6021. (1962).Google Scholar
  720. 707.
    Perry, D. L., D. M. Desiderio andN. H. Fischer. 1978. Mass spectra of germacranolide type sesquiterpene dilactones and derivatives. Org. Mass Spectr.13: 325.Google Scholar
  721. 708.
    — andN. H. Fischer. 1975. New germacranolide sesquiterpene dilactones from the genusMelampodium (Compositae). J. Organ. Chem. (USA)40: 3480.Google Scholar
  722. 709.
    Persson, K. 1974. Biosystematic studies in theArtemisia maritima complex in Europe. Opera Bot.35: 188.Google Scholar
  723. 710.
    Pettersen, R. C. and H. L. Kim. 1976. X-ray structures of hymenoxon and hymenolane: Pseudoguaianolides isolated fromHymenoxys odorata DC. (bitterweed). J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. II: 1399.Google Scholar
  724. 711.
    Pettit, G. R., C. L. Herald, D. Gust, D. L. Herald andL. D. Vanell. 1978. Antineoplastic agents. 55. Isolation and structure of multigilin and multistatin. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)43: 1092.Google Scholar
  725. 712.
    Pieman, A. K., R. H. Elliott andG. H. N. Towers. 1978. Insect feeding deterrent property of alantolactone. Biochem. System. Ecol.6: 333.Google Scholar
  726. 713.
    —,G. H. N. Towers andP. V. Subba Rao. 1980. Coronopilin—another major sesquiterpene lactone inParthenium hysterophorus. Phytochemistry19: 2206.Google Scholar
  727. 714.
    Poljakov, P. P. 1961. Systematic studies in the genusArtemisia L. Trudy Inst. Bot. Akad. Nauk. Kasakh., SSR Alma Ata11: 134.Google Scholar
  728. 715.
    Poplawski, J., M. Holub, Z. Samek andV. Herout. 1971. Arnicolides—sesquiterpeneic lactones from the leaves ofArnica montana L. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.36: 2189.Google Scholar
  729. 716.
    Popova, A. I., K. S. Rybalko and R. I. Evstratova. 1974. Sesquiterpene lactones fromArtemisia lagocephala, Artemisia schrenkiana andGrossheimia ossica. Khim. Prir. Soedin. 528; Chem. Abstr.82: 28594p (1975).Google Scholar
  730. 717.
    Porter, T. H. andT. J. Mabry. 1969. Sesquiterpene lactones. Constituents ofAmbrosia artemisiifolia L. (Compositae). Phytochemistry8: 793.Google Scholar
  731. 718.
    ——,H. Yoshioka andN. H. Fisher. 1970. The isolation and structure determination of artemisiifolin, a new germacranolide fromAmbrosia artemisiifolia L. (Compositae). Phytochemistry9: 199.Google Scholar
  732. 719.
    Potter, J. 1970. Origin of the Texas Gulf Coast island populations ofAmbrosia psilostachya DC. (Compositae): A biochemical and numerical systematic investigation. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
  733. 720.
    — andT. J. Mabry. 1972. Origin of the Texas Gulf Coast island populations ofAmbrosia psilostachya: A numerical study using terpenoid data. Phytochemistry11: 715.Google Scholar
  734. 721.
    Power, F. B. and H. Browning. 1914. The constituents of the flowers ofAnthemis nobilis. J. Chem. Soc. (London) 1829.Google Scholar
  735. 722.
    Prochazka, V., Z. Cekan andR. B. Bates. 1963. Structure of globicin, a guaianolide fromMatricaria globifera (Thunb.) Druce. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.28: 1202.Google Scholar
  736. 723.
    Quijano, L., J. S. Calderón, F. Gómez G. andT. Ríos. 1979. Montafrusin, a new germacrolide fromMontanoa frutescens. Phytochemistry18: 843.Google Scholar
  737. 724.
    ———,J. T. Garduno andT. Ríos C. 1980. Deltoidin A and B, two new germacrolides fromEupatorium deltoideum. Phytochemistry19: 1975.Google Scholar
  738. 725.
    —,D. Bloomenstiel andN. H. Fischer. 1979. Tetraludin A, B and C, three new melampolides fromTetragonotheca ludoviciana. Phytochemistry18: 1529.Google Scholar
  739. 726.
    — andN. H. Fischer. 1981. Melfusin, a new germacrolide fromMelampodium diffusum (Compositae, Heliantheae). J. Nat. Prod.44: 266.Google Scholar
  740. 727.
    —,E. J. Olivier andN. H. Fischer. 1980. Tetraludin D to N, eleven new melampolides fromTetragonotheca ludoviciana. Phytochemistry19: 1485.Google Scholar
  741. 728.
    —,A. Romo de Vivar andT. Ríos. 1978.Calea zacatechichi components. Structure of calein A and B. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.9: 86.Google Scholar
  742. 729.
    ———. 1979. Revision of the structures of caleine A and B, germacranoline sesquiterpenes fromCalea zacatechichi. Phytochemistry18: 1745.Google Scholar
  743. 730.
    —,A. Ortega, T. Rios andA. Romo de Vivar. 1975. Estructura de las zinaflorinas, nuevas lactonas sesquiterpénicas, aisladas deZinnia pauciflora L. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.6: 94.Google Scholar
  744. 731.
    Quirishi, M. A., K. L. Dhar andC. K. Atal. 1980. A new sesquiterpene lactone fromInula royleana roots. Pl. Med.38: 282.Google Scholar
  745. 732.
    Raghaven, R., K. R. Ravindranath, G. K. Trivedi, S. K. Pakmikar andS. C. Bhattacharyya. 1969. Inunolide—a new sesquiterpene lactone fromInula racemosa root. Indian J. Chem.7: 310; Chem. Abstr.70: 115345 (1969).Google Scholar
  746. 733.
    Raffauf, R. F., P. K. C. Huang, P. W. LeQuesne, S. B. Levery andT. F. Brennan. 1975. Eremantholide A, a novel tumor-inhibiting compound fromEremanthus elaeagus Schultz-Bip. (Compositae). J. Amer. Chem. Soc.97: 6884.Google Scholar
  747. 734.
    Rao, A. S., G. R. Kelkar andS. C. Bhattacharyya. 1960. The structure of costunolide, a new sesquiterpene lactone fromCostus-root oil. Tetrahedron9: 275.Google Scholar
  748. 735a.
    —,A. P. Sadgopal andS. C. Bhattacharyya. 1961. Structure of saussurea lactone. Tetrahedron13: 319.Google Scholar
  749. 735b.
    Raszeja, W. andSt. Gill. 1977. Isolation and identification of psilostachyin B fromAmbrosia artemisiifolia L. Pl. Med.32: 319.Google Scholar
  750. 736.
    Ravindranath, K. R., S. K. Paknikar, G. K. Trivedi andS. C. Bhattacharyya. 1978. Structure and stereochemistry of inunolide, dihydroinunolide and neoalantolactone. Ind. J. Chem.16B: 27.Google Scholar
  751. 737.
    Renold, W. 1970. The chemistry and infraspecific variation of sesquiterpene lactones inAmbrosia confertiflora DC. (Compositae): A chemosystematic study at the populational level. Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
  752. 738.
    —,H. Yoshioka andT. J. Mabry. 1970. Chihuahuin, a new germacranolide fromAmbrosia confertiflora DC. (Compositae). J. Organ. Chem. (USA)35: 4264.Google Scholar
  753. 739.
    Revazova, L. V., P. V. Chugunov andD. Pakaln. 1970. Deacetylmatricarin fromArtemisia incana. Khim. Prir. Soedin.6: 372; Chem. Abstr.73: 117180g (1970).Google Scholar
  754. 740.
    Rios, T., A. Romo de Vivar andJ. Romo. 1967. Stevin, a new pseudoguaianolide isolated fromStevia rhombifolia HBK. Tetrahedron23: 4265.Google Scholar
  755. 741.
    Robins, D. J. 1978. Senecioneae—chemical review. Page 831in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  756. 742.
    Robinson, H. 1978. Studies in the Heliantheae (Asteraceae). XII. Re-establishment of the genusSmallanthus. Phytologia39: 47.Google Scholar
  757. 743.
    -. 1981. A revision of the tribal and subtribal limits of the Heliantheae. Smith. Cont. to Bot. No. 51.Google Scholar
  758. 744.
    —,F. Bohlmann andR. M. King. 1980. Chemosystematic notes on the Asteraceae III. Natural subdivisions of the Vernonieae. Phytologia46: 421.Google Scholar
  759. 745.
    — andR. M. King. 1978. Eupatorieae—systematic review. Page 437in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 1. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  760. 746.
    Rodríguez, E. 1975. The chemistry and distribution of sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids inParthenium (Compositae): Systematic and ecological implications. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
  761. 747.
    — andT. J. Mabry. 1978. Tageteae—chemical review. Page 786in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  762. 748.
    —,G. H. N. Towers andJ. C. Mitchell. 1976. Biological activities of sesquiterpene lactones. Phytochemistry15: 1573.Google Scholar
  763. 749.
    —,H. Yoshioka andT. J. Mabry. 1972. Sesquiterpene lactone chemistry ofParthenium fruticosum andP. schottii. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.2: 184; Chem. Abstr.76: 153956k (1972).Google Scholar
  764. 750.
    ———. 1971. The sesquiterpene lactone chemistry of the genusParthenium (Compositae). Phytochemistry10: 1145.Google Scholar
  765. 751.
    Rodríguez-Hahn, L., A. Guzmán andJ. Romo. 1968. Constituents ofCacalia decomposita IV. Structure and decomposition Tetrahedron24: 477.Google Scholar
  766. 752.
    — andJ. Rodríguez. 1972. Resinone, anew triterpene fromFlourensia resinosa. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.4: 148; Chem. Abstr.79: 15861m (1973).Google Scholar
  767. 753.
    Romanuk, M., V. Herout andF. Sôrm. 1956. The constitution of dehydrocostuslactone. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.21: 894.Google Scholar
  768. 754.
    Romo, J., P. Joseph-Nathan andF. Díaz. 1964. The constituents ofHelenium aromaticum (Hook.) Bailey. The structures of aromatin and aromaticin. Tetrahedron20: 79.Google Scholar
  769. 755.
    ——,A. Romo de Vivar andC. Alvarez. 1967. The structure of peruvinin, a pseudoguaianolide isolated fromAmbrosia peruviana Willd. Tetrahedron23: 529.Google Scholar
  770. 756.
    —— andG. Siade. 1966. The structure of cumanin, a constituent ofAmbrosia cumanensis. Tetrahedron22: 1499.Google Scholar
  771. 757.
    —,T. Rios andL. Quijano. 1968. Ligustrin, a guaianolide isolated fromEupatorium ligustrinum DC. Tetrahedron24: 6087.Google Scholar
  772. 758.
    — andL. Rodríguez-Hahn. 1970. Canambrin, a new sesquiterpene dilactone fromAmbrosia canescens. Phytochemistry9: 1611.Google Scholar
  773. 759.
    —,A. Romo de Vivar andE. Díaz. 1968. The guaianolides ofAmbrosia cumanensis HBK. The structures of cumambrins A and B. Tetrahedron24: 5625.Google Scholar
  774. 760.
    —— andM. Aguilar. 1969. Natural products from Compositae species. Neohelenalin. Bol. Inst. Quím. Univ. Nac. Autón. Mexico21: 66.Google Scholar
  775. 761.
    -,-, andP. Joseph-Nathan. 1966. The structure of mexicanin H. Tetrahedron Lett. 1029.Google Scholar
  776. 762.
    ———. 1967. The constituents ofZaluzania augusta. The structures of zaluzanins A and B. Tetrahedron23: 29.Google Scholar
  777. 763.
    —— andW. Herz. 1963. Constituents ofHelenium species. XIV. The structure of mexicanin E. Tetrahedron19: 2317.Google Scholar
  778. 764.
    ——,A. Ortega, E. Díaz andM. A. Carino. 1971. Las estructuras de la zinarosina y de la dihydrozinarosina, componentes de laZinnia acerosa (DC.) Gray. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím2: 24.Google Scholar
  779. 765.
    ——,R. Trevino, P. Joseph-Nathan andE. Díaz. 1970. Constituents ofArtemisia andChrysanthemum species. The structure of chrysartemins A and B. Phytochemistry9: 1615.Google Scholar
  780. 766.
    ——,A. Vélez andE. Urbina. 1968. Franserin and confertin: New pseudoguaianolides isolated fromFranseria andAmbrosia species. Canad. J. Chem.146: 1535.Google Scholar
  781. 767.
    — andH. Tello. 1972. Estudio de laArtemisia mexicana. Armexina, un nuevo santanólido cuya lactona posee fusión cis. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.3: 122; Chem. Abstr.78: 121339m (1973).Google Scholar
  782. 768.
    Romo de Vivar, A., M. Aguilar, H. Yoshioka, E. Rodríguez, A. Higo, J. A. Mears andT. J. Mabry. 1970. New pseudoguaianolides fromParthenium confertum Gray (Compositae). Tetrahedron26: 2775.Google Scholar
  783. 769.
    —,E. Bratoeff, E. Ontiveros, D. C. Lankin andN. S. Bhacca. 1980. Viguilenin, a germacranolide fromViguiera linearis. Phytochemistry19: 1795.Google Scholar
  784. 770.
    —,E. A. Bratoeff andT. Ríos. 1966. Structure of hysterin, a new sesquiterpene lactone. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)31: 673.Google Scholar
  785. 771.
    —,A. Cabrera, A. Ortega andJ. Romo. 1967. Constituents ofZaluzania species—II. Structures of zaluzanin C and zaluzanin D. Tetrahedron23: 3903.Google Scholar
  786. 772.
    —,G. Delgado, C. Guerrero, J. Resendiz andA. Ortega. 1978. Estudio de viguieras. Estructura de la viguiepinina y correción de la viguiestenina. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.9: 171.Google Scholar
  787. 773.
    — andG. González. 1971. Aislamiento de la lactona dihydrocostus. Preparación de espiroepóxidos de lactonas sesquiterpénicas. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.2: 142; Chem. Abstr.76: 46326h (1972).Google Scholar
  788. 774.
    —,C. Guerrero andG. Wittgreen. 1970. Los terpenoides deParthenium incanum HBK. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.1: 39; Chem. Abstr.74: 88165u (1971).Google Scholar
  789. 775.
    ——,E. Díaz, E. A. Bratoeff andL. Jiménez. 1976. The germacranolides ofViguiera buddleiaeformis. Structures of budlein A and B. Phytochemistry15: 525.Google Scholar
  790. 776.
    ——— andA. Ortega. 1970. Structure and stereochemistry of zexbrevin A3 (2H) furanone germacranolide. Tetrahedron26: 1657.Google Scholar
  791. 777.
    —— andG. Wittgreen. 1970. Terpenoids fromParthenium incanum HBK. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.1: 39; Chem. Abstr.74: 88165u (1971).Google Scholar
  792. 778.
    ——. 1965. Structure of santamarine, a new sesquiterpene lactone. Tetrahedron21: 1741.Google Scholar
  793. 779.
    — andA. Ortega. 1969. Structures of bahia-I and bahia-II, two new guaianolides. Canad. J. Chem.47: 2849.Google Scholar
  794. 780.
    —,A. L. Pérez, H. Flores, L. Rodríguez-Hahn andM. Jiménez. 1978. Confertdiolide, a novel sesquiterpenoid lactone fromParthenium. Phytochemistry17: 279.Google Scholar
  795. 781.
    —,L. Rodríguez-Hahn, J. Romo, M. V. Lakshmikantham, R. N. Mirrington, J. Kagan andW. Herz. 1966. Constituents ofHelenium species—XIX. Further transformations of helenalin and its congeners. The 1-epihelanalin and 1-epiambrosin series. Tetrahedron22: 3279.Google Scholar
  796. 782.
    -and J. Romo. 1959. Constituents ofHelenium mexicanum HBK. Chem. Ind. 882.Google Scholar
  797. 783.
    —,F. Vázquez andC. Zetina. 1977. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia mexicana var.angustifolia. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.8: 127.Google Scholar
  798. 784.
    Rosenthal, G. A. andE. A. Bell. 1979. Naturally-occurring toxic non-protein amino acids. Page 353in G. A. Rosenthal and D. H. Janzen (eds.). Herbivores: Their interaction with secondary plant metabolites. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  799. 785.
    Ruban, G., V. Zabel, K. H. Gensch andH. Smalla. 1978. The crystal structure and absolute configuration of lactucin. Acta Crystall. B34: 1163.Google Scholar
  800. 786.
    Rüesch, H. andT. J. Mabry. 1969. The isolation and structure of tetraneurin A, a new pseudoguaianolide fromParthenium alpinum var.tetraneuris (Compositae). Tetrahedron25: 805.Google Scholar
  801. 787.
    Rustaiyan, A. andL. Nazarians. 1977. Isolation of the sesquiterpene lactone deacetoxymatricarin fromAchillea eriophora DC. Fitoterapia48: 175.Google Scholar
  802. 788.
    —— andF. Bohlmann. 1979. Two new germacranolides fromOnopordon leptolepis DC. Phytochemistry18: 883.Google Scholar
  803. 789.
    ———. 1979. Two new elemanolides fromOnopordon leptolepis. Phytochemistry18: 879.Google Scholar
  804. 790.
    ———. 1980. Germacranolides fromErlangea cordifolia. Phytochemistry19: 1230.Google Scholar
  805. 791.
    ———. 1981. Guaianolides fromAcroptilon repens. Phytochemistry20: 1152.Google Scholar
  806. 792.
    —,A. Niknejad, F. Bohlmann andA. Schuster. 1981. A guaianolide fromJurinea carduiformis. Phytochemistry20: 1154.Google Scholar
  807. 793.
    —— andL. Nazarians. 1978. Isolation and structure determination of naturally-occurring sesquiterpene lactone from Compositae. Pazhoohandeh (Tehran)21: 183; Chem. Abstr.92: 143262x (1980).Google Scholar
  808. 794.
    Ruzicka, L., P. Pieth, T. Reichstein andL. Ehinann. 1933. Zur Kenntnis der Alantolactone. Synthese des l,4-dimethyl-6-isopropyl und des 1,5-dimethyl-7-isopropylnaphthalins. Helv. Chim. Acta16: 268.Google Scholar
  809. 795.
    Rybalko, K. S. 1965. Isolation of mibulactone fromArtemisia taurica. Khim. Prir. Soedin. 142; Chem. Abstr.63: 6786f (1965).Google Scholar
  810. 796.
    — andL. Dolejs. 1961. Structure of tauremisin, a sesquiterpenic lactone of santonine type fromArtemisia taurica Willd. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.26: 2909.Google Scholar
  811. 797.
    —,O. A. Konovalova, N. D. Orishchenko andA. L. Shreter. 1976. Lactones of some species of the genusSaussurea DC. Rastit. Resur.12: 387; Chem. Abstr. 85: 174252d (1976).Google Scholar
  812. 798.
    -, -,and E. F. Petrova. 1976. Orientin, a new sesquiterpene lactone fromSigesbeckia orientalis. Khim. Prir. Soedin. 394; Chem. Abstr.85: 124182k (1976).Google Scholar
  813. 799.
    —,P. S. Massagetov andR. I. Evstratova. 1963. Sesquiterpene lactones from some forms of wormwood. Med. Prom., SSSR17: 41; Chem. Abstr.59: 11888d (1963).Google Scholar
  814. 800.
    Rydberg, P. A. 1927. Carduaceae (Carduales). Liabeae, Neurolaeneae, Senecioneae (Pars.). N. Amer. F1.34: 289.Google Scholar
  815. 801.
    Saitoh, T., T. A. Geissman, T. G. Waddell, W. Herz andS. V. Bhat. 1971. Sesquiterpene lactones ofEriophyllum confertiflorum (DC.) Gray. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.2: 69; Chem. Abstr.75: 129952q (1971).Google Scholar
  816. 802.
    Saleh, A. A., G. A. Cordell and N. R. Farnsworth. 1977. Acanthamolide, a melampolide amide fromAcanthospermum glabratum (Compositae). Chem. Commun. 376.Google Scholar
  817. 803.
    Salmon, M., E. Díaz andA. Ortega. 1973. Christinine, a new epoxyguaianolide fromStevia serrata Cav. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)38: 1759.Google Scholar
  818. 804.
    —,A. Ortega andE. Díaz. 1975. Structure and stereochemistry of a new germacrane sesquiterpene lactone. Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.6: 45; Chem. Abstr.83: 193528y (1975).Google Scholar
  819. 805.
    Salo, D. P., M. M. Pashehenko, G. P. Pivenko, I. N. Matvienko andA. D. Avdenin. 1973. Medicinal forms from the plant ofXanthium riparium and preliminary data of their experimental study. Farm. Zh. (Kiev)28: 68; Chem. Abstr.79: 27209t (1973).Google Scholar
  820. 806.
    Samek, Z., M. Holub, B. Drozdz, G. Jommi, A. Corbella and P. Gariboldi. 1971. Sesquiterpenic lactones of theCynara scolymus L. species. Tetrahedron Lett. 4775.Google Scholar
  821. 807.
    ——,H. Grabarczyk, B. Drozdz andV. Herout. 1973. Structure of sesquiterpenic lactones fromTanacetum vulgare L. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.38: 1971.Google Scholar
  822. 808.
    —————. 1977. The structure of hydroxyisonobilin—a cytostatically active sesquiterpene lactone from the leaves ofAnthemis nobilis L. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.42: 1065.Google Scholar
  823. 809.
    -, -,V. Herout and F. Sôrm. 1969. Revision of the structure of cnicin. Tetrahedron Lett. 2931.Google Scholar
  824. 810.
    ——,V. J. Novikov, J. N. Forostjan andD. P. Popa. 1970. The structure of ivoxanthin, a sesquiterpenic lactone fromCyclachaena xanthifolia Fresen. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.35: 3818.Google Scholar
  825. 811.
    -, -,U. Rychlewska. H. Grabarczyk and B. Drozdz. 1979. Germacral(10),4-diene-cis-6,12-olides: A novel stereochemical group of natural sesquiterpene lactones fromUrsinia anthemoides (L.) Poiret. Tetrahedron Lett. 2691.Google Scholar
  826. 812.
    —,J. Harmatha, L. Novotny andF. Sôrm. 1969. Terpenes. CCII. Absolute configuration of adenostylone, neoadenostylone and isoadenostylone fromAdenostyles alliarieae and of decomposistine fromCacalia decomposisita. Coll. Czech. Chem. Comm.34: 2792; Chem. Abstr.71: 91676e (1969).Google Scholar
  827. 813.
    —,M. Holub, E. Bloszyk, B. Drozdz andV. Herout. 1975. Relative and absolute configuration of the sesquiterpenic lactone erivanin. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.40: 2676.Google Scholar
  828. 814.
    ——,B. Drozdz andH. Grabarczyk. 1977. Arctolide, a new sesquiterpenic lactone fromArctotis grandis Thunb. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.42: 2217.Google Scholar
  829. 815.
    ———— andB. Hladon. 1977. Xerantholide—a new cytotoxically active sesquiterpene lactone fromXeranthenum cylindraceum. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.42: 2441.Google Scholar
  830. 816.
    ——,K. Vokac, B. Drozdz, G. Jommi, P. Gariboldi andA. Corbella. 1972. The structure of grosheimin. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.37: 2611.Google Scholar
  831. 817.
    Sánches Parareda, I., J. Sánches Parareda andJ. M. Viguera. 1968. Stenophyllolide, a new sesquiterpene lactone. An. Chim.64: 633; Chem. Abstr.70: 37933c (1969).Google Scholar
  832. 818.
    Sánchez-Viesca, F. andJ. Romo. 1963. Estafiatin, a new sesquiterpene lactone isolated fromArtemisia mexicana (Willd.). Tetrahedron19: 1285.Google Scholar
  833. 819.
    Satoda, I., N. Yoshidaand E. Yoshii. 1960. Extraction of lumisantonin fromArtemisia plants. Japan 4127; Chem. Abstr.54: 23213b (1960).Google Scholar
  834. 820.
    ———. 1959. Isolation of lumisantonin fromArtemisia kurramensis. J. Pharm. Soc. Japan79: 267; Chem. Abstr.53: 11532h (1959).Google Scholar
  835. 821.
    Schenck, G., H. Graf andW. Schreber. 1939. Bitter substances from the latex ofLactuca virosa. Isolation of lactucin and lactucopicrin. Arch. Pharm. Deutsch.277: 137.Google Scholar
  836. 822.
    Schneider, G. andK. Thiele. 1974. Properties and determination of the bitter principle cynaropicrin inCynara. Pl. Med.25: 149; Chem. Abstr.81: 35534b (1974).Google Scholar
  837. 823.
    ——. 1974. Distribution of the bitter principle cynaropicrin inCynara. Pl. Med.26: 174; Chem. Abstr.82: 54198g (1975).Google Scholar
  838. 824.
    Schulz, K. H., B. M. Hausen, L. Wallhoefer andP. Schmidt-Loeffler. 1975. Chrysanthemum allergy. Experimental studies on the causative agents. Arch. Dermatol. Forsch.251: 235; Chem. Abstr.82: 110222z (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  839. 825.
    Seaman, F. C. 1976. A comparative phytochemical study of ten Sonoran Desert speciesof Ambrosia (Asteraceae). Doctoral Thesis. University of Texas at Austin.Google Scholar
  840. 826.
    — andN. H. Fischer. 1978. Longipilin, a new melampolide fromMelampodium longipilum (Heliantheae, Compositae). Phytochemistry17: 2131.Google Scholar
  841. 827.
    ——. 1979. Longipin, a new melampolide fromMelampodium longipes (Heliantheae, Compositae). Phytochemistry18: 1065.Google Scholar
  842. 828.
    ——. 1980. Six new melampolides fromTetragonotheca helianthoides. Phytochemistry19: 583.Google Scholar
  843. 829.
    ——. 1980. New germacrolideand heliangolide-type sesquiterpene lactones fromMelampodium linearilobum. Phytochemistry19: 849.Google Scholar
  844. 830.
    —— andT. F. Stuessy. 1980. Systematic implication of sesquiterpene lactones in the subtribe Melampodiinae. Biochem. System. Ecol.8: 263.Google Scholar
  845. 831.
    —,G. P. Juneau, D. R. di Feo, S. Jungk andN. H. Fischer. 1979. Repandin A, B, C and D, four new germacranolides fromTetragonotheca repanda (Compositae). J. Organ. Chem. (USA)44: 3400.Google Scholar
  846. 832.
    — andT. J. Mabry. 1979. Sesquiterpene lactones of diploid and tetraploidAmbrosia camphorata. Biochem. System. Ecol.7: 3.Google Scholar
  847. 833.
    ——. 1979. Sesquiterpene lactone patterns in diploid and polyploidAmbrosia dumosa. Biochem. System. Ecol.7: 7.Google Scholar
  848. 834.
    ——. 1979. Dumosin, a new secoambrosanolide fromAmbrosia dumosa (Gray) Payne (Compositae). Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.10: 85.Google Scholar
  849. 835.
    ——. 1979. Sesquiterpene lactones and species relationships among the shrubbyAmbrosia taxa. Biochem. System. Ecol.7: 105.Google Scholar
  850. 836.
    Segal, R., S. Sokoloff, B. Haran, D. V. Zaitschek andD. Lichtenberg. 1977. New sesquiterpene lactones fromArtemisia herba-alba. Phytochemistry16: 1237.Google Scholar
  851. 837.
    Seigler, D. S., D. H. Wilken andJ. J. Jakupeak. 1974. Chemical data related to the tribal affinities ofHulsea andArnica. Biochem. System. Ecol.2: 21.Google Scholar
  852. 838.
    Semmler, F. W. andJ. Feldstein. 1914. Zur Kenntnis der Bestandteile der Ätherischen Öle (Über das Vorkommen einer Säure C15H22O2 und Zweier Lactone C15H22O2 und C15H20O2 im Costuswurzelöl). Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges.47: 2433.Google Scholar
  853. 839.
    Serkerov, S. V. 1977. A study of badkhyzinin. Khim. Prir. Soedin.13: 787; English ed. p. 663.Google Scholar
  854. 840.
    —,R. M. Abbasov andA. N. Aleskerova. 1976. Sesquiterpene lactones fromArtemisia hanseniana. Khim. Prir. Soedin.12: 661; Chem. Abstr.86: 103081g (1977).Google Scholar
  855. 841.
    — andA. N. Aleskerova. 1978. The structure of a sesquiterpene lactone fromArtemisia fragrans. Khim. Prir. Soedin.14: 75; English ed. p. 59.Google Scholar
  856. 842.
    Shafizadeh, F. andN. R. Bhadane. 1972. Sesquiterpene lactones of sagebrush. New guaianolides fromArtemisia cana ssp.viscidula. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)37: 3168.Google Scholar
  857. 843.
    ——. 1972. Badgerin, a new germacranolide fromArtemisia arbuscula spp.arbuscula. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)37: 274.Google Scholar
  858. 844.
    ——. 1973. Sesquiterpene lactones ofArtemisia arbuscula andA. tridentata. Phytochemistry12: 857.Google Scholar
  859. 845.
    —— andR. G. Kelsey. 1974. Sesquiterpene lactones of sagebrush. Constituents ofArtemisia tripartita. Phytochemistry13: 669.Google Scholar
  860. 846.
    ——,M. S. Morris, R. G. Kelsey andS. N. Khanna. 1971. Sesquiterpene lactones of big sagebrush. Phytochemistry10: 2745.Google Scholar
  861. 847.
    Sham’yanov, I. D., A. Mallabaev, V. Rakhmankulov andG. P. Sidyakin. 1976. Sesquiterpene lactones ofSaussurea elegans. Khim. Prir. Soedin.12: 819; Chem. Abstr.86: 136305m (1977).Google Scholar
  862. 848.
    —— andG. P. Sidyakin. 1978. Structure of the sesquiterpene lactone elegin. Khim. Prir. Soedin.14: 442; Chem. Abstr.89: 197740h (1978).Google Scholar
  863. 849.
    Shibata, H. andS. Shimizu. 1978. Three chemovars ofPetasites japonicus Maxim. Agric. Biol. Chem.42: 1427; Chem. Abstr.89: 193827u (1978).Google Scholar
  864. 850.
    Shirahata, K., T. Kato, Y. Kitahara andN. Abe. 1969. Constituents of genusPetasites. Bakkenolide-A, a sesquiterpene of novel carbon skeleton. Tetrahedron25: 3179.Google Scholar
  865. 851.
    Silva, M. 1967. Constituents ofHelenium plantagineum. J. Pharm. Sci.56: 922; Chem. Abstr.67: 51040d (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  866. 852.
    Sims, J. J. andK. A. Berryman. 1972. Virginin. A sesquiterpene lactone fromEncelia virginensis. Phytochemistry11: 444.Google Scholar
  867. 853.
    Simonovic, D. M., A. S. Rao andS. C. Bhattacharyya. 1963. The synthesis of tetrahydrosaussurea lactone. Tetrahedron19: 1061.Google Scholar
  868. 854.
    Snatzke, G. 1968. Stereochemistry of sesquiterpenes and circular dichroism. Mezhdunar, Kongr. Efirnym. Maslam. [Mater.]4: 316; Chem. Abstr.78: 124746c (1973).Google Scholar
  869. 855.
    Soucek, M., V. Herout andF. Sôrm. 1961. Constitution of parthenolide. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.26: 803.Google Scholar
  870. 856.
    Spitzer, J. C. andC. Steelink. 1967. Isolation of matricin fromArtemisia caruthii. J. Pharm. Sci.56: 650; Chem. Abstr.67: 22030v (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  871. 857.
    Stagno d’Alcontres, G., M. Gattuso, M. C. Aversa and C. Caristi. 1973. The structure of graveolide, a new sesquiterpene lactone. Gazz. Chim. Ital. 239; Chem. Abstr. 79: 53614r (1973).Google Scholar
  872. 858.
    Stahl, E. and S. N. Datta. 1972. New sesquiterpenoids of the ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea Liebigs). Ann. Chem. 757; Chem. Abstr.77: 98721y (1972).Google Scholar
  873. 859.
    Stefanovic, M., A. Jokic, A. Behbud and D. Jeremic. 1976. New sesquiterpenic lactones fromAmbrosia artemisiifolia L. 8-acetoxy-3-pseudoguaian-6,12-olide and 4hydroxy-3-oxo-pseudoguaian-6,12-olide. Bull. Acad. Serbe. Sci. Arts Cl. Sci. Math. Nat. Sci. Nat. 54; Chem. Abstr.87: 35891q (1977).Google Scholar
  874. 860a.
    St. Pyrek, J. 1977. Isolation of gaillardin from flowers ofInula britannica L. Rocz. Chem.51: 1277; Chem. Abstr.87: 197230a (1977).Google Scholar
  875. 860b.
    —. 1977. Terpenes of Compositae plants. Part V. Sesquiterpene lactones ofLactuca serriola L. The structure of 8-deoxylactucin and the site of esterification of lactupicrin. Rocz. Chem.51: 2165.Google Scholar
  876. 861.
    Stoutamire, W. 1977. Chromosome races ofGaillardia pulchella (Asteraceae). Brittonia29: 297.Google Scholar
  877. 862.
    Stuessy, T. F. 1971. Systematic relationships in the white-rayed species ofMelampodium (Compositae). Brittonia23: 177.Google Scholar
  878. 863.
    —. 1978. Heliantheae—systematic review. Page 621in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  879. 864.
    Suchy, M. 1962. The structure of balchanin, a sesquiterpenic lactone of santonin type fromArtemisia balchanorum. H. Krash. Coll. Czech. Chem. Comm.27: 2925.Google Scholar
  880. 865.
    —,L. Dolejs, V. Herout, F. Sôrm, G. Snatzke andJ. Himmelreich. 1969. The constitution of jurineolide, a new germacranolide fromJurinea cyanoides (L.) Rchb. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.34: 229.Google Scholar
  881. 866.
    —,V. Herout andF. Sôrm. 1960. On hydrogenation products of cynaropicrin, the bitter principle of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.25: 507.Google Scholar
  882. 867.
    ———. 1960. Structure of cynaropicrin. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.25: 2777.Google Scholar
  883. 868.
    ———. 1963. Lactones of the germacranolide group and their stereochemical relationship. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.28: 1715.Google Scholar
  884. 869.
    ———. 1963. The proof of existence and structure of hydroxycostunolide, a sesquiterpenic lactone of germacrane type inArtemisia balchanorum H. Krash. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.28: 1618.Google Scholar
  885. 870.
    ———. 1963. On terpenes CLV. Structure of damsine, a sesquiterpenic lactone fromAmbrosia maritima L. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.28: 2257.Google Scholar
  886. 871.
    ———. 1962. Isolation and structure of scabiolide. Further sesquiterpene lactone with a ten-membered ring in molecule. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.27: 1905.Google Scholar
  887. 872.
    ———. 1964. Proof of structure of guaianolides artabsin and arborescin. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.29: 1829.Google Scholar
  888. 873.
    ———. 1965. The structure of salonitolide, a sesquiterpenic lactone of germacrane type fromCentaurea salonitana Vis. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.30: 2863.Google Scholar
  889. 874.
    —,Z. Samek, V. Herout andF. Sôrm. 1967. The structure of salonitenolide, a sesquiterpenic lactone of germacrane type fromCentaurea salonitana Vis. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.32: 2016.Google Scholar
  890. 875.
    ————. 1968. The structure and absolute configuration of scabiolide. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.33: 2238.Google Scholar
  891. 876.
    ————. 1967. Constitution and configuration of albicolide, a new germacranolide fromJurinea albicaulis. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.32: 3934.Google Scholar
  892. 877.
    ———,R. B. Bates, G. Snatzke andF. Sôrm. 1967. Constitution and configuration of pelenolides, a new group of sesquiterpene lactone germacranolides. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm.32: 3917.Google Scholar
  893. 878.
    Sumi, M. 1958. The constitution and stereochemistry of artemisin. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.80: 4869.Google Scholar
  894. 879.
    Sundararaman, P., R. S. McEwen and W. Herz. 1973. Constituents ofIva species. Stereochemistry of parthemollin and related xanthanolides. Tetrahedron Lett. 3809.Google Scholar
  895. 880.
    Swain, T. andC. A. Williams. 1978. Heliantheae—chemical review. Page 673in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  896. 881.
    Tada, M., Y. Moriyama, Y. Tanahashi andT. Takahashi. 1974. Furanoeremophilane6β, 10β-diol and its derivatives. New furanosesquiterpenes fromLigularia japonica Less. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan47: 1999.Google Scholar
  897. 882.
    -, -, -, -. 1971. New furanosesquiterpenes fromLigularia japonica Less. Tetrahedron Lett. 4007.Google Scholar
  898. 883.
    Takahashi, T., H. Eto, T. Ichimura and T. Murae. 1978. Hiyodorilactones A and B, new tumor inhibitory germacradienolides fromEupatorium sachalinense Makino. Chem. Lett. 1345.Google Scholar
  899. 884.
    Takeda, K., H. Tada and H. Minato. 1971. Components of the root ofLindera strychnifolia. Neosericenyl acetate and dehydrolindestrenolide. J. Chem. Soc. C: 1070.Google Scholar
  900. 885.
    Tanaka, N., T. Yazawa, K. Aoyama andT. Murakami. 1976. Chemical studies on the constituents of theXanthium canadense Mill. Chem. Pharm. Bull.24: 1419; Chem. Abstr.85: 106647m (1976).Google Scholar
  901. 886.
    Tarasov, V. A., N. D. Abdullaev, S. Z. Kasymov andG. P. Sidyakin. 1976. Chrysartemin B, a sesquiterpene lactone fromHandelia trichophylla. Khim. Prir. Soedin.12: 667; Chem. Abstr.86: 117598t (1977).Google Scholar
  902. 887.
    -, -, -and -. 1976. Hanphyllin, a new germacranolide fromHandelia trichophylla. Khim. Prir. Soedin. 263; Chem. Abstr.85: 143313v (1976).Google Scholar
  903. 888.
    ————. 1974. Cumambrin A—a sesquiterpene lactone fromHandelia trichophylla. Khim. Prir. Soedin.10: 799; English ed. p. 826; Chem. Abstr.82: 152142d (1975).Google Scholar
  904. 889.
    ———— andM. R. Yagudaev. 1976. Structure of handelin, a new diguaianolide fromHandelia trichophylla. Khim. Prir. Soedin.6: 745; Chem. Abstr.88: 7079h (1978).Google Scholar
  905. 890.
    -,S. Z. Kasymov and G. P. Sidyakin. 1976. Sesquiterpene lactones fromHandelia trichophylla. Khim. Prir. Soedin. 113; Chem. Abstr.85: 59573x (1976).Google Scholar
  906. 891.
    ———. 1971. The structure of the sesquiterpene lactone arsubin. Khim. Prir. Soedin.7: 745; English ed. p. 722; Chem. Abstr.76: 127172g (1972).Google Scholar
  907. 892.
    ———. 1973. Structure and configuration of arsubin. Khim. Prir. Soedin.9: 676; English ed. p. 649.Google Scholar
  908. 893.
    Taylor, R. L., L. Marchand andC. W. Crompton. 1964. Cytological observations on theArtemisia tridentata (Compositae) complex in British Columbia. Canad. J. Genet. Cytol.6: 42.Google Scholar
  909. 894.
    Tettweiler, K., O. Engel andE. Wedekind. 1932. Uber die Konstitution des Artemisins. Ann. Chem. Deutsch.492: 105.Google Scholar
  910. 895.
    Thiessen, W. E., H. Hope, N. Zarghami, D. E. Heinz, P. Deuel and E. A. Hahn. 1969. A new sesquiterpene lactone fromCentaurea solstitialis L. (yellow star thistle). Chem. Ind. 460.Google Scholar
  911. 896.
    Thorns, H. 1891. Über einige Chemische Bestandteile der Blüten vonChrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. Ber. Deutsch. Pharm. Ges. 471; Chem. Zentralbl. 670, Band 2.Google Scholar
  912. 897.
    Tillyaev, K. S., K. K. Khalmatov, I. Primukhamedov andM. A. Talipova. 1973. Chemical characterization ofAchillea millefolium growing in Uzbekistan. Rast. Resur.9: 58; Chem. Abstr.78: 121284q (1973).Google Scholar
  913. 898.
    Tira, S., C. Galetti andE. Mirande delle Monache. 1969. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of flavonoids. Flavones fromAntennaria dioica. Ann. Chem. (Rome)59: 284; Chem. Abstr.71: 70882d (1969).Google Scholar
  914. 899.
    Tolstykh, L. P., V. I. Scheichenko, A. I. Ban’kovskii andK. S. Rybalko. 1968. Artemin—a new sesquiterpene lactone fromArtemisia taurica. Khim. Prir. Soedin.4: 384; English ed. p. 326.Google Scholar
  915. 900.
    Tomassini, T. C. B. andB. Gilbert. 1972. α-cyclocostunolide and dihydro-β-cyclocostunolide fromMoquinea velutina. Phytochemistry11: 1177.Google Scholar
  916. 901.
    Tomczyk, H. andW. Kisiel. 1975. Sesquiterpene lactones ofHelenium tenuifolium. Pol. J. Pharmacol. Pharm.27: 101; Chem. Abstr.83: 4994p (1975).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  917. 902.
    Toribio, F. P. andT. A. Geissman. 1969. Sesquiterpene lactones ofHymenoclea monogyra. Phytochemistry8: 313.Google Scholar
  918. 903.
    ——. 1968. Sesquiterpene lactones. New lactone fromHymenoclea salsola T. and G. Phytochemistry7: 1623.Google Scholar
  919. 904.
    Torrance, S. J., T. A. Geissman andM. R. Chedekel. 1969. Sesquiterpene lactones. The constituents ofEriophyllum confertiflorum. Phytochemistry8: 2381.Google Scholar
  920. 905.
    — andS. C. Steelink. 1974. New monoterpenes fromArtemisia filifolia Torrey. Structure, synthesis, rearrangements and biosynthesis. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)39: 1068.Google Scholar
  921. 906.
    Toubiana, R. 1969. Structure de l’hydroxyvernolide, nouvel ester sesquiterpenique isolée duVernonia colorata Drake. Compt. Rend. Hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. Paris, Series C268: 82.Google Scholar
  922. 907.
    -,and A. Gaudemer. 1967. Structure du vernolide, nouvel ester sesquiterpenique isolée deVernonia colorata. Tetrahedron Lett. 1333.Google Scholar
  923. 908.
    —,B. Mompon, Chi Man Ho andM. J. Toubiana. 1975. Isolement du vernodalin et du vernolepin a partir deVernonia guineensis: Authenticité du squelette elemane. Phytochemistry14: 775.Google Scholar
  924. 909.
    -,M. J. Toubiana and B. C. Das. 1972. Structure du confertolide, nouveau germacranolide isolée deVernonia conferta (Composee). Tetrahedron Lett. 207.Google Scholar
  925. 910.
    -, -,K. Tori and K. Kuriyama. 1974. Absolute configuration and conformation of confertolide, a germacranolide isolated fromVernonia conferta. Tetrahedron Lett. 1753.Google Scholar
  926. 911.
    Tsankova, E., U. J. Kempe, T. Norin andI. Ognyanov. 1981. Apressin, a guaianolide of the endoperoxide type fromAchillea depressa. Phytochemistry20: 1436.Google Scholar
  927. 912.
    Turner, B. L. 1977. Summary of the biology of the Compositae. Page 1105in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  928. 913.
    —. 1981. New species and combinations inVernonia sectionsLeiboldia andLepidonia (Asteraceae), with a revisional conspectus of the groups. Brittonia33: 401.Google Scholar
  929. 914.
    — andA. M. Powell. 1978. Helenieae—systematic review. Page 699in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  930. 915.
    — andM. Whalen. 1975. Taxonomic study ofGaillardia pulchella (Asteraceae—Heliantheae). Wrightia5: 189.Google Scholar
  931. 916.
    Tutin, T. G., K. Persson andW. Gutermann. 1976.Artemisia. Page 178in T. G. Tutin, V. H. Heywood, N. A. Burges, D. M. Moore, D. H. Valentine, S. M. Walters and D. A. Webb (eds.). Flora Europaea. Vol. 4. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  932. 917.
    Usynina, R. V., L. I. Olishevets, V. V. Dudka andE. B. Martin. 1976. Lactones fromArtemisia compacta. Khim. Prir. Soedin.6: 809; Chem. Abstr.86: 103058e (1977).Google Scholar
  933. 918.
    Van Etten, C. H. andH. L. Tookey. 1979. Chemistry and biological effects of glucosinolates. Page 471in G. A. Rosenthal and D. H. Janzen (eds.). Herbivores: Their interaction with secondary metabolites. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  934. 919.
    Vanhaelen-Fastre, R. andM. Vanhaelen. 1974. Presence of salonitenolide inCnicus benedictus. Pl. Med.26: 375; Chem. Abstr.82: 108835h (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  935. 920.
    Vichnewski, W. andB. Gilbert. 1972. Schistosomicidal sesquiterpene lactone fromEremanthus elaeagnus. Phytochemistry11: 2563.Google Scholar
  936. 921.
    —,W. Herz andN. Kumar. 1979. A lactone analogue of germacrone. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)44: 2575.Google Scholar
  937. 922.
    —,J. N. C. Lopes, D. D. S. Filho andW. Herz. 1976. 15-deoxygoyazensolide, a new heliangolide fromVanillosmopsis erythropappa. Phytochemistry15: 1775.Google Scholar
  938. 923.
    ————. 1976. Goyazensolide, a schistosomicidal heliangolide fromEremanthus goyazensis. Phytochemistry15: 191.Google Scholar
  939. 924.
    —,I. K. Shuhama, R. C. Rosanske andW. Herz. 1976. Granilin and ivasperin fromAmbrosia polystachya. 13C-NMR spectra of hydroxylated isoalantones. Phytochemistry15: 1531.Google Scholar
  940. 925.
    —,F. Welbaneida, L. Machado, J. A. Rabi, R. Murari andW. Herz. 1977. Eregoyazin and eregoyazidin, two new guaianolides fromEremanthus goyazensis. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)42: 3910.Google Scholar
  941. 926.
    Viehoever, A. andR. G. Capen. 1963. New sources of santonin. J. Amer. Chem. Soc.45: 1941.Google Scholar
  942. 927.
    Vogelzang, M. E., N. M. J. Vermeulen, D. J. J. Potgieter andH. F. Strauss. 1978. Ivalin inGeigeria aspera. Phytochemistry17: 2030.Google Scholar
  943. 928.
    Waddell, T. G. and T. A. Geissman. 1969. Paucin, a sesquiterpene lactone glucoside. Tetrahedron Lett. 515.Google Scholar
  944. 929.
    ——. 1969. Sesquiterpene lactones. Constituents ofBaileya species. Phytochemistry8: 2371.Google Scholar
  945. 930.
    Wagner, H. 1978. Cynareae—chemical review. Page 1017in V. H. Heywood, J. B. Harborne and B. L. Turner (eds.). The biology and chemistry of the Compositae. Vol. 2. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  946. 931.
    —,M. A. Iyengar andW. Herz. 1972. Flavone C-glycosides inHelenium species. Phytochemistry11: 446.Google Scholar
  947. 932.
    Watkins, S. F., J. D. Korp, I. Bernal, D. L. Perry, N. S. Bhacca andN. H. Fischer. 1978. Molecular structure of two derivatives of the germacranolide sesquiterpene lactone melnerin. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans.II: 599.Google Scholar
  948. 933.
    White, E. H. and R. E. K. Winter. 1963. Natural products fromAchillea lanulosa. Tetrahedron Lett. 137.Google Scholar
  949. 934.
    Wichmann, G. 1958. Biology of santonin in plants. I. The distribution of santonin and related compounds in the plant kingdom. Pharmazie Beih. Erganzungsband13: 481.Google Scholar
  950. 935.
    Willuhn, G. andH. D. Herrmann. 1976. Studies on the constituents ofArnica species. Two sesquiterpene lactones from the flowers ofArnica longifolia. Arch. Pharm.309: 333; Chem. Abstr.85: 17073d (1976).Google Scholar
  951. 936.
    ——. 1979. Untersuchungen über die Inhaltsstoffe von Arnica-arten. Pl. Med.37: 325.Google Scholar
  952. 937.
    Winters, T. E., T. A. Geissman andD. Safire. 1969. Sesquiterpene lactones ofXanthium species. Xanthanol and isoxanthanol, and correlation of xanthinin with ivalbin. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)34: 153.Google Scholar
  953. 938.
    Witzel, D. A., G. W. Ivie andJ. W. Dollahite. 1976. Mammalian toxicity of helenalin, the toxic principle ofHelenium microcephalum DC. (smallhead sneezeweed). Am. J. Vet. Res.37: 859; Chem. Abstr.85: 117697d (1976).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  954. 939.
    Yabuta, G., J. S. Olsen andT. J. Mabry. 1978. Sesquiterpene lactones from the genusZaluzania (Compositae: Heliantheae). Rev. Latinoamer. Quím.9: 83.Google Scholar
  955. 940.
    Yamakawa, K., K. Nishitani andK. Azusawa. 1977. Chemical transformation of α-santonin into balchanin, colartin, and arbusculin A, B, C and E. Heterocycles8: 103.Google Scholar
  956. 941.
    Yanagita, M., S. Inayama and T. Kawamata. 1970. The stereostructures of pulchellidine and pulchellin. Tetrahedron Lett. 131.Google Scholar
  957. 942.
    -, -, -,and T. Okuna. 1969. Pulchellidine, a novel sesquiterpene alkaloid isolated fromGaillardia pulchella Foug. Tetrahedron Lett. 2073.Google Scholar
  958. 943.
    Yoshioka, H., A. Higo, T. J. Mabry, W. Herz andG. D. Anderson. 1971. Apachin, a new sesquiterpene lactone and other xanthanolides fromIva ambrosiaefolia. Phytochemistry10: 401.Google Scholar
  959. 944.
    — andT. J. Mabry. 1969. The structure and chemistry of isabelin. A new germacranolide dilactone fromAmbrosia psilostachya DC. (Compositae). Tetrahedron25: 4767.Google Scholar
  960. 945.
    ——,N. Dennis andW. Herz. 1970. Structure and stereochemistry of pulchellin B, C, E and F. J. Organ. Chem. (USA)35: 627.Google Scholar
  961. 946.
    -, -and H. E. Miller. 1968. Isabelin, a germacranolide dilactone fromAmbrosia psilostachya. Chem. Commun. 1679.Google Scholar
  962. 947.
    —— andB. N. Timmerman. 1973. Sesquiterpene lactones: Chemistry, NMR and plant distribution. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  963. 948.
    W. Renold, N. H. Fischer, A. Higo andT. J. Mabry. 1970. Sesquiterpene lactones fromAmbrosia confertiflora (Compositae). Phytochemistry9: 823.Google Scholar
  964. 949.
    -, -,and T. J. Mabry. 1970. The structure of salonitenolide and the preferential C-8 relactonization of germacranolides containing C-6 and C-8 lactonizable α-oxygen groups. Chem. Commun. 148.Google Scholar
  965. 950.
    —,E. Rodríguez andT. J. Mabry. 1970. Tetraneurin-E and -F. New C-15 oxygenated pseudoguaianolides fromParthenium (Compositae). J. Organ. Chem. (USA)35: 2888.Google Scholar
  966. 951.
    —,H. Rüesch, E. Rodríguez, A. Higo, T. J. Mabry, J. G. Galzada Alan andX. A. Domínguez. 1970. Tetraneurin-B, -C and -D, new C14-oxygenated pseudoguaianolides fromParthenium (Compositae). Tetrahedron26: 2167.Google Scholar
  967. 952.
    Yoshitake, A. andT. A. Geissman. 1969. Sesquiterpene lactones ofBaileya species. Pleniradin and radiatin. Phytochemistry8: 1753.Google Scholar
  968. 953.
    Yunusov, A. I., N. D. Abdullaev, S. Z. Kasymov and G. P. Sidyakin. 1976. Tanachin, a new sesquiterpene lactone fromTanacetum pseudoachillea. Khim. Prir. Soedin. 263; Chem. Abstr.85: 177643t (1976).Google Scholar
  969. 954.
    -, -, -, -,and M. R. Yagudaev. 1976. Structure of tanachin. Khim. Prir. Soedin. 462; Chem. Abstr.85: 177660w (1976).Google Scholar
  970. 955.
    -,S. Z. Kasymov and G. P. Sidyakin. 1976. Tanapsin fromTanacetum pseudoachillea. Khim. Prir. Soedin. 261; Chem. Abstr.85: 117642s (1976).Google Scholar
  971. 956.
    ———. 1973. Lactones ofTanacetum pseudoachillea. Khim. Prir. Soedin.9: 276; English ed. p. 267; Chem. Abstr.78: 159898f (1973).Google Scholar
  972. 957.
    ———. 1975. Tanacin, a new germacranolide fromTanacetum pseudoachillea. Khim. Prir. Soedin.11: 262; Chem. Abstr.83: 59097d (1975).Google Scholar
  973. 958.
    —,G. P. Sidyakin andD. Kurbanov. 1978. Cumambrins A and B fromTanacetum santolina. Khim. Prir. Soedin.5: 656; Chem. Abstr.90: 51410z (1979).Google Scholar
  974. 959.
    Yusupov, M. I., S. Z. Kasymov, N. D. Abdullaev, G. P. Sidyakin andM. R. Yagudaev. 1977. A new lactone, isoridentin, fromAchillea biebersteinii. Khim. Prir. Soedin.13: 800; English ed. p. 674.Google Scholar
  975. 960.
    -,A. Mallabaev and G. P. Sidyakin. 1976. Lactones ofAchillea biebersteinii. Khim. Prir. Soedin. 396; Chem. Abstr.85: 106654m (1976).Google Scholar
  976. 961.
    Zakharov, P. I., P. B. Terent’ev, O. A. Konovalova andK. S. Rybalko. 1977. Mass spectrometric study of the sesquiterpene lactone grossmizin and its derivatives. Khim. Prir. Soedin.3: 344; Chem. Abstr.87: 184707m (1977).Google Scholar
  977. 962.
    Zakirov, S. K., S. Z. Kasymov, N. D. Abdullaev andG. P. Sidyakin. 1975. The structure of maximolide. Khim. Prir. Soedin.11: 261; English ed. p. 273.Google Scholar
  978. 963.
    -, -,V. Rakhmankulov and G. P. Sidyakin. 1976. Lactones ofArtemisia ashurbajevii. Khim. Prir. Soedin. 397; Chem. Abstr.85: 106655n (1976).Google Scholar
  979. 964.
    —— andG. P. Sidyakin. 1976. Sesquiterpene lactones fromJurinea maxima. Khim. Prir. Soedin.11: 656; English ed. p. 690; Chem. Abstr.84: 71430k (1976).Google Scholar
  980. 965.
    ———. 1974. Lactones ofJurinea maxima. Khim. Prir. Soedin.10: 255; Chem. Abstr.81: 74890j (1974).Google Scholar
  981. 966.
    Zarghami, N. and D. E. Heinz. 1969. Solstitialin acetate. 1969. A sesquiterpene lactone fromCentaurea solstitialis L. (yellow star thistle). Chem. Ind. 1556.Google Scholar
  982. 967.
    Zdero, C., F. Bohlmann, H. Robinson andR. M. King. 1980. Neue Furanoeremophilanes ausGynoxys dielsiana. Phytochemistry19: 975.Google Scholar
  983. 968.
    ————. 1981. Germacranolides fromProteopsis argentea. Phytochemistry20: 739.Google Scholar
  984. 969.
    Bohlmann, F. andA. Suwita. 1977. Neue furanoeremophilane ausLigularia vorobierii Worosh. Chem. Ber.110: 1759.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick C. Seaman
    • 1
  1. 1.Harding LaboratoriesThe New York Botanical GardenBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations