Benchmark results on the linearized equations of motion of an uncontrolled bicycle

  • A. L. Schwab
  • J. P. Meijaard
  • J. M. Papadopoulos


In this paper we present the linearized equations of motion for a bicycle as, a benchmark The results obtained by pencil-and-paper and two programs are compaied The bicycle model we consider here consists of four rigid bodies, viz a rear frame, a front frame being the front fork and handlebar assembly, a rear wheel and a fiont wheel, which are connected by revolute joints The contact between the knife-edge wheels and the flat level surface is modelled by holonomic constiaints in the normal direction and by non-holonomic constraints in the longitudinal and lateral direction The rider is rigidly attached to the rear frame with hands free from the handlebar This system has three degrees of freedom, the roll, the steer, and the forward speed For the benchmark we consider the linearized equations for small perturbations of the upright steady forward motion The entries of the matrices of these equations form the basis for comparison Three diffrent kinds of methods to obtain the results are compared pencil-and-paper, the numeric multibody dynamics program SPACAR, and the symbolic software system AutoSim Because the results of the three methods are the same within the machine round-off error, we assume that the results are correct and can be used as a bicycle dynamics benchmark

Key Words

Vehicle Dynamics Non-Holonomic Constraints Dynamic Stability 


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Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers (KSME) 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. L. Schwab
    • 1
  • J. P. Meijaard
    • 2
  • J. M. Papadopoulos
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory for Engineering MechanicsDelft University of TechnologyCD DelftNetherlands
  2. 2.School of MMMEThe University of NottinghamNottinghamUK
  3. 3.The Paper Converting Machine CompanyWisconsinUSA

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