Journal of Mountain Science

, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp 271–293 | Cite as

Resource flows of villages with contrasting lifestyles in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Central Himalaya, India

  • K. S. RaoEmail author
  • S. Nautiyal
  • R. K. Maikhuri
  • K. G. Saxena


Resource use efficiency analyses of village ecosystem are necessary for effective and efficient planning of resource utilization. This paper deals with economic and energy input-output analyses of different components of village ecosystem in representative buffer zone villages, which are practicing transhumance and settled way of lifestyles in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) of Garhwal Himalaya. While the villages practicing transhumance used various natural resources spatially segregated, the villages practicing settled way of lifestyle have to manage resources from a limited spatial area through rotation and varied extraction intensities. Forests subsidized the production activity in both type of villages and the per capita resource extractions were found to be greater in transhumance village than settled village. Though crops provided maximum energy, in terms of economic criteria, animal husbandry played important role in both settled and transhumance villages. As villages representing both the situations showed different ways of adjustments to the conservation oriented land use changes, management authority needs to address the eco-development plans fulfilling the aspirations of all people traditionally using the resources of the Reserve to reduce the conflicts and encourage their participation in the conservation of the area.


Himalaya resource flow natural resource management protected area network sustainable development transhumance village ecosystem 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anonymous. 2001. Economy-wide Material Flow Accounts and Derived Indicators.A Methodological Guide. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  2. Ashish, M. 1983. Agricultural Economy Of Kumaun Hills: Threat of Ecological Disaster. In: J.S. Singh, S.P., Singh and C. Shastri, (eds.),The Himalaya: Nature, Man and Culture. Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital, India, Pp. 123–127.Google Scholar
  3. Azeez, P. K., N. K. Ramachandran, and V. S. Vijayan. 1992. The Socio-economics of the Villages Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur (Rajasthan), India.International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 18: 169–179.Google Scholar
  4. Berkes, F., J. Colding, and C. Folke. 2000. Rediscovery of Traditional Ecological Knowledge as Adaptive Management.Ecological Applications 10: 1251–1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhuller, B. S., and J. P. Mittal. 1990. Energy Requirements for Wheat Production in a Selected Village of Punjab.Journal of Rural Technology 2: 9–22.Google Scholar
  6. Bringezu, S., M. Fischer-Kowalski, R. Kleijn, and V. Palm. editors. 1997. Regional and National Material Flow Accounting: From Paradigm to Practice of Sustainability. Proceedings of the ConAccount Workshop, Leiden. Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy, Wuppertal.Google Scholar
  7. Das S. K. 1981. Plan for Afforestation in Civil-soyam, Panchayat and Pasture Land and Solving the Problem of Fuel, Wood Material for Agricultural Appliances and Fodder for Livestock by Managing the Grazing Lands of Almora District. Unpublished report, District Magistrate, Almora, India.Google Scholar
  8. Farooquee, N. A., and K. S. Rao. 1999. Conservation and Utilization of Indigenous Cattle and Livestock among the Transhumance Pastoralists of Kumaon Himalaya (India).Journal of Environmental Systems 27: 311–323.Google Scholar
  9. Fischer-Kowalski, M., and H. Haberl. 1993. Metabolism and Colonization, Modes of Production and the Physical Exchange between Societies and Nature.Innovation in Social Sciences Research 6: 415.Google Scholar
  10. Gopalan, C., B. V. Ramasastri, and S. C. Balasubramaniam. 1978.Nutritive Value of Indian Foods. National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India.Google Scholar
  11. Grunbubel, C.M., H. Haberl, H. Schandl, and V. Winiwarter. 2003. Socioeconomic Matabolism and Colonization of Natural Processes in Sangsaeng Village: Material and Energy Flows, Land Use, and Cultural Change in Northeast Thailand.Human Ecology 31: 53–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Holling, C.S. 1973. Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems.Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4: 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Holling, C.S. 2001. Understanding the Complexity of Economic, Ecological, and Social Systems.Ecosystems 4: 390–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Holling, C.S., F. Berkes, and C. Folke. 1998. Science, Sustainability and Resource Management. In: F. Berkes and C. Folke (eds.),Linking Social and Ecological Systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. Pp 342–362Google Scholar
  15. Kothari, A. 1996. Conserving Biodiversity. The Hindu Survey of The Environment. The Hindu, Chnnai, India, Pp 129–135.Google Scholar
  16. Kumar, A., and P. S. Ramakrishnan. 1990. Energy Flow through an Apatani Village Ecosystem of Arunachal Predesh in Northeast India.Human Ecology 16: 315–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kuniyal, J.C. 2003. Regional imbalances and sustainable crop farming in the Uttranchal Himalaya, India.Ecological Economics 46: 419–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Maikhuri, R. K. 1992. Ecoenergetic Analysis of Animal Husbandry in Traditional Societies of India.Energy 17: 291–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Maikhuri, R. K. 1993. Evaluation of Some Multipurpose Trees in Traditional Agroecosystems of Garhwal Himalaya, India.Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association Journal (NFTA) 11: 11–13.Google Scholar
  20. Maikhuri, R. K. 1996. Ecoenergetic Analysis of Village Ecosystem of Different Traditional Societies of Northeast India.Energy 21: 1287–1297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Maikhuri, R. K., and P. S. Ramakrishnan. 1990. Ecological Analysis of A Cluster Villages Emphasising Land Use of Different Tribes in Meghalaya in Northeast India.Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 31: 17–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Maikhuri, R. K., and P. S. Ramakrishnan. 1991. Comparative Analysis of the Village Ecosystem Function of Different Tribes Living in Arunachal Pradesh in Northeastern India.Agricultural Systems 35: 292–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Maikhuri, R. K., and P. S. Ramakrishnan. 1992. Ethnobiology of Some Tribal Societies of Arunachal Pradesh in Northeast India.Journal of Economic Taxonomy and Botany 10: 61–78.Google Scholar
  24. Maikhuri, R. K., K. S. Rao, and R. L. Semwal. 2001b. Changing Scenario of Himalayan Agroecosystems: Loss of Agrobiodiversity as An Indicator of Global Environmental Change Impacts Monitoring in Central Himalaya, India.The Environmentalist 21: 23–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Maikhuri, R. K., R. L. Semwal, K. S. Rao, S. Nautiyal, and K. G. Saxena. 1997. Eroding Traditional Crop Diversity Imperils the Sustainability of Agricultural Systems in Central Himalaya.Current Science 73: 777–782.Google Scholar
  26. Maikhuri, R. K., S. Nautiyal, K. S. Rao, and K. G. Saxena. 1998a. Medicinal Plants Cultivation and Biosphere Reserve Management: A Case Study from Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Himalaya.Current Science 74: 157–163.Google Scholar
  27. Maikhuri, R. K., S. Nautiyal, K. S. Rao, and K. G. Saxena. 2001a. Conservation Policy — People Conflicts: A Case Study from Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (a world heritage site), India.Forest Policy and Economics 2: 357–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maikhuri, R. K., S. Nautiyal, K. S. Rao, K. Chandrasekhar, R. Gavali, and K. G. Saxena. 2000a. Analysis and Resolution of Protected Area — People Conflicts in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India.Environmental Conservation 27: 43–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Maikhuri, R. K., S. Nautiyal, K. S. Rao, K. G., Saxena, and R. L. Semwal. 1998b. Traditional Community Conservation in the Himalaya: Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve. In: A. Kothari, N. Pathak, R. V. Anuradha and B. Taneja (eds.),Communities and Conservation, Sage Publications, New Delhi, India. Pp 403–423Google Scholar
  30. Maikhuri, R. K., S. Nautiyal, U. Rana, S. Tiwari, K. S. Rao and K. G. Saxena. 2000b. Forest ecosystems. In: P. S. Ramakrishnan, U. M., Chandrasekhara, C. Elouard, C. Guilmoto, R. K. Maikhuri, K. S. Rao, S. Shankar and K. G. Saxena (eds.),Mountain Biodiversity, Land Use Dynamics and Traditional Ecological Knowledge. Oxford & IBH Publications Ltd., New Delhi, India. Pp 253–264.Google Scholar
  31. Maikhuri, R.K., K.S. Rao, and K.G. Saxena. 2004. Bioprospecting of Wild Edibles for Rural Development in Central Himalaya.Mountain Research and Development 24: 110–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Maikhuri, R.K., K.S. Rao, K. Chauhan, L.S. Kandari, P. Prasad, and C. Rajasekaran. 2003a. Development of Marketing of Medicinal Plants and Other Forest Products — Can it Be A Pathway for Effective Management and Conservation?Indian Forester 129: 169–178.Google Scholar
  33. Maikhuri, R.K., K.S. Rao, S. Nautiyal, C.S. Negi, A. Purohit, and K.G. Saxena. 2003b. Ecotourism an Option for Protected Area Management: a Case Study of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Uttaranchal.Journal of Tourism 5: 127–137.Google Scholar
  34. Martin, P. J., and J. C. Nautiyal. 1993. Population Supporting Capacity in the Central Himalaya. In: D. K. Khurana and P. K. Khosla (eds.),Agroforestry for Rural Needs. Indian society of Tree Scientists, Solan, India, Pp. 439–462.Google Scholar
  35. Matthews, E., C. Amann, M. Fischer-Kowaliski, W. Huttler, R. Klijn, Y. Moriguchi, C. Yttke, E. Rodenburg, D. Rogich, H. Schandl, H. Schultz, E.V.D. Voet, and H. Weisz. 2000.The Weight of Nations, Material Outflows From Industrial Economies. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C., USA.Google Scholar
  36. McNeely, J. A., and K. R. Miller. 1984.National Park Conservation and Development. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., USA.Google Scholar
  37. Mitchell, R. 1979.The Analysis of Indian Agro-ecosystems. Inter print, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  38. Mohan, D. 1992. Management Plan for Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve for the Period 1993–94 to 1997–98. Report of Wildlife Preservation Organization, Forest Department, U.P., India.Google Scholar
  39. Nautiyal, S. 1998. Ecosystem function of Buffer zone villages of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve. Ph.D. thesis, HNB Garhwal University, Srinagar (Garhwal), India.Google Scholar
  40. Nautiyal, S., K. S. Rao, R. K. Maikhuri, and K. G. Saxena. 2003a. Transhumant pastoralism in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India: a Case Study in the Buffer Zone.Mountain Research and Development 23: 255–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Nautiyal, S., R. K. Maikhuri, K. S. Rao, R. L. Semwal, and K. G. Saxena. 2003b. Agroecosystem Function around a Himalayan Biosphere Reserve.Journal of Environmental Systems 29: 71–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Pandey, U., and J. S. Singh. 1984. Energy Flow Relationship Between Agro and Forest Ecosystems in Central Himalaya.Environmental Conservation 11: 45–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Panwar, H. S. 1992. Ecodevelopment: an Integrated Approach to Sustainable Development for People and Protected Areas in India. The IV World Congress on National Parks, Caracas, Venezuela.Google Scholar
  44. Ranjhan, S. K. 1977.Animal Production and Feeding Practices in India. Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
  45. Rao, K. S., R. K. Maikhuri, S. Nautiyal, and K. G. Saxena. 2002. Crop Damage and Livestock Depredation by Wildlife: a Case Study from Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India.Journal of Environmental Management 66: 317–327.Google Scholar
  46. Rao, K. S., R. K. Maikhuri, S. Nautiyal, and K. G. Saxena. 2003b. Local Peoples’ Knowledge, Aptitude and Perceptions of Planning and Management Issues in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India.Environmental Management 31: 168–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rao, K. S., S. Nautiyal, R. K. Maikhuri, and K. G. Saxena. 2000. Management Conflicts in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, India.Mountain Research and Development 20: 320–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rao, K.S., R.L. Semwal, R.K. Maikhuri, S. Nautiyal, K.K. Sen, K. Singh, K. Chandrasekhar, and K.G. Saxena. 2003a. Indigenous Ecological Knowledge, Biodiversity and Sustainable Development in the Central Himalayas.Tropical Ecology 44: 93–111.Google Scholar
  49. Rapport, R.A. 1971. The Flow of Energy in an Agricultural Society.Scientific American 255: 116–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Reddy, A. K. N. 1981. An Indian Village Agricultural Ecosystem — Case Study of Ungra Village.Biomass 1: 77–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schandl, H., and N. Schulz. 2000. Using Material Flow Accounting to Operationalize the Concept of Society’s Metabolism.A Preliminary MFA for the United Kingdom for the Period of 1937–1997. Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER) Working Paper Number 2000–3, University of Essex, Essex, UK.Google Scholar
  52. Schultz, B. 1996. The Management of Crop Damage by Wild Animals.The Indian Forester 112: 133–44.Google Scholar
  53. Shah, S. L. 1982. Ecological Degradation and Future of Agriculture in the Himalayas.Indian Journal of Agriculture Economics 37: 1–22.Google Scholar
  54. Silori, C. S. 2001. Status and Distribution of Anthropogenic Pressure in the Buffer Zone of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve in western Himalaya, India.Biodiversity and Conservation 10: 1113–1130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Silori, C. S., and R. Badola. 2000. Cultivation of Medicinal Plants and Sustainable Development — a Case Study from the Buffer Zone of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Western Himalaya.Mountain Research and Development 20: 272–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Singh, G. S., K. S. Rao, and K. G. Saxena. 1997. Energy and Economic Efficiency of the Mountain Farming System: a Case Study in the North-western Himalaya.Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 9: 25–49.Google Scholar
  57. Singh, J. S., and S. P. Singh. 1992.Forest of Himalaya: Structure, Functioning and Impact of Man. Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital, India.Google Scholar
  58. Smil, V., 1992.General Energetics, Energy in the Biosphere and Civilization. Wiley, New York, USA.Google Scholar
  59. Toledo, V.M., B. Ortiz-Espejel, L. Cortes, P. Moguel, and M.D.J. Ordonez. 2003. The multiple Use of Tropical Forests by Indigenous Peoples in Mexico: a Case of Adaptive Management. Conservation Ecology 7:9[online] URL: Google Scholar
  60. Tripathi, R. S., and V. K. Shah. 2001. Material and Energy Flows in High-Hill, Mid-Hill and Valley Farming Systems of Garhwal Himalaya.Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 86: 75–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. West, P. C., and S. R. Brechin. 1991.Resident People and National Park. University Arizona Press Tucson, Arizona, USA.Google Scholar
  62. Xie, J. 2000. An Environmentally Extended Social Accounting Matrix.Environmental and Resource Economics 16: 391–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Moutain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Science Press 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. S. Rao
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Nautiyal
    • 2
  • R. K. Maikhuri
    • 3
  • K. G. Saxena
    • 4
  1. 1.Centre for Inter-disciplinary Studies of Mountain and Hill Environment (CISMHE), Academic Research CenterUniversity of DelhiDelhiIndia
  2. 2.Centre for Spatial Information ScienceUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  3. 3.G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Garhwal UnitSrinagarIndia
  4. 4.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations